Abstract

We have fabricated BaOTiO2GeO2SiO2-based glass fibers with the oriented space-selectively crystallized structure by laser irradiation and also demonstrated variable optical attenuation induced by electro-optical birefringence change based on second-order optical nonlinearity. The transmittance of a polarized signal is controlled by an electric field applied to the fiber, and the electro-optic fiber devices are operated with extremely low nanowatt electric power dissipation.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. G. Kazansky, L. Dong, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 19, 701 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. T. Fujiwara, D. Wong, Y. Zhao, S. Fleming, S. Poole, and M. Sceats, Electron. Lett. 31, 573 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Takahashi, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 316, 320 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Takahashi, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3503 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Masai, N. Iwafuchi, Y. Takahashi, T. Fujiwara, S. Ohara, Y. Kondo, and N. Sugimoto, J. Mater. Res. 24, 288 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. N. Iwafuchi, H. Masai, Y. Takahashi, T. Fujiwara, S. Ohara, Y. Kondo, and N. Sugimoto, J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 116, 1115 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Ohara, H. Masai, Y. Takahashi, T. Fujiwara, Y. Kondo, and N. Sugimoto, J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 116, 1083 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Ohara, H. Masai, Y. Takahashi, T. Fujiwara, Y. Kondo, and N. Sugimoto, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC2008) (2008) paper Th.3.C.5.
  9. N. Iwafuchi, H. Masai, Y. Takahashi, and T. Fujiwara, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics and the International Quantum Electronics Conference (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper JThE40.
    [PubMed]
  10. S. Haussuhl, J. Eckstein, K. Recker, and F. Wallrafen, J. Cryst. Growth 40, 200 (1977).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

H. Masai, N. Iwafuchi, Y. Takahashi, T. Fujiwara, S. Ohara, Y. Kondo, and N. Sugimoto, J. Mater. Res. 24, 288 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

N. Iwafuchi, H. Masai, Y. Takahashi, T. Fujiwara, S. Ohara, Y. Kondo, and N. Sugimoto, J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 116, 1115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Ohara, H. Masai, Y. Takahashi, T. Fujiwara, Y. Kondo, and N. Sugimoto, J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 116, 1083 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

Y. Takahashi, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3503 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

Y. Takahashi, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 316, 320 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

P. G. Kazansky, L. Dong, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 19, 701 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Fujiwara, D. Wong, Y. Zhao, S. Fleming, S. Poole, and M. Sceats, Electron. Lett. 31, 573 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

S. Haussuhl, J. Eckstein, K. Recker, and F. Wallrafen, J. Cryst. Growth 40, 200 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Benino, Y.

Y. Takahashi, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3503 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takahashi, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 316, 320 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dong, L.

Eckstein, J.

S. Haussuhl, J. Eckstein, K. Recker, and F. Wallrafen, J. Cryst. Growth 40, 200 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Fleming, S.

T. Fujiwara, D. Wong, Y. Zhao, S. Fleming, S. Poole, and M. Sceats, Electron. Lett. 31, 573 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, T.

H. Masai, N. Iwafuchi, Y. Takahashi, T. Fujiwara, S. Ohara, Y. Kondo, and N. Sugimoto, J. Mater. Res. 24, 288 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Iwafuchi, H. Masai, Y. Takahashi, T. Fujiwara, S. Ohara, Y. Kondo, and N. Sugimoto, J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 116, 1115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Ohara, H. Masai, Y. Takahashi, T. Fujiwara, Y. Kondo, and N. Sugimoto, J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 116, 1083 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takahashi, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3503 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takahashi, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 316, 320 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujiwara, D. Wong, Y. Zhao, S. Fleming, S. Poole, and M. Sceats, Electron. Lett. 31, 573 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Ohara, H. Masai, Y. Takahashi, T. Fujiwara, Y. Kondo, and N. Sugimoto, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC2008) (2008) paper Th.3.C.5.

N. Iwafuchi, H. Masai, Y. Takahashi, and T. Fujiwara, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics and the International Quantum Electronics Conference (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper JThE40.
[PubMed]

Haussuhl, S.

