Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate propagation of surface plasmon polaritons in the near-IR window λ(1.45μm,1.59μm) at the interface of indium-tin-oxide films with different thicknesses deposited on glass. Dispersion of such polaritons is strongly dependent on the film thickness, putting into evidence a regime in which polaritons at both films’s interfaces are coupled in surface supermodes. The experimental data are shown to be in good agreement with the analytical model for thin and absorbing conducting films. Measurements on aluminum-doped zinc oxide, characterized by a redshifted plasma resonance, do not show any surface plasmon polariton excitation in the same wavelength window.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. E. Sernelius, Surface Modes in Physics (Wiley VCH, 2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, Phys. Rep. 408, 131 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. H. Smith, J. A. E. Wasey, and W. L. Barnes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2986 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Tvingstedt, N.-K. Persson, O. Inganas, A. Rahachou, and I. V. Zozoulenko, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 113514 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Brewer and S. Franzen, Chem. Phys. 300, 285 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Rhodes, M. Cerruti, A. Efremenko, M. Losego, D. E. Aspnes, J.-P. Maria, and S. Franzen, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 093108 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Y. C. Xu, M. Z. Alam, A. J. Zilkie, K. Zeaiter, and J. S. Aitchison, in CLEO/QELS 2008 Conference Digest (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper JThA132.
  8. M. Sarrazin and J.-P. Vigneron, Phys. Rev. B 71, 075404 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. All ITO films were obtained from Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany except the thickest, which was obtained from Prazisions Glas und Optik GmbH.
  10. F. Michelotti, A. Belardini, M. C. Larciprete, M. Bertolotti, A. Rousseau, A. Ratsimihety, G. Schoer, and J. Muller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4477 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Flämmich, N. Danz, D. Michaelis, A. Bräuer, M. C. Gather, J. H.-W. M. Kremer, and K. Meerholz, Appl. Opt. 48, 1507 (2009).
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  12. D. M. Koller, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, N. Galler, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, S. Eder, S. Sax, and E. J. W. List, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 103304 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2009

2008

D. M. Koller, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, N. Galler, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, S. Eder, S. Sax, and E. J. W. List, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 103304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Rhodes, M. Cerruti, A. Efremenko, M. Losego, D. E. Aspnes, J.-P. Maria, and S. Franzen, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 093108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

K. Tvingstedt, N.-K. Persson, O. Inganas, A. Rahachou, and I. V. Zozoulenko, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 113514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, Phys. Rep. 408, 131 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Sarrazin and J.-P. Vigneron, Phys. Rev. B 71, 075404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

L. H. Smith, J. A. E. Wasey, and W. L. Barnes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2986 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Brewer and S. Franzen, Chem. Phys. 300, 285 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

F. Michelotti, A. Belardini, M. C. Larciprete, M. Bertolotti, A. Rousseau, A. Ratsimihety, G. Schoer, and J. Muller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Aitchison, J. S.

M. Y. C. Xu, M. Z. Alam, A. J. Zilkie, K. Zeaiter, and J. S. Aitchison, in CLEO/QELS 2008 Conference Digest (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper JThA132.

Alam, M. Z.

M. Y. C. Xu, M. Z. Alam, A. J. Zilkie, K. Zeaiter, and J. S. Aitchison, in CLEO/QELS 2008 Conference Digest (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper JThA132.

Aspnes, D. E.

C. Rhodes, M. Cerruti, A. Efremenko, M. Losego, D. E. Aspnes, J.-P. Maria, and S. Franzen, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 093108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Aussenegg, F. R.

D. M. Koller, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, N. Galler, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, S. Eder, S. Sax, and E. J. W. List, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 103304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

L. H. Smith, J. A. E. Wasey, and W. L. Barnes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2986 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Belardini, A.

F. Michelotti, A. Belardini, M. C. Larciprete, M. Bertolotti, A. Rousseau, A. Ratsimihety, G. Schoer, and J. Muller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bertolotti, M.

F. Michelotti, A. Belardini, M. C. Larciprete, M. Bertolotti, A. Rousseau, A. Ratsimihety, G. Schoer, and J. Muller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bräuer, A.

Brewer, H.

H. Brewer and S. Franzen, Chem. Phys. 300, 285 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cerruti, M.

C. Rhodes, M. Cerruti, A. Efremenko, M. Losego, D. E. Aspnes, J.-P. Maria, and S. Franzen, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 093108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Danz, N.

