Abstract

We report on the generation of cw squeezed vacuum states of light at the telecommunication wavelength of 1550nm. The squeezed vacuum states were produced by type I optical parametric amplification in a standing-wave cavity built around a periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate crystal. A nonclassical noise reduction of 5.3dB below the shot noise was observed by means of balanced homodyne detection.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Yamamoto and H. A. Haus, Rev. Mod. Phys. 58, 1001 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Hillary, Phys. Rev. A 61, 022309 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Miya, Y. Terunuma, T. Hosaka, and T. Moyashito, Electron. Lett. 15, 106 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Li and D. A. Nolan, J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 1079 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. F. McGuigan, C. C. Lam, R. Q. Gram, A. W. Hoffman, D. H. Douglass, and H. W. Gutche, J. Low Temp. Phys. 30, 621 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

J. Feng, X. Tian, Y. Li, and K. Zhanga, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, N. Lastzka, S. Goßler, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Goda, O. Miyakawa, E. E. Mikhailov, S. Saraf, R. Adhikari, K. McKenzie, R. Ward, S. Vass, A. J. Weinstein, and N. Mavalvala, Nat. Phys. 4, 472 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Grosse, S. Assad, M. Mehmet, R. Schnabel, T. Symul, and P. K. Lam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 243601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Dong, J. Heersink, J. Corney, P. Drummond, U. Andersen, and G. Leuchs, Opt. Lett. 33, 116 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Li and D. A. Nolan, J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 1079 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

H. Vahlbruch, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 011101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Aoki, G. Takahashi, and A. Furusawa, Opt. Express 14, 6930 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Franzen, B. Hage, J. DiGuglielmo, J. Fiurášek, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 150505 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Hétet, O. Glöckl, K. A. Pilypas, C. C. Harb, B. C. Buchler, H.-A. Bachor, and P. K. Lam, J. Phys. B 40, 221 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2002

N. Nishizawa, K. Sone, J. Higuchi, M. Mori, K. Yamane, and T. Goto, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 41, L130 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

M. Hillary, Phys. Rev. A 61, 022309 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

T. C. Ralph, Phys. Rev. A 61, 010303 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1986

Y. Yamamoto and H. A. Haus, Rev. Mod. Phys. 58, 1001 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1981

C. M. Caves, Phys. Rev. D 23, 1693 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979

T. Miya, Y. Terunuma, T. Hosaka, and T. Moyashito, Electron. Lett. 15, 106 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978

D. F. McGuigan, C. C. Lam, R. Q. Gram, A. W. Hoffman, D. H. Douglass, and H. W. Gutche, J. Low Temp. Phys. 30, 621 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Adhikari, R.

K. Goda, O. Miyakawa, E. E. Mikhailov, S. Saraf, R. Adhikari, K. McKenzie, R. Ward, S. Vass, A. J. Weinstein, and N. Mavalvala, Nat. Phys. 4, 472 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Andersen, U.

Aoki, T.

Assad, S.

N. Grosse, S. Assad, M. Mehmet, R. Schnabel, T. Symul, and P. K. Lam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 243601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bachor, H.-A.

G. Hétet, O. Glöckl, K. A. Pilypas, C. C. Harb, B. C. Buchler, H.-A. Bachor, and P. K. Lam, J. Phys. B 40, 221 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Buchler, B. C.

G. Hétet, O. Glöckl, K. A. Pilypas, C. C. Harb, B. C. Buchler, H.-A. Bachor, and P. K. Lam, J. Phys. B 40, 221 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Caves, C. M.

C. M. Caves, Phys. Rev. D 23, 1693 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Chelkowski, S.

H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, N. Lastzka, S. Goßler, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Vahlbruch, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 011101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corney, J.

Danzmann, K.

H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, N. Lastzka, S. Goßler, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Vahlbruch, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 011101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DiGuglielmo, J.

A. Franzen, B. Hage, J. DiGuglielmo, J. Fiurášek, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 150505 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dong, R.