S. Haussuhl, J. Eckstein, K. Recker, and F. Wallrafen, J. Cryst. Growth 40, 200 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Iwafuchi, N.

H. Masai, N. Iwafuchi, Y. Takahashi, T. Fujiwara, S. Ohara, Y. Kondo, and N. Sugimoto, J. Mater. Res. 24, 288 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Iwafuchi, H. Masai, Y. Takahashi, T. Fujiwara, S. Ohara, Y. Kondo, and N. Sugimoto, J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 116, 1115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Iwafuchi, H. Masai, Y. Takahashi, and T. Fujiwara, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics and the International Quantum Electronics Conference (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper JThE40.
[PubMed]

Kazansky, P. G.

Komatsu, T.

Y. Takahashi, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3503 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takahashi, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 316, 320 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, Y.

H. Masai, N. Iwafuchi, Y. Takahashi, T. Fujiwara, S. Ohara, Y. Kondo, and N. Sugimoto, J. Mater. Res. 24, 288 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Iwafuchi, H. Masai, Y. Takahashi, T. Fujiwara, S. Ohara, Y. Kondo, and N. Sugimoto, J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 116, 1115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Ohara, H. Masai, Y. Takahashi, T. Fujiwara, Y. Kondo, and N. Sugimoto, J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 116, 1083 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Ohara, H. Masai, Y. Takahashi, T. Fujiwara, Y. Kondo, and N. Sugimoto, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC2008) (2008) paper Th.3.C.5.

Masai, H.

H. Masai, N. Iwafuchi, Y. Takahashi, T. Fujiwara, S. Ohara, Y. Kondo, and N. Sugimoto, J. Mater. Res. 24, 288 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Ohara, H. Masai, Y. Takahashi, T. Fujiwara, Y. Kondo, and N. Sugimoto, J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 116, 1083 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Iwafuchi, H. Masai, Y. Takahashi, T. Fujiwara, S. Ohara, Y. Kondo, and N. Sugimoto, J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 116, 1115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Iwafuchi, H. Masai, Y. Takahashi, and T. Fujiwara, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics and the International Quantum Electronics Conference (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper JThE40.
[PubMed]

S. Ohara, H. Masai, Y. Takahashi, T. Fujiwara, Y. Kondo, and N. Sugimoto, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC2008) (2008) paper Th.3.C.5.

Ohara, S.

H. Masai, N. Iwafuchi, Y. Takahashi, T. Fujiwara, S. Ohara, Y. Kondo, and N. Sugimoto, J. Mater. Res. 24, 288 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Ohara, H. Masai, Y. Takahashi, T. Fujiwara, Y. Kondo, and N. Sugimoto, J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 116, 1083 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Iwafuchi, H. Masai, Y. Takahashi, T. Fujiwara, S. Ohara, Y. Kondo, and N. Sugimoto, J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 116, 1115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Ohara, H. Masai, Y. Takahashi, T. Fujiwara, Y. Kondo, and N. Sugimoto, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC2008) (2008) paper Th.3.C.5.

Poole, S.

T. Fujiwara, D. Wong, Y. Zhao, S. Fleming, S. Poole, and M. Sceats, Electron. Lett. 31, 573 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Recker, K.

S. Haussuhl, J. Eckstein, K. Recker, and F. Wallrafen, J. Cryst. Growth 40, 200 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. St. J.

Sceats, M.

T. Fujiwara, D. Wong, Y. Zhao, S. Fleming, S. Poole, and M. Sceats, Electron. Lett. 31, 573 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, N.

H. Masai, N. Iwafuchi, Y. Takahashi, T. Fujiwara, S. Ohara, Y. Kondo, and N. Sugimoto, J. Mater. Res. 24, 288 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Iwafuchi, H. Masai, Y. Takahashi, T. Fujiwara, S. Ohara, Y. Kondo, and N. Sugimoto, J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 116, 1115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Ohara, H. Masai, Y. Takahashi, T. Fujiwara, Y. Kondo, and N. Sugimoto, J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 116, 1083 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Ohara, H. Masai, Y. Takahashi, T. Fujiwara, Y. Kondo, and N. Sugimoto, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC2008) (2008) paper Th.3.C.5.