Ditlbacher, H.

D. M. Koller, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, N. Galler, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, S. Eder, S. Sax, and E. J. W. List, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 103304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Eder, S.

D. M. Koller, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, N. Galler, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, S. Eder, S. Sax, and E. J. W. List, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 103304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Efremenko, A.

C. Rhodes, M. Cerruti, A. Efremenko, M. Losego, D. E. Aspnes, J.-P. Maria, and S. Franzen, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 093108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Flämmich, M.

Franzen, S.

C. Rhodes, M. Cerruti, A. Efremenko, M. Losego, D. E. Aspnes, J.-P. Maria, and S. Franzen, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 093108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Brewer and S. Franzen, Chem. Phys. 300, 285 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Galler, N.

D. M. Koller, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, N. Galler, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, S. Eder, S. Sax, and E. J. W. List, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 103304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gather, M. C.

Hohenau, A.

D. M. Koller, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, N. Galler, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, S. Eder, S. Sax, and E. J. W. List, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 103304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Inganas, O.

K. Tvingstedt, N.-K. Persson, O. Inganas, A. Rahachou, and I. V. Zozoulenko, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 113514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Koller, D. M.

D. M. Koller, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, N. Galler, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, S. Eder, S. Sax, and E. J. W. List, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 103304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kremer, J. H.-W.

Krenn, J. R.

D. M. Koller, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, N. Galler, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, S. Eder, S. Sax, and E. J. W. List, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 103304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Larciprete, M. C.

F. Michelotti, A. Belardini, M. C. Larciprete, M. Bertolotti, A. Rousseau, A. Ratsimihety, G. Schoer, and J. Muller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Leitner, A.

D. M. Koller, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, N. Galler, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, S. Eder, S. Sax, and E. J. W. List, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 103304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

List, E. J. W.

D. M. Koller, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, N. Galler, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, S. Eder, S. Sax, and E. J. W. List, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 103304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Losego, M.

C. Rhodes, M. Cerruti, A. Efremenko, M. Losego, D. E. Aspnes, J.-P. Maria, and S. Franzen, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 093108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Maradudin, A. A.

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, Phys. Rep. 408, 131 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Maria, J.-P.

C. Rhodes, M. Cerruti, A. Efremenko, M. Losego, D. E. Aspnes, J.-P. Maria, and S. Franzen, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 093108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Meerholz, K.

Michaelis, D.

Michelotti, F.

F. Michelotti, A. Belardini, M. C. Larciprete, M. Bertolotti, A. Rousseau, A. Ratsimihety, G. Schoer, and J. Muller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Muller, J.

F. Michelotti, A. Belardini, M. C. Larciprete, M. Bertolotti, A. Rousseau, A. Ratsimihety, G. Schoer, and J. Muller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Persson, N.-K.

K. Tvingstedt, N.-K. Persson, O. Inganas, A. Rahachou, and I. V. Zozoulenko, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 113514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rahachou, A.

K. Tvingstedt, N.-K. Persson, O. Inganas, A. Rahachou, and I. V. Zozoulenko, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 113514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ratsimihety, A.

F. Michelotti, A. Belardini, M. C. Larciprete, M. Bertolotti, A. Rousseau, A. Ratsimihety, G. Schoer, and J. Muller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rhodes, C.

C. Rhodes, M. Cerruti, A. Efremenko, M. Losego, D. E. Aspnes, J.-P. Maria, and S. Franzen, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 093108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rousseau, A.

F. Michelotti, A. Belardini, M. C. Larciprete, M. Bertolotti, A. Rousseau, A. Ratsimihety, G. Schoer, and J. Muller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sarrazin, M.

M. Sarrazin and J.-P. Vigneron, Phys. Rev. B 71, 075404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sax, S.

D. M. Koller, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, N. Galler, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, S. Eder, S. Sax, and E. J. W. List, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 103304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schoer, G.

F. Michelotti, A. Belardini, M. C. Larciprete, M. Bertolotti, A. Rousseau, A. Ratsimihety, G. Schoer, and J. Muller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sernelius, B. E.

B. E. Sernelius, Surface Modes in Physics (Wiley VCH, 2001).
[CrossRef]

Smith, L. H.

L. H. Smith, J. A. E. Wasey, and W. L. Barnes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2986 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Smolyaninov, I. I.

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, Phys. Rep. 408, 131 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tvingstedt, K.

