Abstract

We report the generation of Bessel beams using polytetrafluoroethene conical lenses and a quantum cascade laser emitting at 2.8THz. The formation of a central beam spot that retains its size over distances exceeding the characteristic Rayleigh range is demonstrated, and the power transport properties of these beams are compared with those obtained using parabolic reflectors. These lenses could provide an attractive alternative to parabolic reflectors for terahertz imaging applications where a large depth of focus and/or efficient and controllable coupling of radiation onto a small target are desirable.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2008 (1)

2006 (1)

S. M. Kim, F. Hatami, J. S. Harris, A. W. Kurian, J. Ford, D. King, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, J. Faist, and G. Harris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

S. Barbieri, J. Alton, H. E. Beere, J. Fowler, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1674 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

J. Lloyd, K. Wang, A. Barkan, and D. M. Mittleman, Opt. Commun. 219, 289 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

J. Arlt, V. Garces-Chavez, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Opt. Commun. 197, 239 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

S. Monk, J. Arlt, D. A. Robertson, J. Courtial, and M. J. Padgett, Opt. Commun. 170, 213 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. A. McQueen, J. Arlt, and K. Dholakia, Am. J. Phys. 67, 912 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1991 (1)

1988 (1)

1987 (2)

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Durnin, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 651 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1954 (1)

Alton, J.

S. Barbieri, J. Alton, H. E. Beere, J. Fowler, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1674 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Arlt, J.

J. Arlt, V. Garces-Chavez, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Opt. Commun. 197, 239 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Monk, J. Arlt, D. A. Robertson, J. Courtial, and M. J. Padgett, Opt. Commun. 170, 213 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. A. McQueen, J. Arlt, and K. Dholakia, Am. J. Phys. 67, 912 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Barbieri, S.

S. Barbieri, J. Alton, H. E. Beere, J. Fowler, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1674 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barkan, A.

J. Lloyd, K. Wang, A. Barkan, and D. M. Mittleman, Opt. Commun. 219, 289 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Beere, H. E.

S. Barbieri, J. Alton, H. E. Beere, J. Fowler, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1674 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beltram, F.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burnett, A.

Chakraborty, S.

Courtial, J.

S. Monk, J. Arlt, D. A. Robertson, J. Courtial, and M. J. Padgett, Opt. Commun. 170, 213 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Davies, A. G.

P. Dean, M. U. Shaukat, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Burnett, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and S. Chakraborty, Opt. Express 16, 5997 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dean, P.

Dholakia, K.

J. Arlt, V. Garces-Chavez, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Opt. Commun. 197, 239 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. A. McQueen, J. Arlt, and K. Dholakia, Am. J. Phys. 67, 912 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Durnin, J.

Eberly, J. H.

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, Jr., and J. H. Eberly, Opt. Lett. 13, 79 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faist, J.

S. M. Kim, F. Hatami, J. S. Harris, A. W. Kurian, J. Ford, D. King, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, J. Faist, and G. Harris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ford, J.

S. M. Kim, F. Hatami, J. S. Harris, A. W. Kurian, J. Ford, D. King, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, J. Faist, and G. Harris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fowler, J.

S. Barbieri, J. Alton, H. E. Beere, J. Fowler, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1674 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Garces-Chavez, V.

J. Arlt, V. Garces-Chavez, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Opt. Commun. 197, 239 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Giovannini, M.

S. M. Kim, F. Hatami, J. S. Harris, A. W. Kurian, J. Ford, D. King, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, J. Faist, and G. Harris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Harris, G.

S. M. Kim, F. Hatami, J. S. Harris, A. W. Kurian, J. Ford, D. King, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, J. Faist, and G. Harris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Harris, J. S.

S. M. Kim, F. Hatami, J. S. Harris, A. W. Kurian, J. Ford, D. King, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, J. Faist, and G. Harris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hatami, F.

S. M. Kim, F. Hatami, J. S. Harris, A. W. Kurian, J. Ford, D. King, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, J. Faist, and G. Harris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Herman, R. M.

Hoyler, N.

S. M. Kim, F. Hatami, J. S. Harris, A. W. Kurian, J. Ford, D. King, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, J. Faist, and G. Harris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hu, B. B.

