Abstract

Generalized spectroscopic ellipsometry is used to determine the form-induced birefringence and monoclinic optical constants of chromium columnar thin films. The slanted nanocolumns were deposited by glancing angle deposition under 85° incidence and are tilted from the surface normal. Dichroism measured for wavelengths from 400to1000nm renders the Cr nanocolumns monoclinic absorbing crystals with c axis along the nanocolumns axis, b axis parallel to the film interface, and 74.8° monoclinic angle between a and c axes. The columnar thin film reveals anomalous optical dispersion, extreme birefringence, and strong dichroism and differs entirely from bulk chromium.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. I. J. Hodgkinson and Q. H. Wu, Birefringent Thin Films and Polarizing Elements (World Scientific, 1998).
  2. M. M. Hawkeye and M. J. Brett, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 25, 1317 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  3. C. Buzea, G. Beydaghyan, C. Elliott, and K. Robbie, Nanotechnology 16, 1986 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. M. Schubert, Phys. Rev. B 53, 4265 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  5. M. Schubert, Thin Solid Films 313-314, 323 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  6. M. Schubert, Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 15, 480 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  7. M. Schubert and W. Dollase, Opt. Lett. 27, 2073 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  8. G. Beydaghyan, C. Buzea, Y. Chi, C. Elliott, and K. Robbie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 153103 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  9. D. Schmidt, B. Booso, T. Hofmann, E. Schubert, A. Sarangan, and M. Schubert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011914 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  10. M. Dressel, B. Gompf, D. Faltermeier, A. K. Tripathi, J. Pflaum, and M. Schubert, Opt. Express 16, 19770 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. H.G.Tompkins and E.A.Irene, eds., Handbook of Ellipsometry (Springer, 2004).
  12. M. Schubert, Infrared Ellipsometry on Semiconductor Layer Structures: Phonons, Plasmons and Polaritons (Springer, 2004).
  13. D. Schmidt, E. Schubert, and M. Schubert, Phys. Status Solidi A 205, 748 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  14. I.-H. Suh, Y.-S. Park, and J.-G. Kim, J. Appl. Phys. 33, 994 (2000).
  15. S.-H. Hsu, E.-S. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, J. N. Hilfiker, Y. D. Kim, T. J. Kim, C.-J. Lin, and G.-R. Lin, Phys. Status Solidi A 205, 876 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  16. D. E. Aspnes, Thin Solid Films 89, 249 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  17. E.D.Palik, ed., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1991).

2009 (1)

D. Schmidt, B. Booso, T. Hofmann, E. Schubert, A. Sarangan, and M. Schubert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011914 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

M. Dressel, B. Gompf, D. Faltermeier, A. K. Tripathi, J. Pflaum, and M. Schubert, Opt. Express 16, 19770 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Schmidt, E. Schubert, and M. Schubert, Phys. Status Solidi A 205, 748 (2008).
[Crossref]

S.-H. Hsu, E.-S. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, J. N. Hilfiker, Y. D. Kim, T. J. Kim, C.-J. Lin, and G.-R. Lin, Phys. Status Solidi A 205, 876 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

M. M. Hawkeye and M. J. Brett, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 25, 1317 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

M. Schubert, Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 15, 480 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

C. Buzea, G. Beydaghyan, C. Elliott, and K. Robbie, Nanotechnology 16, 1986 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Beydaghyan, C. Buzea, Y. Chi, C. Elliott, and K. Robbie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 153103 (2005).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

2000 (1)

I.-H. Suh, Y.-S. Park, and J.-G. Kim, J. Appl. Phys. 33, 994 (2000).

1998 (1)

M. Schubert, Thin Solid Films 313-314, 323 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

M. Schubert, Phys. Rev. B 53, 4265 (1996).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

D. E. Aspnes, Thin Solid Films 89, 249 (1982).
[Crossref]

Aspnes, D. E.

D. E. Aspnes, Thin Solid Films 89, 249 (1982).
[Crossref]

Beydaghyan, G.

C. Buzea, G. Beydaghyan, C. Elliott, and K. Robbie, Nanotechnology 16, 1986 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Beydaghyan, C. Buzea, Y. Chi, C. Elliott, and K. Robbie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 153103 (2005).
[Crossref]

Booso, B.