Douglass, D. H.

D. F. McGuigan, C. C. Lam, R. Q. Gram, A. W. Hoffman, D. H. Douglass, and H. W. Gutche, J. Low Temp. Phys. 30, 621 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Drummond, P.

Eto, Y.

Feng, J.

J. Feng, X. Tian, Y. Li, and K. Zhanga, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fiurášek, J.

A. Franzen, B. Hage, J. DiGuglielmo, J. Fiurášek, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 150505 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franzen, A.

H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, N. Lastzka, S. Goßler, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Vahlbruch, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 011101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Franzen, B. Hage, J. DiGuglielmo, J. Fiurášek, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 150505 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Furusawa, A.

Glöckl, O.

G. Hétet, O. Glöckl, K. A. Pilypas, C. C. Harb, B. C. Buchler, H.-A. Bachor, and P. K. Lam, J. Phys. B 40, 221 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Goda, K.

K. Goda, O. Miyakawa, E. E. Mikhailov, S. Saraf, R. Adhikari, K. McKenzie, R. Ward, S. Vass, A. J. Weinstein, and N. Mavalvala, Nat. Phys. 4, 472 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Goßler, S.

H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, N. Lastzka, S. Goßler, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goto, T.

N. Nishizawa, K. Sone, J. Higuchi, M. Mori, K. Yamane, and T. Goto, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 41, L130 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gram, R. Q.

D. F. McGuigan, C. C. Lam, R. Q. Gram, A. W. Hoffman, D. H. Douglass, and H. W. Gutche, J. Low Temp. Phys. 30, 621 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Grosse, N.

N. Grosse, S. Assad, M. Mehmet, R. Schnabel, T. Symul, and P. K. Lam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 243601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gutche, H. W.

D. F. McGuigan, C. C. Lam, R. Q. Gram, A. W. Hoffman, D. H. Douglass, and H. W. Gutche, J. Low Temp. Phys. 30, 621 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Hage, B.

H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, N. Lastzka, S. Goßler, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Vahlbruch, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 011101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Franzen, B. Hage, J. DiGuglielmo, J. Fiurášek, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 150505 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harb, C. C.

G. Hétet, O. Glöckl, K. A. Pilypas, C. C. Harb, B. C. Buchler, H.-A. Bachor, and P. K. Lam, J. Phys. B 40, 221 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

Y. Yamamoto and H. A. Haus, Rev. Mod. Phys. 58, 1001 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Heersink, J.

Hétet, G.

G. Hétet, O. Glöckl, K. A. Pilypas, C. C. Harb, B. C. Buchler, H.-A. Bachor, and P. K. Lam, J. Phys. B 40, 221 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Higuchi, J.

N. Nishizawa, K. Sone, J. Higuchi, M. Mori, K. Yamane, and T. Goto, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 41, L130 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hillary, M.

M. Hillary, Phys. Rev. A 61, 022309 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hirano, T.

Hoffman, A. W.

D. F. McGuigan, C. C. Lam, R. Q. Gram, A. W. Hoffman, D. H. Douglass, and H. W. Gutche, J. Low Temp. Phys. 30, 621 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Hosaka, T.

T. Miya, Y. Terunuma, T. Hosaka, and T. Moyashito, Electron. Lett. 15, 106 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Lam, C. C.

D. F. McGuigan, C. C. Lam, R. Q. Gram, A. W. Hoffman, D. H. Douglass, and H. W. Gutche, J. Low Temp. Phys. 30, 621 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Lam, P. K.

N. Grosse, S. Assad, M. Mehmet, R. Schnabel, T. Symul, and P. K. Lam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 243601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Hétet, O. Glöckl, K. A. Pilypas, C. C. Harb, B. C. Buchler, H.-A. Bachor, and P. K. Lam, J. Phys. B 40, 221 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lastzka, N.

H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, N. Lastzka, S. Goßler, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leuchs, G.

