Abstract

A 30cm long solid-core photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with immobilized and discrete Ag nanoparticles was used to obtain forward-propagating surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of 2μM Rhodamine 6G (R6G) aqueous solution filled in the cladding air channels. The intensity distributions of characteristic Raman vibrational bands of silica and R6G in PCF were mapped for the first time to our knowledge by hyperspectral Raman imaging. We show that the measured SERS intensity arises exclusively from the forward-propagating core mode as a result of evanescent-field interaction with R6G in the innermost ring of the cladding air channels.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2008 (1)

2007 (4)

F. M. Cox, A. Argyros, M. C. J. Large, and S. Kalluri, Opt. Express 15, 13675 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Amezcua-Correa, J. Yang, C. E. Finlayson, A. C. Peacock, J. R. Hayes, P. J. A. Sazio, J. J. Baumberg, and S. M. Howdle, Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2024 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Smolka, M. Barth, and O. Benson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 111101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, C. Shi, C. Gu, L. Seballos, and J. Z. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 193504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

D. Pristinski and H. Du, Opt. Lett. 31, 3246 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yan, C. Gu, C. Yang, J. Liu, G. Jin, J. Zhang, L. Hou, and Y. Yao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 204101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, Science 311, 1583 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

A. Raspopin, H. L. Cui, and H. Du, Proc. SPIE 6005, 60050F (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

2003 (1)

J. C. Knight, Nature 424, 847 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

K. A. Vaynberg, N. J. Wagner, and R. Sharma, Biomacromolecules 1, 466 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Michaels, J. Jiang, and L. Brus, J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 11965 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, Science 282, 1476 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (2)

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, Science 275, 1102 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

Y. Kamiyama and J. Israelachvili, Macromolecules 25, 5081 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

P. Hildebrandt and M. Stockburger, J. Phys. Chem. 88, 5935 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

P. C. Lee and D. Meisel, J. Phys. Chem. 86, 3391 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Allan, D. C.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amezcua-Correa, A.

A. Amezcua-Correa, J. Yang, C. E. Finlayson, A. C. Peacock, J. R. Hayes, P. J. A. Sazio, J. J. Baumberg, and S. M. Howdle, Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2024 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, Science 311, 1583 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Argyros, A.

Badding, J. V.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, Science 311, 1583 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baril, N. F.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, Science 311, 1583 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barth, M.

S. Smolka, M. Barth, and O. Benson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 111101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baumberg, J. J.

A. Amezcua-Correa, J. Yang, C. E. Finlayson, A. C. Peacock, J. R. Hayes, P. J. A. Sazio, J. J. Baumberg, and S. M. Howdle, Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2024 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Benson, O.

S. Smolka, M. Barth, and O. Benson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 111101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, Science 282, 1476 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bjarklev, A.

Bohr, H. G.

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, and H. G. Bohr, in Topics in Applied Physics, K.Kneipp, H.Kneipp, and M.Moskovits, eds. (Springer, 2006), p. 261.
[CrossRef]

Broeng, J.

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, Science 282, 1476 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brus, L.

A. M. Michaels, J. Jiang, and L. Brus, J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 11965 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Carlsen, A.

Cox, F. M.

Cregan, R. F.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crespi, V. H.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, Science 311, 1583 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cui, H. L.

A. Raspopin, H. L. Cui, and H. Du, Proc. SPIE 6005, 60050F (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dasari, R. R.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Du, H.

D. Pristinski and H. Du, Opt. Lett. 31, 3246 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Raspopin, H. L. Cui, and H. Du, Proc. SPIE 6005, 60050F (2005).
[CrossRef]

Emory, S. R.

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, Science 275, 1102 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Finlayson, C. E.

A. Amezcua-Correa, J. Yang, C. E. Finlayson, A. C. Peacock, J. R. Hayes, P. J. A. Sazio, J. J. Baumberg, and S. M. Howdle, Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2024 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, Science 311, 1583 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Folkenberg, J. R.

