Abstract

The CO2 laser-based agile tuner lidar for atmospheric sensing has been used to profile the volcanic plume of Mount Etna during its most recent eruption. Owing to the transmitted wavelength, this system is practically insensitive to air molecules while it detects aerosol loads, and thus the path attenuation of the laser beam is strongly affected by volcanic particulate. Vertical profiles of extinction coefficient were retrieved up to an altitude above ground level of 5000m. The observed extinction coefficient ranges from 105to5×104m1. The lidar was able to accurately track the spatiotemporal evolution of the volcanic plume thanks to a spatial resolution of 15m and a temporal resolution of 1min.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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2002 (1)

J. N. Porter, K. A. Horton, P. J. Mouginis-Mark, B. Lienert, S. K. Sharma, E. Lau, A. J. Sutton, and T. Elias, Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1783 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (2)

R. Velotta, B. Bartoli, R. Capobianco, L. Fiorani, and N. Spinelli, Appl. Opt. 37, 6999 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Weibring, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, R. Ferrara, and T. Caltabiano, Appl. Phys. B 67, 419 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

H. Jaeger, Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 191 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1984 (2)

1982 (1)

1981 (1)

Aglione, M.

L. Fiorani, M. Aglione, I. Okladnikov, and A. Palucci, in Proceedings of the First 'Atmospheric Science Conference' (ESA, 2006).

Bartoli, B.

Ben-David, A.

Caltabiano, T.

P. Weibring, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, R. Ferrara, and T. Caltabiano, Appl. Phys. B 67, 419 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Capobianco, R.

Cecchi, G.

P. Weibring, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, R. Ferrara, and T. Caltabiano, Appl. Phys. B 67, 419 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Deepak, A.

A. Deepak, G. S. Kent, and G. K. Yue, Atmospheric Backscatter Model Development for CO2 Wavelengths (NASA, 1982).
[PubMed]

Edner, H.

P. Weibring, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, R. Ferrara, and T. Caltabiano, Appl. Phys. B 67, 419 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Elias, T.

J. N. Porter, K. A. Horton, P. J. Mouginis-Mark, B. Lienert, S. K. Sharma, E. Lau, A. J. Sutton, and T. Elias, Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1783 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fernald, F. G.

Ferrara, R.

P. Weibring, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, R. Ferrara, and T. Caltabiano, Appl. Phys. B 67, 419 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fiorani, L.

R. Velotta, B. Bartoli, R. Capobianco, L. Fiorani, and N. Spinelli, Appl. Opt. 37, 6999 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Fiorani, M. Aglione, I. Okladnikov, and A. Palucci, in Proceedings of the First 'Atmospheric Science Conference' (ESA, 2006).

L. Fiorani, in Lasers and Electro-Optics at the Cutting Edge (Nova, 2007).

Flamant, P. H.

Hall, F. F.

Haner, D. A.

Horton, K. A.

J. N. Porter, K. A. Horton, P. J. Mouginis-Mark, B. Lienert, S. K. Sharma, E. Lau, A. J. Sutton, and T. Elias, Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1783 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jaeger, H.

H. Jaeger, Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 191 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kavaya, M. J.

Kent, G. S.

A. Deepak, G. S. Kent, and G. K. Yue, Atmospheric Backscatter Model Development for CO2 Wavelengths (NASA, 1982).
[PubMed]

Klett, J. D.

Lau, E.

J. N. Porter, K. A. Horton, P. J. Mouginis-Mark, B. Lienert, S. K. Sharma, E. Lau, A. J. Sutton, and T. Elias, Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1783 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lawrence, T. R.

Lienert, B.

J. N. Porter, K. A. Horton, P. J. Mouginis-Mark, B. Lienert, S. K. Sharma, E. Lau, A. J. Sutton, and T. Elias, Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1783 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Measures, R. M.

R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing (Krieger, 1992).

Menzies, R. T.

Mouginis-Mark, P. J.

J. N. Porter, K. A. Horton, P. J. Mouginis-Mark, B. Lienert, S. K. Sharma, E. Lau, A. J. Sutton, and T. Elias, Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1783 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Okladnikov, I.

L. Fiorani, M. Aglione, I. Okladnikov, and A. Palucci, in Proceedings of the First 'Atmospheric Science Conference' (ESA, 2006).

Palucci, A.

L. Fiorani, M. Aglione, I. Okladnikov, and A. Palucci, in Proceedings of the First 'Atmospheric Science Conference' (ESA, 2006).

Pantani, L.

P. Weibring, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, R. Ferrara, and T. Caltabiano, Appl. Phys. B 67, 419 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Porter, J. N.

J. N. Porter, K. A. Horton, P. J. Mouginis-Mark, B. Lienert, S. K. Sharma, E. Lau, A. J. Sutton, and T. Elias, Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1783 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Post, M. J.

Richter, R. A.

Sharma, S. K.

J. N. Porter, K. A. Horton, P. J. Mouginis-Mark, B. Lienert, S. K. Sharma, E. Lau, A. J. Sutton, and T. Elias, Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1783 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Spinelli, N.

Sutton, A. J.

J. N. Porter, K. A. Horton, P. J. Mouginis-Mark, B. Lienert, S. K. Sharma, E. Lau, A. J. Sutton, and T. Elias, Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1783 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Svanberg, S.

P. Weibring, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, R. Ferrara, and T. Caltabiano, Appl. Phys. B 67, 419 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Velotta, R.

Weibring, P.

P. Weibring, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, R. Ferrara, and T. Caltabiano, Appl. Phys. B 67, 419 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yue, G. K.

A. Deepak, G. S. Kent, and G. K. Yue, Atmospheric Backscatter Model Development for CO2 Wavelengths (NASA, 1982).
[PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (6)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

P. Weibring, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, R. Ferrara, and T. Caltabiano, Appl. Phys. B 67, 419 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (2)

J. N. Porter, K. A. Horton, P. J. Mouginis-Mark, B. Lienert, S. K. Sharma, E. Lau, A. J. Sutton, and T. Elias, Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1783 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Jaeger, Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 191 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing (Krieger, 1992).

L. Fiorani, M. Aglione, I. Okladnikov, and A. Palucci, in Proceedings of the First 'Atmospheric Science Conference' (ESA, 2006).

A. Deepak, G. S. Kent, and G. K. Yue, Atmospheric Backscatter Model Development for CO2 Wavelengths (NASA, 1982).
[PubMed]

L. Fiorani, in Lasers and Electro-Optics at the Cutting Edge (Nova, 2007).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Lidar signal compared with a theoretical model and the detector noise. The altitude in all figures is above ground level.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Extinction coefficient retrieved from the lidar signal of Fig. 1. The double peak from 1800 to 3300 m appears to superimpose on a nearly linear decay and has been ascribed to the volcanic plume (the dashed curve has been added for the convenience of the reader).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Extinction coefficient retrieved at 10:45 a.m., 12:38 p.m., 13:19 p.m., and 14:00 p.m. in the same experimental conditions of Fig. 1. The volcanic plume appears to spread and stratify with time.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Contour plot of the extinction coefficient as a function of time and altitude.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Main Specifications of ATLAS

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