Abstract

We present and evaluate theoretically and experimentally a design for a negative-index metamaterial that is termed the “Swiss cross” structure. Compared with the established fishnet structure, the proposed design eliminates the drawback of polarization-dependent effective optical parameters. The new design is fabricated by means of e-beam technology and experimentally analyzed using spectroscopic techniques. The thorough comparison with numerical simulations reveals an effective refractive index of n=1.9 at an operational wavelength of 1400nm that is independent of the incident polarization. The resonances of the system are comprehensively discussed.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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C. Imhof and R. Zengerle, Appl. Phys. A 94, 45 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, T. Meyrath, H. Giessen, and F. Lederer, Opt. Express 16, 2080 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, Nature Mater. 7, 31 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 455, 376 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, T. Paul, F. Lederer, and T. Pertsch, Phys. Rev. B 77, 195328 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2005

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. Panoiu, K. Malloy, R. Osgood, and S. Brueck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

D. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

J. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

1972

P. Johnson and R. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Bartal, G.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 455, 376 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brueck, S.

Z. Ku and S. Brueck, Opt. Express 15, 4515 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. Panoiu, K. Malloy, R. Osgood, and S. Brueck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chipouline, A.

Christy, R.

P. Johnson and R. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Dolling, G.

Economou, E.

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, C. Soukoulis, and E. Economou, Phys. Rev. B 75, 235114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Engheta, N.

N. Engheta and R. Ziolkowski, Metamaterials: Physics and Engineering Explorations (Wiley, 2006).

Fan, W.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. Panoiu, K. Malloy, R. Osgood, and S. Brueck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, L.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, Nature Mater. 7, 31 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Genov, D.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 455, 376 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giessen, H.

Guo, H.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, Nature Mater. 7, 31 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Imhof, C.

C. Imhof and R. Zengerle, Appl. Phys. A 94, 45 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, P.

P. Johnson and R. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kafesaki, M.

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, C. Soukoulis, and E. Economou, Phys. Rev. B 75, 235114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, S.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, Nature Mater. 7, 31 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Katsarakis, N.

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, C. Soukoulis, and E. Economou, Phys. Rev. B 75, 235114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Koschny, T.

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, C. Soukoulis, and E. Economou, Phys. Rev. B 75, 235114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ku, Z.

Kuhl, J.

Lederer, F.

Li, L.

Linden, S.

Liu, N.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, Nature Mater. 7, 31 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Malloy, K.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. Panoiu, K. Malloy, R. Osgood, and S. Brueck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Markos, P.

D. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Menzel, C.

C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, T. Paul, F. Lederer, and T. Pertsch, Phys. Rev. B 77, 195328 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Meyrath, T.

Osgood, R.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. Panoiu, K. Malloy, R. Osgood, and S. Brueck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Panoiu, N.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. Panoiu, K. Malloy, R. Osgood, and S. Brueck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paul, T.

C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, T. Paul, F. Lederer, and T. Pertsch, Phys. Rev. B 77, 195328 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pendry, J.

J. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pertsch, T.

Petschulat, J.

Pshenay-Severin, E.

Rockstuhl, C.

Schultz, S.

D. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schweizer, H.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, Nature Mater. 7, 31 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D.

D. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Soukoulis, C.

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, C. Soukoulis, and E. Economou, Phys. Rev. B 75, 235114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Dolling, M. Wegener, C. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, Opt. Express 15, 11536 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tsiapa, I.

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, C. Soukoulis, and E. Economou, Phys. Rev. B 75, 235114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ulin-Avila, E.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 455, 376 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valentine, J.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 455, 376 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wegener, M.

Zengerle, R.

C. Imhof and R. Zengerle, Appl. Phys. A 94, 45 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zentgraf, T.

Zhang, S.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 455, 376 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. Panoiu, K. Malloy, R. Osgood, and S. Brueck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 455, 376 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ziolkowski, R.

N. Engheta and R. Ziolkowski, Metamaterials: Physics and Engineering Explorations (Wiley, 2006).

Appl. Phys. A

C. Imhof and R. Zengerle, Appl. Phys. A 94, 45 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Nature

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 455, 376 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature Mater.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, Nature Mater. 7, 31 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. B

C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, T. Paul, F. Lederer, and T. Pertsch, Phys. Rev. B 77, 195328 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, C. Soukoulis, and E. Economou, Phys. Rev. B 75, 235114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Johnson and R. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

D. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. Panoiu, K. Malloy, R. Osgood, and S. Brueck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

N. Engheta and R. Ziolkowski, Metamaterials: Physics and Engineering Explorations (Wiley, 2006).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the Swiss cross NIM ( x l = 310 nm , x s = 80 nm , d Au = 30 nm , and d Mg O = 37.5 nm ). (b) Bird’s eye electron micrograph of the metamaterial with a lattice constant of 410 nm . The inset shows a magnified view of a unit cell.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured (a) transmission and (b) reflection spectra of the Swiss cross metamaterial for a complete set of linear polarization states from 0° to 180° in steps of 5° at normal incidence. (c) Measured (solid curves) and calculated (dotted curves) transmission (red online) and reflection (blue online) spectra for 0° polarization. Measurements with the orthogonal polarization delivered virtually identical results. (d) Absorption spectra calculated from (c) referring to measured (solid curve) and calculated data (dotted curve).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Retrieved electric permittivity ε, (b) magnetic permeability μ, and (c) effective refractive index n.

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