Gopalan, V.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, Science 311, 1583 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gu, C.

H. Yan, J. Liu, C. Yang, G. Jin, C. Gu, and L. Hou, Opt. Express 16, 8300 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, C. Shi, C. Gu, L. Seballos, and J. Z. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 193504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Yan, C. Gu, C. Yang, J. Liu, G. Jin, J. Zhang, L. Hou, and Y. Yao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 204101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, T. P.

Hayes, J. R.

A. Amezcua-Correa, J. Yang, C. E. Finlayson, A. C. Peacock, J. R. Hayes, P. J. A. Sazio, J. J. Baumberg, and S. M. Howdle, Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2024 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, Science 311, 1583 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hildebrandt, P.

P. Hildebrandt and M. Stockburger, J. Phys. Chem. 88, 5935 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Hoiby, P. E.

Hou, L.

H. Yan, J. Liu, C. Yang, G. Jin, C. Gu, and L. Hou, Opt. Express 16, 8300 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yan, C. Gu, C. Yang, J. Liu, G. Jin, J. Zhang, L. Hou, and Y. Yao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 204101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Howdle, S. M.

A. Amezcua-Correa, J. Yang, C. E. Finlayson, A. C. Peacock, J. R. Hayes, P. J. A. Sazio, J. J. Baumberg, and S. M. Howdle, Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2024 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Israelachvili, J.

Y. Kamiyama and J. Israelachvili, Macromolecules 25, 5081 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Itzkan, I.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, B. R.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, Science 311, 1583 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jensen, J. B.

Jiang, J.

A. M. Michaels, J. Jiang, and L. Brus, J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 11965 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jin, G.

H. Yan, J. Liu, C. Yang, G. Jin, C. Gu, and L. Hou, Opt. Express 16, 8300 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yan, C. Gu, C. Yang, J. Liu, G. Jin, J. Zhang, L. Hou, and Y. Yao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 204101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kalluri, S.

Kamiyama, Y.

Y. Kamiyama and J. Israelachvili, Macromolecules 25, 5081 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kneipp, H.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, and H. G. Bohr, in Topics in Applied Physics, K.Kneipp, H.Kneipp, and M.Moskovits, eds. (Springer, 2006), p. 261.
[CrossRef]

Kneipp, K.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, and H. G. Bohr, in Topics in Applied Physics, K.Kneipp, H.Kneipp, and M.Moskovits, eds. (Springer, 2006), p. 261.
[CrossRef]

Knight, J. C.

J. C. Knight, Nature 424, 847 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, Science 282, 1476 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Large, M. C. J.

Lee, P. C.

P. C. Lee and D. Meisel, J. Phys. Chem. 86, 3391 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

H. Yan, J. Liu, C. Yang, G. Jin, C. Gu, and L. Hou, Opt. Express 16, 8300 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yan, C. Gu, C. Yang, J. Liu, G. Jin, J. Zhang, L. Hou, and Y. Yao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 204101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mangan, B. J.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Margine, E. R.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, Science 311, 1583 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meisel, D.

P. C. Lee and D. Meisel, J. Phys. Chem. 86, 3391 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Michaels, A. M.

A. M. Michaels, J. Jiang, and L. Brus, J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 11965 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nie, S.

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, Science 275, 1102 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nielsen, K.

Nielsen, L. B.

Noordegraaf, D.

Peacock, A. C.

A. Amezcua-Correa, J. Yang, C. E. Finlayson, A. C. Peacock, J. R. Hayes, P. J. A. Sazio, J. J. Baumberg, and S. M. Howdle, Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2024 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pedersen, L. H.

Peng, W.

Perelman, L. T.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pickrell, G.

Pristinski, D.

Raspopin, A.

A. Raspopin, H. L. Cui, and H. Du, Proc. SPIE 6005, 60050F (2005).
[CrossRef]

Riishede, J.