D. Schmidt, B. Booso, T. Hofmann, E. Schubert, A. Sarangan, and M. Schubert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011914 (2009).
[Crossref]

Brett, M. J.

M. M. Hawkeye and M. J. Brett, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 25, 1317 (2007).
[Crossref]

Buzea, C.

C. Buzea, G. Beydaghyan, C. Elliott, and K. Robbie, Nanotechnology 16, 1986 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Beydaghyan, C. Buzea, Y. Chi, C. Elliott, and K. Robbie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 153103 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chang, Y.-C.

S.-H. Hsu, E.-S. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, J. N. Hilfiker, Y. D. Kim, T. J. Kim, C.-J. Lin, and G.-R. Lin, Phys. Status Solidi A 205, 876 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chi, Y.

G. Beydaghyan, C. Buzea, Y. Chi, C. Elliott, and K. Robbie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 153103 (2005).
[Crossref]

Dollase, W.

Dressel, M.

Elliott, C.

G. Beydaghyan, C. Buzea, Y. Chi, C. Elliott, and K. Robbie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 153103 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. Buzea, G. Beydaghyan, C. Elliott, and K. Robbie, Nanotechnology 16, 1986 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Faltermeier, D.

Gompf, B.

Hawkeye, M. M.

M. M. Hawkeye and M. J. Brett, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 25, 1317 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hilfiker, J. N.

S.-H. Hsu, E.-S. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, J. N. Hilfiker, Y. D. Kim, T. J. Kim, C.-J. Lin, and G.-R. Lin, Phys. Status Solidi A 205, 876 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hodgkinson, I. J.

I. J. Hodgkinson and Q. H. Wu, Birefringent Thin Films and Polarizing Elements (World Scientific, 1998).

Hofmann, T.

D. Schmidt, B. Booso, T. Hofmann, E. Schubert, A. Sarangan, and M. Schubert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011914 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hsu, S.-H.

S.-H. Hsu, E.-S. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, J. N. Hilfiker, Y. D. Kim, T. J. Kim, C.-J. Lin, and G.-R. Lin, Phys. Status Solidi A 205, 876 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.-G.

I.-H. Suh, Y.-S. Park, and J.-G. Kim, J. Appl. Phys. 33, 994 (2000).

Kim, T. J.

S.-H. Hsu, E.-S. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, J. N. Hilfiker, Y. D. Kim, T. J. Kim, C.-J. Lin, and G.-R. Lin, Phys. Status Solidi A 205, 876 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y. D.

S.-H. Hsu, E.-S. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, J. N. Hilfiker, Y. D. Kim, T. J. Kim, C.-J. Lin, and G.-R. Lin, Phys. Status Solidi A 205, 876 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lin, C.-J.

S.-H. Hsu, E.-S. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, J. N. Hilfiker, Y. D. Kim, T. J. Kim, C.-J. Lin, and G.-R. Lin, Phys. Status Solidi A 205, 876 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lin, G.-R.

S.-H. Hsu, E.-S. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, J. N. Hilfiker, Y. D. Kim, T. J. Kim, C.-J. Lin, and G.-R. Lin, Phys. Status Solidi A 205, 876 (2008).
[Crossref]

Liu, E.-S.

S.-H. Hsu, E.-S. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, J. N. Hilfiker, Y. D. Kim, T. J. Kim, C.-J. Lin, and G.-R. Lin, Phys. Status Solidi A 205, 876 (2008).
[Crossref]

Park, Y.-S.

I.-H. Suh, Y.-S. Park, and J.-G. Kim, J. Appl. Phys. 33, 994 (2000).

Pflaum, J.

Robbie, K.

G. Beydaghyan, C. Buzea, Y. Chi, C. Elliott, and K. Robbie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 153103 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. Buzea, G. Beydaghyan, C. Elliott, and K. Robbie, Nanotechnology 16, 1986 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sarangan, A.

D. Schmidt, B. Booso, T. Hofmann, E. Schubert, A. Sarangan, and M. Schubert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011914 (2009).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, D.

