Abstract

Optically active surfaces that can provide strong localization of electromagnetic fields at predefined points are desired for applications that require high spatial resolution and high sensitivity. Here, we examine the geometric influences on, and polarization dependencies of, electromagnetic near fields on the surface of an array of tailor designed, mesoscalic, silver-coated structures with threefold symmetry characteristics. For spatially resolved mapping of the electromagnetic near fields and examining the influence of polarization, we use a photoelectron emission microscope. We find that the investigated structures not only provide an increase of the near-field intensity at their boundaries, but also that the symmetry centers of the structures focus energy in a polarization dependent manner. Changing the polarization of the incident light enables the localization of near-field intensities without displacing the excitation. Hence we show that breaking of symmetry can provide controllable centers of “hot spots” for the basis of an improved design to gain more efficient surface structures.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L. Novotny and B. Hecht, Principles of Nano-Optics (Cambridge U. Press, 2006).
  2. J. R. Lakowicz, Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy, 3rd ed. (Springer, 2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. Javier Garcia de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, Ch. Spindler, and F. Steeb, Nature 446, 301 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. C. Wiemann, D. Bayer, M. Rohmer, M. Aeschlimann, and M. Bauer, Surf. Sci. 601, 4714 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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  11. B. Ashall, M. Berndt, and D. Zerulla, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 203109 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Otto, Z. Phys. 216, 4398 (1968).
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2007 (4)

S. Rehwald, M. Berndt, F. Katzenberg, S. Schwieger, E. Runge, K. Schierbaum, and D. Zerulla, Phys. Rev. B 76, 085420 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. Javier Garcia de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, Ch. Spindler, and F. Steeb, Nature 446, 301 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Wiemann, D. Bayer, M. Rohmer, M. Aeschlimann, and M. Bauer, Surf. Sci. 601, 4714 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Ashall, M. Berndt, and D. Zerulla, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 203109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

L. I. Chelaru, M. Horn-von Hoegen, D. Thien, and F.-J. Meyer zu Heringdorf, Phys. Rev. B 73, 115416 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

M. Cinchetti, A. Gloskovskij, S. A. Nepjiko, G. Schönhense, H. Rochholz, and M. Kreiter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 047601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Munzinger, C. Wiemann, M. Rohmer, L. Guo, M. Aeschlimann, and M. Bauer, New J. Phys. 7, 68 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

H. B. Michaelson, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 4729 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1968 (2)

A. Otto, Z. Phys. 216, 4398 (1968).

E. Kretschmann and H. Raether, Z. Naturforsch. A 23, 122135 (1968).

Aeschlimann, M.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. Javier Garcia de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, Ch. Spindler, and F. Steeb, Nature 446, 301 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Wiemann, D. Bayer, M. Rohmer, M. Aeschlimann, and M. Bauer, Surf. Sci. 601, 4714 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Munzinger, C. Wiemann, M. Rohmer, L. Guo, M. Aeschlimann, and M. Bauer, New J. Phys. 7, 68 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ashall, B.

B. Ashall, M. Berndt, and D. Zerulla, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 203109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, M.

C. Wiemann, D. Bayer, M. Rohmer, M. Aeschlimann, and M. Bauer, Surf. Sci. 601, 4714 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. Javier Garcia de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, Ch. Spindler, and F. Steeb, Nature 446, 301 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Munzinger, C. Wiemann, M. Rohmer, L. Guo, M. Aeschlimann, and M. Bauer, New J. Phys. 7, 68 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bayer, D.

C. Wiemann, D. Bayer, M. Rohmer, M. Aeschlimann, and M. Bauer, Surf. Sci. 601, 4714 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. Javier Garcia de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, Ch. Spindler, and F. Steeb, Nature 446, 301 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berndt, M.

S. Rehwald, M. Berndt, F. Katzenberg, S. Schwieger, E. Runge, K. Schierbaum, and D. Zerulla, Phys. Rev. B 76, 085420 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Ashall, M. Berndt, and D. Zerulla, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 203109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brixner, T.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. Javier Garcia de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, Ch. Spindler, and F. Steeb, Nature 446, 301 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chelaru, L. I.