Iotti, R. C.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khanna, S. P.

Kim, S. M.

S. M. Kim, F. Hatami, J. S. Harris, A. W. Kurian, J. Ford, D. King, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, J. Faist, and G. Harris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

King, D.

S. M. Kim, F. Hatami, J. S. Harris, A. W. Kurian, J. Ford, D. King, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, J. Faist, and G. Harris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Köhler, R.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurian, A. W.

S. M. Kim, F. Hatami, J. S. Harris, A. W. Kurian, J. Ford, D. King, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, J. Faist, and G. Harris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lachab, M.

Linfield, E. H.

P. Dean, M. U. Shaukat, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Burnett, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and S. Chakraborty, Opt. Express 16, 5997 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Barbieri, J. Alton, H. E. Beere, J. Fowler, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1674 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lloyd, J.

J. Lloyd, K. Wang, A. Barkan, and D. M. Mittleman, Opt. Commun. 219, 289 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McLeod, J. H.

McQueen, C. A.

C. A. McQueen, J. Arlt, and K. Dholakia, Am. J. Phys. 67, 912 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Miceli, J. J.

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, Jr., and J. H. Eberly, Opt. Lett. 13, 79 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mittleman, D. M.

J. Lloyd, K. Wang, A. Barkan, and D. M. Mittleman, Opt. Commun. 219, 289 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Monk, S.

S. Monk, J. Arlt, D. A. Robertson, J. Courtial, and M. J. Padgett, Opt. Commun. 170, 213 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nuss, M. C.

Padgett, M. J.

S. Monk, J. Arlt, D. A. Robertson, J. Courtial, and M. J. Padgett, Opt. Commun. 170, 213 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, D. A.

S. Barbieri, J. Alton, H. E. Beere, J. Fowler, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1674 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robertson, D. A.

S. Monk, J. Arlt, D. A. Robertson, J. Courtial, and M. J. Padgett, Opt. Commun. 170, 213 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rossi, F.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scalari, G.

S. M. Kim, F. Hatami, J. S. Harris, A. W. Kurian, J. Ford, D. King, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, J. Faist, and G. Harris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shaukat, M. U.

Sibbett, W.

J. Arlt, V. Garces-Chavez, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Opt. Commun. 197, 239 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tredicucci, A.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, K.

J. Lloyd, K. Wang, A. Barkan, and D. M. Mittleman, Opt. Commun. 219, 289 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wiggins, T. A.

Am. J. Phys. (1)

C. A. McQueen, J. Arlt, and K. Dholakia, Am. J. Phys. 67, 912 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

S. M. Kim, F. Hatami, J. S. Harris, A. W. Kurian, J. Ford, D. King, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, J. Faist, and G. Harris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Barbieri, J. Alton, H. E. Beere, J. Fowler, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1674 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Nature (1)

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (3)

J. Arlt, V. Garces-Chavez, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Opt. Commun. 197, 239 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Lloyd, K. Wang, A. Barkan, and D. M. Mittleman, Opt. Commun. 219, 289 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Monk, J. Arlt, D. A. Robertson, J. Courtial, and M. J. Padgett, Opt. Commun. 170, 213 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental apparatus for generation and measurement of quasi-Bessel beams. C, PTFE conical lens with apex half-angle ψ; QCL, terahertz quantum cascade laser; A, 1 mm aperture; G, Golay cell.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Intensity distribution measured at an axial distance of 6 cm from a conical lens with D = 50.8 mm and ψ = 75 ° . (b) Simulated intensity distribution for the lens in (a). Beam profiles measured (c) in a plane passing through the beam center and (d) by integrating the total beam power over the whole plane for the intensity distribution shown in (a).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

FWHM of the central beam spot, measured in a horizontal (solid line) and vertical plane (dashed line) at an axial distance z from the apex of the conical lens used in Fig. 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Fraction of total beam power transmitted through a 500 μ m aperture for a conical lens with D = 25.4 mm and ψ = 75 (solid line) and a 25.4 mm diameter f/3 parabolic reflector (dashed line).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 FWHM of the Central Beam Spot, and Corresponding Axial Range Z R , Measured for a Selection of Conical Lenses of Varying Diameter D and Apex Half-Angle ψ

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