Abstract

We report an integrated Raman spectroscopy and trimodal (white-light reflectance, autofluorescence, and narrow-band) imaging techniques for real-time in vivo tissue Raman measurements at endoscopy. A special 1.8mm endoscopic Raman probe with filtering modules is developed, permitting effective elimination of interference of fluorescence background and silica Raman in fibers while maximizing tissue Raman collections. We demonstrate that high-quality in vivo Raman spectra of upper gastrointestinal tract can be acquired within 1s or subseconds under the guidance of wide-field endoscopic imaging modalities, greatly facilitating the adoption of Raman spectroscopy into clinical research and practice during routine endoscopic inspections.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. R. Hirsch, W. A. Franklin, A. F. Gazdar, and P. A. Bunn, Jr., Clin. Cancer Res. 7, 5 (2001).
    [PubMed]
  2. B. Palcic, S. Lam, J. Hung, and C. MacAulay, Chest 99, 742 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. J. Overhiser and P. Sharma, Rev. Gastroenterol. Disord. 8, 186 (2008).
    [PubMed]
  4. S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, Br. J. Cancer 98, 457 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. N. Stone, C. Kendall, N. Shepherd, P. Crow, and H. Barr, J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 564 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Z. Huang, A. McWilliams, S. Lam, D. I. McLean, H. Lui, and H. Zeng, Int. J. Cancer 107, 1047 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. A. Short, S. Lam, A. McWilliams, J. Zhao, H. Lui, and H. Zeng, Opt. Lett. 33, 711 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Z. Huang, H. Zeng, I. Hamzavi, D. I. McLean, and H. Lui, Opt. Lett. 26, 1782 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2008

A. J. Overhiser and P. Sharma, Rev. Gastroenterol. Disord. 8, 186 (2008).
[PubMed]

S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, Br. J. Cancer 98, 457 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Short, S. Lam, A. McWilliams, J. Zhao, H. Lui, and H. Zeng, Opt. Lett. 33, 711 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

Z. Huang, A. McWilliams, S. Lam, D. I. McLean, H. Lui, and H. Zeng, Int. J. Cancer 107, 1047 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

N. Stone, C. Kendall, N. Shepherd, P. Crow, and H. Barr, J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 564 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

F. R. Hirsch, W. A. Franklin, A. F. Gazdar, and P. A. Bunn, Jr., Clin. Cancer Res. 7, 5 (2001).
[PubMed]

Z. Huang, H. Zeng, I. Hamzavi, D. I. McLean, and H. Lui, Opt. Lett. 26, 1782 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1991

B. Palcic, S. Lam, J. Hung, and C. MacAulay, Chest 99, 742 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barr, H.

N. Stone, C. Kendall, N. Shepherd, P. Crow, and H. Barr, J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 564 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bunn, P. A.

F. R. Hirsch, W. A. Franklin, A. F. Gazdar, and P. A. Bunn, Jr., Clin. Cancer Res. 7, 5 (2001).
[PubMed]

Crow, P.

N. Stone, C. Kendall, N. Shepherd, P. Crow, and H. Barr, J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 564 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Franklin, W. A.

F. R. Hirsch, W. A. Franklin, A. F. Gazdar, and P. A. Bunn, Jr., Clin. Cancer Res. 7, 5 (2001).
[PubMed]

Gazdar, A. F.

F. R. Hirsch, W. A. Franklin, A. F. Gazdar, and P. A. Bunn, Jr., Clin. Cancer Res. 7, 5 (2001).
[PubMed]

Hamzavi, I.

Hirsch, F. R.

F. R. Hirsch, W. A. Franklin, A. F. Gazdar, and P. A. Bunn, Jr., Clin. Cancer Res. 7, 5 (2001).
[PubMed]

Ho, K. Y.

S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, Br. J. Cancer 98, 457 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Z.

S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, Br. J. Cancer 98, 457 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, A. McWilliams, S. Lam, D. I. McLean, H. Lui, and H. Zeng, Int. J. Cancer 107, 1047 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, H. Zeng, I. Hamzavi, D. I. McLean, and H. Lui, Opt. Lett. 26, 1782 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hung, J.

B. Palcic, S. Lam, J. Hung, and C. MacAulay, Chest 99, 742 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kendall, C.

