Abstract

Recently, there has been growing interest in the development of photoacoustic flow measuring methods aimed to study microvascular blood flow in biological tissue. Here, we describe the M-mode photoacoustic particle flow imaging, using an optical resolution photoacoustic microscope equipped with a high-repetition-rate pulsed dye laser. We studied the flow of a diluted dyed particle suspension in a small tube embedded in a nonscattering medium as well as in a scattering medium simulating biological tissue. Potentially, the method can be applied to detect the flow speed of single red blood cells in a capillary.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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2008

2007

R. K. Wang, Phys. Med. Biol. 52, 531 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Fang, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 264103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 24, 848 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

2004

H. Y. Cheng, Q. M. Luo, Q. Liu, Q. Lu, H. Gong, and S. Q. Zeng, Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1347 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. B. Kim, J. Hertzberg, C. Lanning, and R. Shandas, Ann. Biomed. Eng. 32, 1067 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

M. L. Smith, D. S. Long, E. R. Daminao, and K. Ley, Biophys. J. 85, 637 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. E. Geortz, J. L. Yu, R. S. Kerbel, P. N. Burns, and F. S. Foster, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 29, 39 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. D. Wang, Y. J. Pang, G. Ku, X. Y. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

G. J. Diebold, A. C. Beveridge, and T. J. Hamilton, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112, 1780 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sugii, S. Nishio, and K. Okamoto, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 972, 331 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

L. Sandrin, S. Manneville, and M. Fink, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1155 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

S. I. Rabben, A. H. Torp, A. Stoylen, S. Slordahl, K. Bjornstad, B. O. Haugen, and B. Angelsen, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 26, 287 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

H. Golster, M. Linden, S. Bertuglia, A. Colantuoni, G. Nisson, and Folke Sjoberg, Microvasc. Res. 58, 62 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

P. R. Nott and J. F. Brady, J. Fluid Mech. 275, 157 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991

Angelsen, B.

S. I. Rabben, A. H. Torp, A. Stoylen, S. Slordahl, K. Bjornstad, B. O. Haugen, and B. Angelsen, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 26, 287 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bertuglia, S.

H. Golster, M. Linden, S. Bertuglia, A. Colantuoni, G. Nisson, and Folke Sjoberg, Microvasc. Res. 58, 62 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beveridge, A. C.

G. J. Diebold, A. C. Beveridge, and T. J. Hamilton, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112, 1780 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bjornstad, K.

S. I. Rabben, A. H. Torp, A. Stoylen, S. Slordahl, K. Bjornstad, B. O. Haugen, and B. Angelsen, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 26, 287 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brady, J. F.

P. R. Nott and J. F. Brady, J. Fluid Mech. 275, 157 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Burns, P. N.

D. E. Geortz, J. L. Yu, R. S. Kerbel, P. N. Burns, and F. S. Foster, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 29, 39 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. D.

Cheng, H. Y.

H. Y. Cheng, Q. M. Luo, Q. Liu, Q. Lu, H. Gong, and S. Q. Zeng, Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1347 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chiou, Y. C.

Colantuoni, A.

H. Golster, M. Linden, S. Bertuglia, A. Colantuoni, G. Nisson, and Folke Sjoberg, Microvasc. Res. 58, 62 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Daminao, E. R.

M. L. Smith, D. S. Long, E. R. Daminao, and K. Ley, Biophys. J. 85, 637 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diebold, G. J.

G. J. Diebold, A. C. Beveridge, and T. J. Hamilton, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112, 1780 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, H.

H. Fang, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 264103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fink, M.

L. Sandrin, S. Manneville, and M. Fink, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1155 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Foster, F. S.

D. E. Geortz, J. L. Yu, R. S. Kerbel, P. N. Burns, and F. S. Foster, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 29, 39 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gemert, M. J. C. V.

Geortz, D. E.

D. E. Geortz, J. L. Yu, R. S. Kerbel, P. N. Burns, and F. S. Foster, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 29, 39 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Golster, H.