L. I. Chelaru, M. Horn-von Hoegen, D. Thien, and F.-J. Meyer zu Heringdorf, Phys. Rev. B 73, 115416 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cinchetti, M.

M. Cinchetti, A. Gloskovskij, S. A. Nepjiko, G. Schönhense, H. Rochholz, and M. Kreiter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 047601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gloskovskij, A.

M. Cinchetti, A. Gloskovskij, S. A. Nepjiko, G. Schönhense, H. Rochholz, and M. Kreiter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 047601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, L.

M. Munzinger, C. Wiemann, M. Rohmer, L. Guo, M. Aeschlimann, and M. Bauer, New J. Phys. 7, 68 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, B.

L. Novotny and B. Hecht, Principles of Nano-Optics (Cambridge U. Press, 2006).

Horn-von Hoegen, M.

L. I. Chelaru, M. Horn-von Hoegen, D. Thien, and F.-J. Meyer zu Heringdorf, Phys. Rev. B 73, 115416 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Javier Garcia de Abajo, F.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. Javier Garcia de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, Ch. Spindler, and F. Steeb, Nature 446, 301 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Katzenberg, F.

S. Rehwald, M. Berndt, F. Katzenberg, S. Schwieger, E. Runge, K. Schierbaum, and D. Zerulla, Phys. Rev. B 76, 085420 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kreiter, M.

M. Cinchetti, A. Gloskovskij, S. A. Nepjiko, G. Schönhense, H. Rochholz, and M. Kreiter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 047601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kretschmann, E.

E. Kretschmann and H. Raether, Z. Naturforsch. A 23, 122135 (1968).

Lakowicz, J. R.

J. R. Lakowicz, Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy, 3rd ed. (Springer, 2006).
[CrossRef]

Meyer zu Heringdorf, F.-J.

L. I. Chelaru, M. Horn-von Hoegen, D. Thien, and F.-J. Meyer zu Heringdorf, Phys. Rev. B 73, 115416 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Michaelson, H. B.

H. B. Michaelson, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 4729 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Munzinger, M.

M. Munzinger, C. Wiemann, M. Rohmer, L. Guo, M. Aeschlimann, and M. Bauer, New J. Phys. 7, 68 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nepjiko, S. A.

M. Cinchetti, A. Gloskovskij, S. A. Nepjiko, G. Schönhense, H. Rochholz, and M. Kreiter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 047601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Novotny, L.

L. Novotny and B. Hecht, Principles of Nano-Optics (Cambridge U. Press, 2006).

Otto, A.

A. Otto, Z. Phys. 216, 4398 (1968).

Pfeiffer, W.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. Javier Garcia de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, Ch. Spindler, and F. Steeb, Nature 446, 301 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raether, H.

E. Kretschmann and H. Raether, Z. Naturforsch. A 23, 122135 (1968).

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth, and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer, 1988).

Rehwald, S.

S. Rehwald, M. Berndt, F. Katzenberg, S. Schwieger, E. Runge, K. Schierbaum, and D. Zerulla, Phys. Rev. B 76, 085420 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rochholz, H.

M. Cinchetti, A. Gloskovskij, S. A. Nepjiko, G. Schönhense, H. Rochholz, and M. Kreiter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 047601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rohmer, M.

C. Wiemann, D. Bayer, M. Rohmer, M. Aeschlimann, and M. Bauer, Surf. Sci. 601, 4714 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. Javier Garcia de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, Ch. Spindler, and F. Steeb, Nature 446, 301 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Munzinger, C. Wiemann, M. Rohmer, L. Guo, M. Aeschlimann, and M. Bauer, New J. Phys. 7, 68 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Runge, E.

S. Rehwald, M. Berndt, F. Katzenberg, S. Schwieger, E. Runge, K. Schierbaum, and D. Zerulla, Phys. Rev. B 76, 085420 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schierbaum, K.

S. Rehwald, M. Berndt, F. Katzenberg, S. Schwieger, E. Runge, K. Schierbaum, and D. Zerulla, Phys. Rev. B 76, 085420 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schönhense, G.