K. Tvingstedt, N.-K. Persson, O. Inganas, A. Rahachou, and I. V. Zozoulenko, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 113514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vigneron, J.-P.

M. Sarrazin and J.-P. Vigneron, Phys. Rev. B 71, 075404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wasey, J. A. E.

L. H. Smith, J. A. E. Wasey, and W. L. Barnes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2986 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xu, M. Y. C.

M. Y. C. Xu, M. Z. Alam, A. J. Zilkie, K. Zeaiter, and J. S. Aitchison, in CLEO/QELS 2008 Conference Digest (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper JThA132.

Zayats, A. V.

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, Phys. Rep. 408, 131 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zeaiter, K.

M. Y. C. Xu, M. Z. Alam, A. J. Zilkie, K. Zeaiter, and J. S. Aitchison, in CLEO/QELS 2008 Conference Digest (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper JThA132.

Zilkie, A. J.

M. Y. C. Xu, M. Z. Alam, A. J. Zilkie, K. Zeaiter, and J. S. Aitchison, in CLEO/QELS 2008 Conference Digest (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper JThA132.

Zozoulenko, I. V.

K. Tvingstedt, N.-K. Persson, O. Inganas, A. Rahachou, and I. V. Zozoulenko, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 113514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. M. Koller, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, N. Galler, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, S. Eder, S. Sax, and E. J. W. List, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 103304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Michelotti, A. Belardini, M. C. Larciprete, M. Bertolotti, A. Rousseau, A. Ratsimihety, G. Schoer, and J. Muller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Smith, J. A. E. Wasey, and W. L. Barnes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2986 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Tvingstedt, N.-K. Persson, O. Inganas, A. Rahachou, and I. V. Zozoulenko, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 113514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys.

H. Brewer and S. Franzen, Chem. Phys. 300, 285 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

C. Rhodes, M. Cerruti, A. Efremenko, M. Losego, D. E. Aspnes, J.-P. Maria, and S. Franzen, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 093108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rep.

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, Phys. Rep. 408, 131 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

M. Sarrazin and J.-P. Vigneron, Phys. Rev. B 71, 075404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other

All ITO films were obtained from Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany except the thickest, which was obtained from Prazisions Glas und Optik GmbH.

B. E. Sernelius, Surface Modes in Physics (Wiley VCH, 2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. C. Xu, M. Z. Alam, A. J. Zilkie, K. Zeaiter, and J. S. Aitchison, in CLEO/QELS 2008 Conference Digest (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper JThA132.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Dispersions for the real ( q R ) and imaginary ( q I ) parts of the SPP q ̃ as a function of λ for a planar interface between bulk ITO, with parameters given in Table 1, and vacuum. q R and q I were calculated for Γ = 0 , q R (long-dashed curve), q I (long-dashed–short-dashed-dashed curve), and for Γ as given in Table 1 for ITO, q R (solid curve), q I (long-dashed–short-dashed curve). The two horizontal dashed lines delimit the laser emission window. The three dashed curves delimit the θ interval in the measurement, the middle one corresponding to the vacuum light line. Inset, n and k dispersions. ITO ( 134 nm ) : n (solid curve), k (long-dashed curve). ZnO:Al: n (dashed–dotted curve), k (short-dashed curve).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental R ( θ , λ ) for ITO films with different thicknesses t. t = ( a ) 77, (b) 104, (c) 134, and (d) 194 nm .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Theoretical R ( θ , λ ) for ITO films with different thicknesses t. t = ( a ) 77, (b) 104, (c) 134, and (d) 194 nm .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured R ( θ , λ = 1.55 μ m ) versus θ for the ZnO:Al film, compared with that measured for the ITO films.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 ϵ , A 1 , A 2 , ω p , and Γ Parameters of the Drude Dispersions Given in Eqs. (1, 2) for ITO ( 134 nm ) and ZnO:Al ( 100 nm ) in the λ [ 1.4 μ m , 2.5 μ m ] Range

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ϵ R ( λ ) = ϵ A 1 A 2 2 λ 2 λ 2 + A 2 2 , ϵ I ( λ ) = A 1 A 2 λ 3 λ 2 + A 2 2 .
ϵ ̃ ( ω ) = ϵ ω p 2 ω ( ω + j Γ ) ,
q ̃ = 2 π λ ϵ ̃ ITO ( λ ) 1 + ϵ ̃ ITO ( λ ) = q R + j q I ,

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