D. Schmidt, B. Booso, T. Hofmann, E. Schubert, A. Sarangan, and M. Schubert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011914 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Schmidt, E. Schubert, and M. Schubert, Phys. Status Solidi A 205, 748 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schubert, E.

D. Schmidt, B. Booso, T. Hofmann, E. Schubert, A. Sarangan, and M. Schubert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011914 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Schmidt, E. Schubert, and M. Schubert, Phys. Status Solidi A 205, 748 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schubert, M.

D. Schmidt, B. Booso, T. Hofmann, E. Schubert, A. Sarangan, and M. Schubert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011914 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Schmidt, E. Schubert, and M. Schubert, Phys. Status Solidi A 205, 748 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Dressel, B. Gompf, D. Faltermeier, A. K. Tripathi, J. Pflaum, and M. Schubert, Opt. Express 16, 19770 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Schubert, Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 15, 480 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Schubert and W. Dollase, Opt. Lett. 27, 2073 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Schubert, Thin Solid Films 313-314, 323 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. Schubert, Phys. Rev. B 53, 4265 (1996).
[Crossref]

M. Schubert, Infrared Ellipsometry on Semiconductor Layer Structures: Phonons, Plasmons and Polaritons (Springer, 2004).

Suh, I.-H.

I.-H. Suh, Y.-S. Park, and J.-G. Kim, J. Appl. Phys. 33, 994 (2000).

Tripathi, A. K.

Wu, Q. H.

I. J. Hodgkinson and Q. H. Wu, Birefringent Thin Films and Polarizing Elements (World Scientific, 1998).

Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) (1)

M. Schubert, Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 15, 480 (2006).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

G. Beydaghyan, C. Buzea, Y. Chi, C. Elliott, and K. Robbie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 153103 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. Schmidt, B. Booso, T. Hofmann, E. Schubert, A. Sarangan, and M. Schubert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011914 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

I.-H. Suh, Y.-S. Park, and J.-G. Kim, J. Appl. Phys. 33, 994 (2000).

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

M. M. Hawkeye and M. J. Brett, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 25, 1317 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nanotechnology (1)

C. Buzea, G. Beydaghyan, C. Elliott, and K. Robbie, Nanotechnology 16, 1986 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. Schubert, Phys. Rev. B 53, 4265 (1996).
[Crossref]

Phys. Status Solidi A (2)

D. Schmidt, E. Schubert, and M. Schubert, Phys. Status Solidi A 205, 748 (2008).
[Crossref]

S.-H. Hsu, E.-S. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, J. N. Hilfiker, Y. D. Kim, T. J. Kim, C.-J. Lin, and G.-R. Lin, Phys. Status Solidi A 205, 876 (2008).
[Crossref]

Thin Solid Films (2)

D. E. Aspnes, Thin Solid Films 89, 249 (1982).
[Crossref]

M. Schubert, Thin Solid Films 313-314, 323 (1998).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

H.G.Tompkins and E.A.Irene, eds., Handbook of Ellipsometry (Springer, 2004).

M. Schubert, Infrared Ellipsometry on Semiconductor Layer Structures: Phonons, Plasmons and Polaritons (Springer, 2004).

E.D.Palik, ed., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1991).

I. J. Hodgkinson and Q. H. Wu, Birefringent Thin Films and Polarizing Elements (World Scientific, 1998).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SEM micrograph of slanted Cr nanocolumns grown on a Si substrate. The overlaid coordinate system indicates the orientation of the monoclinic biaxial system with its internal c axis along the nanocolumns and b axis parallel to the film interface. The angle β between axes a and c is 74.8°.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Exemplary experimental (symbols) and best-match (solid curves) calculated GE data versus sample azimuth φ and angle of incidence Φ a at λ = 700 nm .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Monoclinic optical constants n a , n b , n c , and k a , k b , k c obtained from the best-model calculation for the Cr CTF sample in Fig. 1, and bulk Cr optical constants for comparison. Note that wavelengths around 520 and 720 nm in n and k spectra of CTF are disregarded due to detector noise.

Equations (1)

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T = ( sin β cos γ cos β cos α sin β 0 0 sin 2 α cos γ cos β cos α sin β 0 cos β cos α 1 ) .

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