Takahashi, Y.

H. Masai, N. Iwafuchi, Y. Takahashi, T. Fujiwara, S. Ohara, Y. Kondo, and N. Sugimoto, J. Mater. Res. 24, 288 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Iwafuchi, H. Masai, Y. Takahashi, T. Fujiwara, S. Ohara, Y. Kondo, and N. Sugimoto, J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 116, 1115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Ohara, H. Masai, Y. Takahashi, T. Fujiwara, Y. Kondo, and N. Sugimoto, J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 116, 1083 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takahashi, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3503 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takahashi, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 316, 320 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Iwafuchi, H. Masai, Y. Takahashi, and T. Fujiwara, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics and the International Quantum Electronics Conference (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper JThE40.
[PubMed]

S. Ohara, H. Masai, Y. Takahashi, T. Fujiwara, Y. Kondo, and N. Sugimoto, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC2008) (2008) paper Th.3.C.5.

Wallrafen, F.

S. Haussuhl, J. Eckstein, K. Recker, and F. Wallrafen, J. Cryst. Growth 40, 200 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Wong, D.

T. Fujiwara, D. Wong, Y. Zhao, S. Fleming, S. Poole, and M. Sceats, Electron. Lett. 31, 573 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

T. Fujiwara, D. Wong, Y. Zhao, S. Fleming, S. Poole, and M. Sceats, Electron. Lett. 31, 573 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

T. Fujiwara, D. Wong, Y. Zhao, S. Fleming, S. Poole, and M. Sceats, Electron. Lett. 31, 573 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Takahashi, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3503 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. (2)

N. Iwafuchi, H. Masai, Y. Takahashi, T. Fujiwara, S. Ohara, Y. Kondo, and N. Sugimoto, J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 116, 1115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Ohara, H. Masai, Y. Takahashi, T. Fujiwara, Y. Kondo, and N. Sugimoto, J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 116, 1083 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

S. Haussuhl, J. Eckstein, K. Recker, and F. Wallrafen, J. Cryst. Growth 40, 200 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Res. (1)

H. Masai, N. Iwafuchi, Y. Takahashi, T. Fujiwara, S. Ohara, Y. Kondo, and N. Sugimoto, J. Mater. Res. 24, 288 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

Y. Takahashi, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 316, 320 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (2)

S. Ohara, H. Masai, Y. Takahashi, T. Fujiwara, Y. Kondo, and N. Sugimoto, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC2008) (2008) paper Th.3.C.5.

N. Iwafuchi, H. Masai, Y. Takahashi, and T. Fujiwara, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics and the International Quantum Electronics Conference (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper JThE40.
[PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Cross section of BTGS fiber. Core diameter was 6.5 μ m . (b) Polarization microscopic image of SC-BTGS fiber after laser irradiation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Illustration of crystallized fiber. (b) Calculation of birefringence with oriented crystal fiber with Δ n v Δ n p = 3 , as shown at upper left. n core n o = 0.003 (circles), n core n o = 0.004 (squares), n core n o = 0.005 (triangles).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup (top). Image of polarization states in fiber (bottom).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmittance power as a function of applied electric field. Crystallized fiber length is 1 cm (squares) and 2 cm (circles). Solid curves show the calculation of Δ T as a function of birefringence.

Equations (2)

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E = ( cos ( π 4 ) sin ( π 4 ) sin ( π 4 ) cos ( π 4 ) ) ( exp ( i Γ 2 ) 0 0 exp ( i Γ 2 ) ) ( cos ( π 4 ) sin ( π 4 ) sin ( π 4 ) cos ( π 4 ) ) ( 1 0 ) ,
E = ( cos ( Γ 2 ) i sin ( Γ 2 ) ) ,

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