Li, M.

Li, Y.

J. Feng, X. Tian, Y. Li, and K. Zhanga, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mavalvala, N.

K. Goda, O. Miyakawa, E. E. Mikhailov, S. Saraf, R. Adhikari, K. McKenzie, R. Ward, S. Vass, A. J. Weinstein, and N. Mavalvala, Nat. Phys. 4, 472 (2008).
[CrossRef]

McGuigan, D. F.

D. F. McGuigan, C. C. Lam, R. Q. Gram, A. W. Hoffman, D. H. Douglass, and H. W. Gutche, J. Low Temp. Phys. 30, 621 (1978).
[CrossRef]

McKenzie, K.

K. Goda, O. Miyakawa, E. E. Mikhailov, S. Saraf, R. Adhikari, K. McKenzie, R. Ward, S. Vass, A. J. Weinstein, and N. Mavalvala, Nat. Phys. 4, 472 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mehmet, M.

N. Grosse, S. Assad, M. Mehmet, R. Schnabel, T. Symul, and P. K. Lam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 243601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, N. Lastzka, S. Goßler, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mikhailov, E. E.

K. Goda, O. Miyakawa, E. E. Mikhailov, S. Saraf, R. Adhikari, K. McKenzie, R. Ward, S. Vass, A. J. Weinstein, and N. Mavalvala, Nat. Phys. 4, 472 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miya, T.

T. Miya, Y. Terunuma, T. Hosaka, and T. Moyashito, Electron. Lett. 15, 106 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Miyakawa, O.

K. Goda, O. Miyakawa, E. E. Mikhailov, S. Saraf, R. Adhikari, K. McKenzie, R. Ward, S. Vass, A. J. Weinstein, and N. Mavalvala, Nat. Phys. 4, 472 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mori, M.

N. Nishizawa, K. Sone, J. Higuchi, M. Mori, K. Yamane, and T. Goto, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 41, L130 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Moyashito, T.

T. Miya, Y. Terunuma, T. Hosaka, and T. Moyashito, Electron. Lett. 15, 106 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Nishizawa, N.

N. Nishizawa, K. Sone, J. Higuchi, M. Mori, K. Yamane, and T. Goto, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 41, L130 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nolan, D. A.

Pilypas, K. A.

G. Hétet, O. Glöckl, K. A. Pilypas, C. C. Harb, B. C. Buchler, H.-A. Bachor, and P. K. Lam, J. Phys. B 40, 221 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ralph, T. C.

T. C. Ralph, Phys. Rev. A 61, 010303 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Saraf, S.

K. Goda, O. Miyakawa, E. E. Mikhailov, S. Saraf, R. Adhikari, K. McKenzie, R. Ward, S. Vass, A. J. Weinstein, and N. Mavalvala, Nat. Phys. 4, 472 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schnabel, R.

N. Grosse, S. Assad, M. Mehmet, R. Schnabel, T. Symul, and P. K. Lam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 243601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, N. Lastzka, S. Goßler, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Vahlbruch, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 011101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Franzen, B. Hage, J. DiGuglielmo, J. Fiurášek, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 150505 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sone, K.

N. Nishizawa, K. Sone, J. Higuchi, M. Mori, K. Yamane, and T. Goto, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 41, L130 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Symul, T.

N. Grosse, S. Assad, M. Mehmet, R. Schnabel, T. Symul, and P. K. Lam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 243601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tajima, T.

Takahashi, G.

Takeno, Y.

Terunuma, Y.

T. Miya, Y. Terunuma, T. Hosaka, and T. Moyashito, Electron. Lett. 15, 106 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Tian, X.

J. Feng, X. Tian, Y. Li, and K. Zhanga, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vahlbruch, H.

H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, N. Lastzka, S. Goßler, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Vahlbruch, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 011101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vass, S.