M. Cinchetti, A. Gloskovskij, S. A. Nepjiko, G. Schönhense, H. Rochholz, and M. Kreiter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 047601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwieger, S.

S. Rehwald, M. Berndt, F. Katzenberg, S. Schwieger, E. Runge, K. Schierbaum, and D. Zerulla, Phys. Rev. B 76, 085420 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Spindler, Ch.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. Javier Garcia de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, Ch. Spindler, and F. Steeb, Nature 446, 301 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steeb, F.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. Javier Garcia de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, Ch. Spindler, and F. Steeb, Nature 446, 301 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thien, D.

L. I. Chelaru, M. Horn-von Hoegen, D. Thien, and F.-J. Meyer zu Heringdorf, Phys. Rev. B 73, 115416 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wiemann, C.

C. Wiemann, D. Bayer, M. Rohmer, M. Aeschlimann, and M. Bauer, Surf. Sci. 601, 4714 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Munzinger, C. Wiemann, M. Rohmer, L. Guo, M. Aeschlimann, and M. Bauer, New J. Phys. 7, 68 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zerulla, D.

S. Rehwald, M. Berndt, F. Katzenberg, S. Schwieger, E. Runge, K. Schierbaum, and D. Zerulla, Phys. Rev. B 76, 085420 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Ashall, M. Berndt, and D. Zerulla, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 203109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

B. Ashall, M. Berndt, and D. Zerulla, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 203109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. B. Michaelson, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 4729 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. Javier Garcia de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, Ch. Spindler, and F. Steeb, Nature 446, 301 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (1)

M. Munzinger, C. Wiemann, M. Rohmer, L. Guo, M. Aeschlimann, and M. Bauer, New J. Phys. 7, 68 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

L. I. Chelaru, M. Horn-von Hoegen, D. Thien, and F.-J. Meyer zu Heringdorf, Phys. Rev. B 73, 115416 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Rehwald, M. Berndt, F. Katzenberg, S. Schwieger, E. Runge, K. Schierbaum, and D. Zerulla, Phys. Rev. B 76, 085420 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. Cinchetti, A. Gloskovskij, S. A. Nepjiko, G. Schönhense, H. Rochholz, and M. Kreiter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 047601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Surf. Sci. (1)

C. Wiemann, D. Bayer, M. Rohmer, M. Aeschlimann, and M. Bauer, Surf. Sci. 601, 4714 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Naturforsch. A (1)

E. Kretschmann and H. Raether, Z. Naturforsch. A 23, 122135 (1968).

Z. Phys. (1)

A. Otto, Z. Phys. 216, 4398 (1968).

Other (3)

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth, and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer, 1988).

L. Novotny and B. Hecht, Principles of Nano-Optics (Cambridge U. Press, 2006).

J. R. Lakowicz, Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy, 3rd ed. (Springer, 2006).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Geometry of the structures. Structures in size I have dimensions: w = 2700 nm , d = 600 nm , h = 100 nm ; structures in size II have dimensions w = 3600 nm , d = 800 nm , h = 100 nm . (b) SEM image of array of structures in size II as shown in (a). The structures are arranged in a 6 × 6 array of period 4200 nm in the x direction and 3800 nm in the y direction (size I: 8 × 8 array, period of 3200 nm in the x direction and 2900 nm in the y direction). The enlarged region shows the surface of one structure out of the array. (c) AFM image of one structure in size II. The height axis ranges from 0 to 130 nm .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

PEEM images of a 3 × 3 cutout of the array of structures (linear intensity scale). The left column [(a)–(d)] shows structures of size I; the right column [(e)–(h)] structures of size II. In the horizontal direction images correspond to the same acquisition settings. Images (a) and (e) are taken with UV illumination. Images (b), (f), (c), and (g) are acquired in the 2P-PEEM mode with 400 nm laser illumination incident from the right ( y direction). In image (b) and (f) the laser is p polarized, in (c) and (g) it is s polarized. Images (d) and (h) show the differential image of s polarization subtracted from p polarization. For better recognition, the contour of the structures is highlighted. Deviations from the regular array pattern are due to spherical aberrations of the imaging system.

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