Abstract

We demonstrate efficient upconversion of subterahertz radiation into the optical domain in a high-Q whispering gallery mode resonator with quadratic optical nonlinearity. The 5×103 power conversion efficiency of a cw 100GHz signal is achieved with only 16mW of optical pump.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. Komiyama, O. Astafiev, V. Antonov, T. Kutsuwa, and H. Hirai, Nature 403, 405 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. H. Hashiba, V. Antonov, L. Kulik, A. Tzalenchuk, P. Kleinschmid, S. Gibin, and S. Komiyama, Phys. Rev. B 73, 081310(R) (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Ikushima, Y. Yoshimura, T. Hasegawa, S. Komiyama, T. Ueda, and K. Hirakawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 152110 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. S. Karasik, D. Olaya, J. Wei, S. Pereverzev, M. E. Gershenson, J. H. Kawamura, W. R. McGrath, and A. V. Sergeev, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17, 293 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. B. Matsko, D. V. Strekalov, and N. Yu, Phys. Rev. A 77, 043812 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. C. Chiou and F. P. Pace, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 44 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. M. Abbas, T. Kostiuk, and K. W. Ogilvie, Appl. Opt. 15, 961 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. A. Albota and F. N. C. Wong, Opt. Lett. 29, 1449 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. G. Temporao, S. Tanzilli, H. Zbinden, N. Gisin, T. Aellen, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, Opt. Lett. 31, 1094 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. P. VanDevender and P. G. Kwiat, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 295 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. J. Khan, J. C. Chen, and S. Kaushik, Opt. Lett. 32, 3248 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. In the actual measured efficiency that we quote here is multiplied by approximately a factor of 5 to account for the loss due to optical components.
  13. D. A. Cohen and A. F. J. Levi, Electron. Lett. 37, 37 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. Rabiei, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1968 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 333 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Hossein-Zadeh and A. F. J. Levi, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 821 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, M. Mohageg, D. V. Strekalov, and L. Maleki, Opt. Lett. 32, 157 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

A. B. Matsko, D. V. Strekalov, and N. Yu, Phys. Rev. A 77, 043812 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

2006 (4)

G. Temporao, S. Tanzilli, H. Zbinden, N. Gisin, T. Aellen, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, Opt. Lett. 31, 1094 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Hashiba, V. Antonov, L. Kulik, A. Tzalenchuk, P. Kleinschmid, S. Gibin, and S. Komiyama, Phys. Rev. B 73, 081310(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Ikushima, Y. Yoshimura, T. Hasegawa, S. Komiyama, T. Ueda, and K. Hirakawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 152110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Hossein-Zadeh and A. F. J. Levi, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 821 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

D. A. Cohen and A. F. J. Levi, Electron. Lett. 37, 37 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S. Komiyama, O. Astafiev, V. Antonov, T. Kutsuwa, and H. Hirai, Nature 403, 405 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1976 (1)

1972 (1)

W. C. Chiou and F. P. Pace, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 44 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Abbas, M. M.

Aellen, T.

Albota, M. A.

Antonov, V.

H. Hashiba, V. Antonov, L. Kulik, A. Tzalenchuk, P. Kleinschmid, S. Gibin, and S. Komiyama, Phys. Rev. B 73, 081310(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Komiyama, O. Astafiev, V. Antonov, T. Kutsuwa, and H. Hirai, Nature 403, 405 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Astafiev, O.

S. Komiyama, O. Astafiev, V. Antonov, T. Kutsuwa, and H. Hirai, Nature 403, 405 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, J. C.

Chiou, W. C.

W. C. Chiou and F. P. Pace, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 44 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, D. A.

D. A. Cohen and A. F. J. Levi, Electron. Lett. 37, 37 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dalton, L. R.

Faist, J.

Gershenson, M. E.

B. S. Karasik, D. Olaya, J. Wei, S. Pereverzev, M. E. Gershenson, J. H. Kawamura, W. R. McGrath, and A. V. Sergeev, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17, 293 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gibin, S.

H. Hashiba, V. Antonov, L. Kulik, A. Tzalenchuk, P. Kleinschmid, S. Gibin, and S. Komiyama, Phys. Rev. B 73, 081310(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

Giovannini, M.

Gisin, N.

Hasegawa, T.

K. Ikushima, Y. Yoshimura, T. Hasegawa, S. Komiyama, T. Ueda, and K. Hirakawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 152110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hashiba, H.

H. Hashiba, V. Antonov, L. Kulik, A. Tzalenchuk, P. Kleinschmid, S. Gibin, and S. Komiyama, Phys. Rev. B 73, 081310(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hirai, H.

S. Komiyama, O. Astafiev, V. Antonov, T. Kutsuwa, and H. Hirai, Nature 403, 405 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirakawa, K.

K. Ikushima, Y. Yoshimura, T. Hasegawa, S. Komiyama, T. Ueda, and K. Hirakawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 152110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hossein-Zadeh, M.

M. Hossein-Zadeh and A. F. J. Levi, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 821 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ikushima, K.

K. Ikushima, Y. Yoshimura, T. Hasegawa, S. Komiyama, T. Ueda, and K. Hirakawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 152110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ilchenko, V. S.

Karasik, B. S.

B. S. Karasik, D. Olaya, J. Wei, S. Pereverzev, M. E. Gershenson, J. H. Kawamura, W. R. McGrath, and A. V. Sergeev, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17, 293 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kaushik, S.

