Abstract

Transparent white organic light-emitting devices with a LiFYb:Ag cathode are reported. The device with a structure of indium-tin oxide/ 4,4,4 -tris(3-methylphenyl-phenylamino)-tripheny-lamine (40nm)N,N-bis-(1-naphthyl)- N,N -diphenyl- 1,1-biph-enyl-4,4-diamine (NPB: 7nm)/rubrene (0.1nm)NPB(3nm)2,2,2-(1,3,5-phenylene) tris(1-phenyl- 1H- benzimidazole (30nm)/tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (20nm)LiF (0.5nm)Yb:Ag (15nm, volume ratio 1:1) shows few differences in luminance and color purity from both sides. For instant, at a driving voltage of 10V, the luminance and CIE coordinates of 11731488cdm2 and (0.3482,0.3596)(0.3508,0.3352) are obtained from top/bottom sides. CIE coordinates of the device from both sides are voltage independent, and the maximum total electroluminescence efficiencies of the device are 4.6cdA.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. W. D'Andrade, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 14, 147 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. W. F. Xie, K. C. Lau, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, Thin Solid Films 515, 6975 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (3)

C. J. Lee, R. B. Pode, J. I. Han, and D. G. Moon, Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 4249 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. F. Xie, K. C. Lau, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, Thin Solid Films 515, 6975 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. I. Wu, P. I. Shih, Y. H. Tseng, C. F. Shu, Y. L. Tung, and Y. Chi, J. Mater. Chem. 17, 167 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

Y. R. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, Nature 440, 908 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

W. F. Xie, Y. Zhao, C. N. Li, and S. Y. Liu, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, 326 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Chen, X. W. Sun, and S. C. Tan, Opt. Express 13, 937 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. F. Hsu, C. C. Lee, S. W. Hwang, and C. H. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 253508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Kanno, Y. Sun, and S. R. Forrest, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 263502 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

B. W. D'Andrade, R. J. Holmes, and S. R. Forrest, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 16, 624 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

B. W. D'Andrade, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 14, 147 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. W. D'Andrade, J. Brooks, V. Adamovich, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 14, 1032 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

A. Yamamori, S. Hayashi, T. Koyama, and Y. Taniguchi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3343 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

G. Parthasarathy, C. Adachi, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forrest, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2128 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

G. Parthasarathy, P. E. Burrows, V. Khalfin, V. G. Kozlov, and S. R. Forrest, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2138 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

G. Gu, V. Bulović, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2606 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Adachi, C.

G. Parthasarathy, C. Adachi, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forrest, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2128 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Adamovich, V.

B. W. D'Andrade, J. Brooks, V. Adamovich, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 14, 1032 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brooks, J.

B. W. D'Andrade, J. Brooks, V. Adamovich, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 14, 1032 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bulovic, V.

G. Gu, V. Bulović, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2606 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, P. E.

G. Parthasarathy, C. Adachi, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forrest, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2128 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Parthasarathy, P. E. Burrows, V. Khalfin, V. G. Kozlov, and S. R. Forrest, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2138 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Gu, V. Bulović, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2606 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chen, B. J.

Chen, C. H.

S. F. Hsu, C. C. Lee, S. W. Hwang, and C. H. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 253508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chi, Y.

F. I. Wu, P. I. Shih, Y. H. Tseng, C. F. Shu, Y. L. Tung, and Y. Chi, J. Mater. Chem. 17, 167 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D'Andrade, B. W.

B. W. D'Andrade, R. J. Holmes, and S. R. Forrest, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 16, 624 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. W. D'Andrade, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 14, 147 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. W. D'Andrade, J. Brooks, V. Adamovich, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 14, 1032 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

Y. R. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, Nature 440, 908 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kanno, Y. Sun, and S. R. Forrest, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 263502 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. W. D'Andrade, R. J. Holmes, and S. R. Forrest, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 16, 624 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. W. D'Andrade, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 14, 147 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. W. D'Andrade, J. Brooks, V. Adamovich, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 14, 1032 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Parthasarathy, C. Adachi, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forrest, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2128 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Parthasarathy, P. E. Burrows, V. Khalfin, V. G. Kozlov, and S. R. Forrest, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2138 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Gu, V. Bulović, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2606 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gao, R. X.

Giebink, N. C.

Y. R. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, Nature 440, 908 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gu, G.

G. Gu, V. Bulović, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2606 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Han, J. I.

C. J. Lee, R. B. Pode, J. I. Han, and D. G. Moon, Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 4249 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, S.

A. Yamamori, S. Hayashi, T. Koyama, and Y. Taniguchi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3343 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Holmes, R. J.

B. W. D'Andrade, R. J. Holmes, and S. R. Forrest, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 16, 624 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, S. F.

S. F. Hsu, C. C. Lee, S. W. Hwang, and C. H. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 253508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, S. W.

S. F. Hsu, C. C. Lee, S. W. Hwang, and C. H. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 253508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ji, W. Y.

Kanno, H.

Y. R. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, Nature 440, 908 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kanno, Y. Sun, and S. R. Forrest, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 263502 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Khalfin, V.

G. Parthasarathy, P. E. Burrows, V. Khalfin, V. G. Kozlov, and S. R. Forrest, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2138 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Koyama, T.