N. Stone, C. Kendall, N. Shepherd, P. Crow, and H. Barr, J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 564 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lam, S.

M. A. Short, S. Lam, A. McWilliams, J. Zhao, H. Lui, and H. Zeng, Opt. Lett. 33, 711 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, A. McWilliams, S. Lam, D. I. McLean, H. Lui, and H. Zeng, Int. J. Cancer 107, 1047 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Palcic, S. Lam, J. Hung, and C. MacAulay, Chest 99, 742 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lui, H.

MacAulay, C.

B. Palcic, S. Lam, J. Hung, and C. MacAulay, Chest 99, 742 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McLean, D. I.

Z. Huang, A. McWilliams, S. Lam, D. I. McLean, H. Lui, and H. Zeng, Int. J. Cancer 107, 1047 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, H. Zeng, I. Hamzavi, D. I. McLean, and H. Lui, Opt. Lett. 26, 1782 (2001).
[CrossRef]

McWilliams, A.

M. A. Short, S. Lam, A. McWilliams, J. Zhao, H. Lui, and H. Zeng, Opt. Lett. 33, 711 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, A. McWilliams, S. Lam, D. I. McLean, H. Lui, and H. Zeng, Int. J. Cancer 107, 1047 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Overhiser, A. J.

A. J. Overhiser and P. Sharma, Rev. Gastroenterol. Disord. 8, 186 (2008).
[PubMed]

Palcic, B.

B. Palcic, S. Lam, J. Hung, and C. MacAulay, Chest 99, 742 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharma, P.

A. J. Overhiser and P. Sharma, Rev. Gastroenterol. Disord. 8, 186 (2008).
[PubMed]

Shepherd, N.

N. Stone, C. Kendall, N. Shepherd, P. Crow, and H. Barr, J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 564 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Short, M. A.

Stone, N.

N. Stone, C. Kendall, N. Shepherd, P. Crow, and H. Barr, J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 564 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Teh, M.

S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, Br. J. Cancer 98, 457 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Teh, S. K.

S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, Br. J. Cancer 98, 457 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yeoh, K. G.

S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, Br. J. Cancer 98, 457 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeng, H.

Zhao, J.

Zheng, W.

S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, Br. J. Cancer 98, 457 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Br. J. Cancer

S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, Br. J. Cancer 98, 457 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chest

B. Palcic, S. Lam, J. Hung, and C. MacAulay, Chest 99, 742 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Cancer Res.

F. R. Hirsch, W. A. Franklin, A. F. Gazdar, and P. A. Bunn, Jr., Clin. Cancer Res. 7, 5 (2001).
[PubMed]

Int. J. Cancer

Z. Huang, A. McWilliams, S. Lam, D. I. McLean, H. Lui, and H. Zeng, Int. J. Cancer 107, 1047 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Raman Spectrosc.

N. Stone, C. Kendall, N. Shepherd, P. Crow, and H. Barr, J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 564 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Rev. Gastroenterol. Disord.

A. J. Overhiser and P. Sharma, Rev. Gastroenterol. Disord. 8, 186 (2008).
[PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the integrated Raman spectroscopy and trimodal endoscopic imaging system developed for in vivo tissue Raman measurements at endoscopy.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of in vivo Raman spectra of buccal mucosa acquired from a healthy volunteer under different Raman acquisition times ( t = 0.1 , 0.5, and 1.0 s ) without imaging illumination light. (b) Comparison of in vivo Raman spectra of buccal mucosa acquired from a healthy volunteer under wide-field imaging (i.e., WLR, NBI, and AFI) illumination conditions. Each spectrum is normalized to the integrated area under the curve at 800 1800 cm 1 , enabling a better comparison of the spectral shapes and relative peak intensities among different acquisition times.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

In vivo Raman spectra of different sites (antrum, body, cardia, and the esophagus) of the upper GI as well as the corresponding wide-field endoscopic images (WLR for antrum, NBI for body, AFI for cardia, and NBI for esophagus) simultaneously acquired from a healthy volunteer undergoing gastroscopic inspection. All Raman spectra are acquired using an integration time of 1.0 s , except that the body Raman spectrum is acquired using only an integration time of 0.1 s owing to large autofluorescence background interference from the body in the stomach.

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