Kawamura, J. H.

B. S. Karasik, D. Olaya, J. Wei, S. Pereverzev, M. E. Gershenson, J. H. Kawamura, W. R. McGrath, and A. V. Sergeev, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17, 293 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Khan, M. J.

Kleinschmid, P.

H. Hashiba, V. Antonov, L. Kulik, A. Tzalenchuk, P. Kleinschmid, S. Gibin, and S. Komiyama, Phys. Rev. B 73, 081310(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

Komiyama, S.

H. Hashiba, V. Antonov, L. Kulik, A. Tzalenchuk, P. Kleinschmid, S. Gibin, and S. Komiyama, Phys. Rev. B 73, 081310(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Ikushima, Y. Yoshimura, T. Hasegawa, S. Komiyama, T. Ueda, and K. Hirakawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 152110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Komiyama, O. Astafiev, V. Antonov, T. Kutsuwa, and H. Hirai, Nature 403, 405 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kostiuk, T.

Kulik, L.

H. Hashiba, V. Antonov, L. Kulik, A. Tzalenchuk, P. Kleinschmid, S. Gibin, and S. Komiyama, Phys. Rev. B 73, 081310(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kutsuwa, T.

S. Komiyama, O. Astafiev, V. Antonov, T. Kutsuwa, and H. Hirai, Nature 403, 405 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwiat, P. G.

Levi, A. F. J.

M. Hossein-Zadeh and A. F. J. Levi, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 821 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Cohen and A. F. J. Levi, Electron. Lett. 37, 37 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Maleki, L.

Matsko, A. B.

McGrath, W. R.

B. S. Karasik, D. Olaya, J. Wei, S. Pereverzev, M. E. Gershenson, J. H. Kawamura, W. R. McGrath, and A. V. Sergeev, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17, 293 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mohageg, M.

Ogilvie, K. W.

Olaya, D.

B. S. Karasik, D. Olaya, J. Wei, S. Pereverzev, M. E. Gershenson, J. H. Kawamura, W. R. McGrath, and A. V. Sergeev, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17, 293 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pace, F. P.

W. C. Chiou and F. P. Pace, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 44 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Pereverzev, S.

B. S. Karasik, D. Olaya, J. Wei, S. Pereverzev, M. E. Gershenson, J. H. Kawamura, W. R. McGrath, and A. V. Sergeev, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17, 293 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rabiei, P.

Savchenkov, A. A.

Sergeev, A. V.

B. S. Karasik, D. Olaya, J. Wei, S. Pereverzev, M. E. Gershenson, J. H. Kawamura, W. R. McGrath, and A. V. Sergeev, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17, 293 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Steier, W. H.

Strekalov, D. V.

Tanzilli, S.

Temporao, G.

Tzalenchuk, A.

H. Hashiba, V. Antonov, L. Kulik, A. Tzalenchuk, P. Kleinschmid, S. Gibin, and S. Komiyama, Phys. Rev. B 73, 081310(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ueda, T.

K. Ikushima, Y. Yoshimura, T. Hasegawa, S. Komiyama, T. Ueda, and K. Hirakawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 152110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

VanDevender, A. P.

Wei, J.

B. S. Karasik, D. Olaya, J. Wei, S. Pereverzev, M. E. Gershenson, J. H. Kawamura, W. R. McGrath, and A. V. Sergeev, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17, 293 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wong, F. N. C.

Yoshimura, Y.

K. Ikushima, Y. Yoshimura, T. Hasegawa, S. Komiyama, T. Ueda, and K. Hirakawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 152110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yu, N.

A. B. Matsko, D. V. Strekalov, and N. Yu, Phys. Rev. A 77, 043812 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zbinden, H.

Zhang, C.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

K. Ikushima, Y. Yoshimura, T. Hasegawa, S. Komiyama, T. Ueda, and K. Hirakawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 152110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Chiou and F. P. Pace, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 44 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

D. A. Cohen and A. F. J. Levi, Electron. Lett. 37, 37 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. (1)

B. S. Karasik, D. Olaya, J. Wei, S. Pereverzev, M. E. Gershenson, J. H. Kawamura, W. R. McGrath, and A. V. Sergeev, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17, 293 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

M. Hossein-Zadeh and A. F. J. Levi, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 821 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Nature (1)

S. Komiyama, O. Astafiev, V. Antonov, T. Kutsuwa, and H. Hirai, Nature 403, 405 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

A. B. Matsko, D. V. Strekalov, and N. Yu, Phys. Rev. A 77, 043812 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

H. Hashiba, V. Antonov, L. Kulik, A. Tzalenchuk, P. Kleinschmid, S. Gibin, and S. Komiyama, Phys. Rev. B 73, 081310(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

In the actual measured efficiency that we quote here is multiplied by approximately a factor of 5 to account for the loss due to optical components.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experiment setup. The WGM resonator is coupled to the input and output free-space optical beams by a diamond prism and rf coupled to the signal field supplied by the waveguide. Inset, a photograph of interference fringes arising between the rim of the resonator disk and a flat surface.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

High-contrast optical WGM resonance.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectrum of the optical output in presence of the microwave signal. The signal power at the waveguide input is approximately 0.4 mW . The optical power at the coupling prism input is 16 mW .

Equations (4)

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P min τ < ω .
S ( ω ) Δ ω τ < ω .
sin θ = n e n d .
r R = ( cos θ ) 2 .

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