A. Yamamori, S. Hayashi, T. Koyama, and Y. Taniguchi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3343 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kozlov, V. G.

G. Parthasarathy, P. E. Burrows, V. Khalfin, V. G. Kozlov, and S. R. Forrest, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2138 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lau, K. C.

W. F. Xie, K. C. Lau, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, Thin Solid Films 515, 6975 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. C.

S. F. Hsu, C. C. Lee, S. W. Hwang, and C. H. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 253508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. J.

C. J. Lee, R. B. Pode, J. I. Han, and D. G. Moon, Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 4249 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. S.

W. F. Xie, K. C. Lau, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, Thin Solid Films 515, 6975 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. T.

W. F. Xie, K. C. Lau, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, Thin Solid Films 515, 6975 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, B.

Li, C. N.

W. F. Xie, Y. Zhao, C. N. Li, and S. Y. Liu, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, 326 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S. Y.

W. F. Xie, Y. Zhao, C. N. Li, and S. Y. Liu, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, 326 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ma, B.

Y. R. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, Nature 440, 908 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moon, D. G.

C. J. Lee, R. B. Pode, J. I. Han, and D. G. Moon, Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 4249 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Parthasarathy, G.

G. Parthasarathy, C. Adachi, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forrest, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2128 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Parthasarathy, P. E. Burrows, V. Khalfin, V. G. Kozlov, and S. R. Forrest, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2138 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pode, R. B.

C. J. Lee, R. B. Pode, J. I. Han, and D. G. Moon, Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 4249 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shih, P. I.

F. I. Wu, P. I. Shih, Y. H. Tseng, C. F. Shu, Y. L. Tung, and Y. Chi, J. Mater. Chem. 17, 167 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shu, C. F.

F. I. Wu, P. I. Shih, Y. H. Tseng, C. F. Shu, Y. L. Tung, and Y. Chi, J. Mater. Chem. 17, 167 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X. W.

Sun, Y.

H. Kanno, Y. Sun, and S. R. Forrest, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 263502 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y. R.

Y. R. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, Nature 440, 908 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tan, S. C.

Taniguchi, Y.

A. Yamamori, S. Hayashi, T. Koyama, and Y. Taniguchi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3343 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, M. E.

Y. R. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, Nature 440, 908 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. D'Andrade, J. Brooks, V. Adamovich, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 14, 1032 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. W. D'Andrade, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 14, 147 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Gu, V. Bulović, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2606 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tseng, Y. H.

F. I. Wu, P. I. Shih, Y. H. Tseng, C. F. Shu, Y. L. Tung, and Y. Chi, J. Mater. Chem. 17, 167 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tung, Y. L.

F. I. Wu, P. I. Shih, Y. H. Tseng, C. F. Shu, Y. L. Tung, and Y. Chi, J. Mater. Chem. 17, 167 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, F. I.

F. I. Wu, P. I. Shih, Y. H. Tseng, C. F. Shu, Y. L. Tung, and Y. Chi, J. Mater. Chem. 17, 167 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xie, W. F.

W. Y. Ji, L. T. Zhang, R. X. Gao, L. M. Zhang, W. F. Xie, H. Z. Zhang, and B. Li, Opt. Express 16, 15489 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. F. Xie, K. C. Lau, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, Thin Solid Films 515, 6975 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. F. Xie, Y. Zhao, C. N. Li, and S. Y. Liu, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, 326 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yamamori, A.

A. Yamamori, S. Hayashi, T. Koyama, and Y. Taniguchi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3343 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H. Z.

Zhang, L. M.

Zhang, L. T.

Zhao, Y.

W. F. Xie, Y. Zhao, C. N. Li, and S. Y. Liu, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, 326 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) (3)

B. W. D'Andrade, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 14, 147 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. W. D'Andrade, J. Brooks, V. Adamovich, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 14, 1032 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. W. D'Andrade, R. J. Holmes, and S. R. Forrest, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 16, 624 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

G. Gu, V. Bulović, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2606 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Yamamori, S. Hayashi, T. Koyama, and Y. Taniguchi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3343 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Parthasarathy, C. Adachi, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forrest, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2128 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Parthasarathy, P. E. Burrows, V. Khalfin, V. G. Kozlov, and S. R. Forrest, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2138 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Hsu, C. C. Lee, S. W. Hwang, and C. H. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 253508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Kanno, Y. Sun, and S. R. Forrest, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 263502 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

C. J. Lee, R. B. Pode, J. I. Han, and D. G. Moon, Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 4249 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

F. I. Wu, P. I. Shih, Y. H. Tseng, C. F. Shu, Y. L. Tung, and Y. Chi, J. Mater. Chem. 17, 167 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

Y. R. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, Nature 440, 908 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

W. F. Xie, Y. Zhao, C. N. Li, and S. Y. Liu, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, 326 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

W. F. Xie, K. C. Lau, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, Thin Solid Films 515, 6975 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Current density–luminance–voltage characteristics of the TWOLED. The inset shows the photographs of the emissions from both sides at a voltage of 10 V .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

EL spectra of the device from both sides of the TWOLED at 10 V .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmission spectra of ITO glass substrate, TWOLED with Yb:Ag cathode and Mg:Ag cathode.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

CIE coordinates from both sides of the TWOLED.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

EL efficiency of the TWOLED.

Metrics