K. Goda, O. Miyakawa, E. E. Mikhailov, S. Saraf, R. Adhikari, K. McKenzie, R. Ward, S. Vass, A. J. Weinstein, and N. Mavalvala, Nat. Phys. 4, 472 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ward, R.

K. Goda, O. Miyakawa, E. E. Mikhailov, S. Saraf, R. Adhikari, K. McKenzie, R. Ward, S. Vass, A. J. Weinstein, and N. Mavalvala, Nat. Phys. 4, 472 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Weinstein, A. J.

K. Goda, O. Miyakawa, E. E. Mikhailov, S. Saraf, R. Adhikari, K. McKenzie, R. Ward, S. Vass, A. J. Weinstein, and N. Mavalvala, Nat. Phys. 4, 472 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, Y.

Y. Yamamoto and H. A. Haus, Rev. Mod. Phys. 58, 1001 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Yamane, K.

N. Nishizawa, K. Sone, J. Higuchi, M. Mori, K. Yamane, and T. Goto, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 41, L130 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yonezawa, H.

Yukawa, M.

Zhang, Y.

Zhanga, K.

J. Feng, X. Tian, Y. Li, and K. Zhanga, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. Feng, X. Tian, Y. Li, and K. Zhanga, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

T. Miya, Y. Terunuma, T. Hosaka, and T. Moyashito, Electron. Lett. 15, 106 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Low Temp. Phys.

D. F. McGuigan, C. C. Lam, R. Q. Gram, A. W. Hoffman, D. H. Douglass, and H. W. Gutche, J. Low Temp. Phys. 30, 621 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B

G. Hétet, O. Glöckl, K. A. Pilypas, C. C. Harb, B. C. Buchler, H.-A. Bachor, and P. K. Lam, J. Phys. B 40, 221 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2

N. Nishizawa, K. Sone, J. Higuchi, M. Mori, K. Yamane, and T. Goto, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 41, L130 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys.

K. Goda, O. Miyakawa, E. E. Mikhailov, S. Saraf, R. Adhikari, K. McKenzie, R. Ward, S. Vass, A. J. Weinstein, and N. Mavalvala, Nat. Phys. 4, 472 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

T. C. Ralph, Phys. Rev. A 61, 010303 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Hillary, Phys. Rev. A 61, 022309 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. D

C. M. Caves, Phys. Rev. D 23, 1693 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, N. Lastzka, S. Goßler, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Franzen, B. Hage, J. DiGuglielmo, J. Fiurášek, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 150505 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Grosse, S. Assad, M. Mehmet, R. Schnabel, T. Symul, and P. K. Lam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 243601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Vahlbruch, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 011101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys.

Y. Yamamoto and H. A. Haus, Rev. Mod. Phys. 58, 1001 (1986).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the setup. After being sent through a MC cavity, one part of the light is used as a control beam for the OPA and the local oscillator for balanced homodyne detection. The other part is frequency doubled in an SHG cavity to provide the 775 nm field to pump the OPA. The squeezed field leaves the OPA in the counter direction to the pump and is measured with the homodyne detector. PBS, polarizing beam splitter; DBS, dichroic beam splitter; HBS, homodyne beam splitter; MC, mode cleaner cavity; PD, photodiode; EOM, electro-optical modulator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Noise power levels of the homodyne detector were measured at different LO powers at a center frequency of 5 MHz with the signal port blocked. Box sizes indicate the standard deviation of the fit and an estimated ± 5 % uncertainty of the power meter used. The graph shows that our homodyne detector was quantum noise limited and operated linearly within our measurement regime.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Noise powers of the squeezed light emitted by the OPA at a sideband frequency of 5 MHz normalized to the shot-noise level [trace (a)]. All traces were recorded with a resolution bandwidth of 300 kHz and a video bandwidth of 300 Hz . Squeezing (b) and antisqueezing (c) curves were averaged twice. Curve (d) was recorded by linearly sweeping the LO phase, which continuously rotated the measured quadrature from antisqueezing to squeezing.

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