Roberts, P. J.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russell, P. S. J.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, Science 282, 1476 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sazio, P. J. A.

A. Amezcua-Correa, J. Yang, C. E. Finlayson, A. C. Peacock, J. R. Hayes, P. J. A. Sazio, J. J. Baumberg, and S. M. Howdle, Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2024 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, Science 311, 1583 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scheidemantel, T. J.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, Science 311, 1583 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seballos, L.

Y. Zhang, C. Shi, C. Gu, L. Seballos, and J. Z. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 193504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, R.

K. A. Vaynberg, N. J. Wagner, and R. Sharma, Biomacromolecules 1, 466 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shi, C.

Y. Zhang, C. Shi, C. Gu, L. Seballos, and J. Z. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 193504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smolka, S.

S. Smolka, M. Barth, and O. Benson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 111101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stockburger, M.

P. Hildebrandt and M. Stockburger, J. Phys. Chem. 88, 5935 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Vaynberg, K. A.

K. A. Vaynberg, N. J. Wagner, and R. Sharma, Biomacromolecules 1, 466 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, N. J.

K. A. Vaynberg, N. J. Wagner, and R. Sharma, Biomacromolecules 1, 466 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, A.

Wang, Y.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Won, D.-J.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, Science 311, 1583 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, H.

H. Yan, J. Liu, C. Yang, G. Jin, C. Gu, and L. Hou, Opt. Express 16, 8300 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yan, C. Gu, C. Yang, J. Liu, G. Jin, J. Zhang, L. Hou, and Y. Yao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 204101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C.

H. Yan, J. Liu, C. Yang, G. Jin, C. Gu, and L. Hou, Opt. Express 16, 8300 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yan, C. Gu, C. Yang, J. Liu, G. Jin, J. Zhang, L. Hou, and Y. Yao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 204101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

A. Amezcua-Correa, J. Yang, C. E. Finlayson, A. C. Peacock, J. R. Hayes, P. J. A. Sazio, J. J. Baumberg, and S. M. Howdle, Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2024 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yao, Y.

H. Yan, C. Gu, C. Yang, J. Liu, G. Jin, J. Zhang, L. Hou, and Y. Yao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 204101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, F.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, Science 311, 1583 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

H. Yan, C. Gu, C. Yang, J. Liu, G. Jin, J. Zhang, L. Hou, and Y. Yao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 204101 (2006).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scanning electron micrographs of (a) PCF cross section and (b) immobilized Ag nanoparticles in the cladding air channels.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(top) Depiction of light propagation and evanescent-field interaction with analyte solution in a PCF with immobilized Ag nanoparticles and (bottom) optical train of the high-resolution hyperspectral Raman imaging and spectroscopy system. (a) He–Ne laser; (b) spatial filter; (c) spectral filter; (d) aspheric lens; (e) PCF; (f) objective; (g) notch filter; (h) acousto-optic tunable filter.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Raman spectra from (a) SERS-active PCF filled with R6G solution, (b) SERS-active PCF filled with water, (c) PCF with adsorbed gelatin and filled with R6G solution, (d) PCF with adsorbed gelatin and filled with water, (e) PCF filled with water, and (f) bare PCF. The right panel corresponds to spectral enlargement in the region of characteristic peaks of R6G. The forward Raman measurements were done at 632.8 nm , 5 mW laser power, and acquisition time of 10 s .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Hyperspectral image and (b) mode-field profile of the silica peak at 485 cm 1 using a bare PCF; (c) hyperspectral image and (d) mode-field profile of the 485 cm 1 peak using a 30 cm SERS-active PCF; (e) hyperspectral image and (f) mode-field profile of the R6G peak at 1509 cm 1 using a 30 cm SERS-active PCF. These data were collected in forward scattering geometry at 632.8 nm , 5 mW laser power, and acquisition time of 0.2 s for bare PCF and 20 s for SERS-active PCF.

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