H. Golster, M. Linden, S. Bertuglia, A. Colantuoni, G. Nisson, and Folke Sjoberg, Microvasc. Res. 58, 62 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gong, H.

H. Y. Cheng, Q. M. Luo, Q. Liu, Q. Lu, H. Gong, and S. Q. Zeng, Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1347 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamilton, T. J.

G. J. Diebold, A. C. Beveridge, and T. J. Hamilton, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112, 1780 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haugen, B. O.

S. I. Rabben, A. H. Torp, A. Stoylen, S. Slordahl, K. Bjornstad, B. O. Haugen, and B. Angelsen, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 26, 287 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hertzberg, J.

H. B. Kim, J. Hertzberg, C. Lanning, and R. Shandas, Ann. Biomed. Eng. 32, 1067 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, S.

Huang, S. W.

Kerbel, R. S.

D. E. Geortz, J. L. Yu, R. S. Kerbel, P. N. Burns, and F. S. Foster, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 29, 39 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. B.

H. B. Kim, J. Hertzberg, C. Lanning, and R. Shandas, Ann. Biomed. Eng. 32, 1067 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ku, G.

X. D. Wang, Y. J. Pang, G. Ku, X. Y. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lanning, C.

H. B. Kim, J. Hertzberg, C. Lanning, and R. Shandas, Ann. Biomed. Eng. 32, 1067 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ley, K.

M. L. Smith, D. S. Long, E. R. Daminao, and K. Ley, Biophys. J. 85, 637 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, P. C.

Linden, M.

H. Golster, M. Linden, S. Bertuglia, A. Colantuoni, G. Nisson, and Folke Sjoberg, Microvasc. Res. 58, 62 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Q.

H. Y. Cheng, Q. M. Luo, Q. Liu, Q. Lu, H. Gong, and S. Q. Zeng, Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1347 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Long, D. S.

M. L. Smith, D. S. Long, E. R. Daminao, and K. Ley, Biophys. J. 85, 637 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, Q.

H. Y. Cheng, Q. M. Luo, Q. Liu, Q. Lu, H. Gong, and S. Q. Zeng, Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1347 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, Q. M.

H. Y. Cheng, Q. M. Luo, Q. Liu, Q. Lu, H. Gong, and S. Q. Zeng, Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1347 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manneville, S.

L. Sandrin, S. Manneville, and M. Fink, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1155 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Marle, J. V.

Maslov, K.

K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 33, 929 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fang, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 264103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 24, 848 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moes, C. J. M.

Nishio, S.

Y. Sugii, S. Nishio, and K. Okamoto, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 972, 331 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nisson, G.

H. Golster, M. Linden, S. Bertuglia, A. Colantuoni, G. Nisson, and Folke Sjoberg, Microvasc. Res. 58, 62 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nott, P. R.

P. R. Nott and J. F. Brady, J. Fluid Mech. 275, 157 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, K.

Y. Sugii, S. Nishio, and K. Okamoto, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 972, 331 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pang, Y. J.

X. D. Wang, Y. J. Pang, G. Ku, X. Y. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prahl, S. A.

Rabben, S. I.

S. I. Rabben, A. H. Torp, A. Stoylen, S. Slordahl, K. Bjornstad, B. O. Haugen, and B. Angelsen, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 26, 287 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sandrin, L.

L. Sandrin, S. Manneville, and M. Fink, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1155 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shandas, R.

H. B. Kim, J. Hertzberg, C. Lanning, and R. Shandas, Ann. Biomed. Eng. 32, 1067 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sjoberg, Folke

H. Golster, M. Linden, S. Bertuglia, A. Colantuoni, G. Nisson, and Folke Sjoberg, Microvasc. Res. 58, 62 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slordahl, S.

S. I. Rabben, A. H. Torp, A. Stoylen, S. Slordahl, K. Bjornstad, B. O. Haugen, and B. Angelsen, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 26, 287 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, M. L.

M. L. Smith, D. S. Long, E. R. Daminao, and K. Ley, Biophys. J. 85, 637 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Staveren, H. J. V.

Stoica, G.

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 24, 848 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. D. Wang, Y. J. Pang, G. Ku, X. Y. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoylen, A.

S. I. Rabben, A. H. Torp, A. Stoylen, S. Slordahl, K. Bjornstad, B. O. Haugen, and B. Angelsen, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 26, 287 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sugii, Y.

Y. Sugii, S. Nishio, and K. Okamoto, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 972, 331 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torp, A. H.

S. I. Rabben, A. H. Torp, A. Stoylen, S. Slordahl, K. Bjornstad, B. O. Haugen, and B. Angelsen, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 26, 287 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, C. R. C.

Wang, L. V.

K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 33, 929 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. V. Wang, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 171 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Fang, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 264103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 24, 848 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. D. Wang, Y. J. Pang, G. Ku, X. Y. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, R. K.

R. K. Wang, Phys. Med. Biol. 52, 531 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. D.

X. D. Wang, Y. J. Pang, G. Ku, X. Y. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, C. W.

Xie, X. Y.

X. D. Wang, Y. J. Pang, G. Ku, X. Y. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, J. L.

D. E. Geortz, J. L. Yu, R. S. Kerbel, P. N. Burns, and F. S. Foster, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 29, 39 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, S. Q.

H. Y. Cheng, Q. M. Luo, Q. Liu, Q. Lu, H. Gong, and S. Q. Zeng, Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1347 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, H. F.

K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 33, 929 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 24, 848 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ann. Biomed. Eng.

H. B. Kim, J. Hertzberg, C. Lanning, and R. Shandas, Ann. Biomed. Eng. 32, 1067 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci.

Y. Sugii, S. Nishio, and K. Okamoto, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 972, 331 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. Fang, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 264103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Sandrin, S. Manneville, and M. Fink, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1155 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J.

M. L. Smith, D. S. Long, E. R. Daminao, and K. Ley, Biophys. J. 85, 637 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

L. V. Wang, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 171 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Acoust. Soc. Am.

G. J. Diebold, A. C. Beveridge, and T. J. Hamilton, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112, 1780 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Fluid Mech.

P. R. Nott and J. F. Brady, J. Fluid Mech. 275, 157 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Microvasc. Res.

H. Golster, M. Linden, S. Bertuglia, A. Colantuoni, G. Nisson, and Folke Sjoberg, Microvasc. Res. 58, 62 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Biotechnol.

X. D. Wang, Y. J. Pang, G. Ku, X. Y. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 24, 848 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Med. Biol.

R. K. Wang, Phys. Med. Biol. 52, 531 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Cheng, Q. M. Luo, Q. Liu, Q. Lu, H. Gong, and S. Q. Zeng, Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1347 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ultrasound Med. Biol.

D. E. Geortz, J. L. Yu, R. S. Kerbel, P. N. Burns, and F. S. Foster, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 29, 39 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Rabben, A. H. Torp, A. Stoylen, S. Slordahl, K. Bjornstad, B. O. Haugen, and B. Angelsen, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 26, 287 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of M-mode photoacoustic particle imaging system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

M-mode photoacoustic particle images from a nonscattering background medium. (a) M-mode image when the average flow speed is set as 0.22 mm s . (b) M-mode image when the average flow speed is increased to 0.88 mm s . (c) A-line signal taken from (a) at t = 200 . (d) M-mode signals taken from the images in (a) and in (b) and their Gaussian fits.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Schematic of the flow profile measurement. (b) Flow profile for the average flow speed setting of 0.88 mm s imaged from a nonscattering background medium. (c) Comparison of the M-mode signals measured in a scattering medium and a clear medium and their Gaussian fits.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

s ( t , z ) = s 0 ( z ) exp [ ( t t 0 ) 2 T ( z ) 2 ] ,
I ( x , z ) = I 0 ( z ) exp [ ( x x 0 ) 2 w ( z ) 2 ] .
p ( x ) = exp ( x 2 a 2 ) ,
I ( x , z ) = I ( x , z ) p ( x ) = I 0 ( z ) exp [ ( x x 0 ) 2 w ( z ) 2 ] ,
v ( z ) = w ( z ) T ( z ) .

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