Abstract

We report a simple and compact modal interferometer for applications in refractometry. The device consists of a stub of large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber (PCF) spliced between standard single-mode fibers. In the splice regions the voids of the PCF are fully collapsed, thus allowing the coupling and recombination of PCF core and cladding modes. The device is highly stable over time, has low temperature sensitivity, and is suitable for measuring indices in the 1.330–1.440 range. The measure of the refractive index is carried out by monitoring the shift of the interference pattern.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2008 (6)

2007 (2)

J. Villatoro, V. P. Minkovich, V. Pruneri, and G. Badenes, Opt. Express 15, 1491 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Villatoro, V. Finazzi, V. P. Minkovich, V. Pruneri, and G. Badenes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

2005 (3)

2004 (1)

P. L. Swart, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1576 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

T. Allsop, R. Reeves, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, and R. Neal, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1702 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

G. Laffont and P. Ferdinand, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 765 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

Albert, J.

Allsop, T.

T. Allsop, R. Reeves, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, and R. Neal, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1702 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Badenes, G.

R. Jha, J. Villatoro, and G. Badenes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 191106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Villatoro, V. P. Minkovich, V. Pruneri, and G. Badenes, Opt. Express 15, 1491 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Villatoro, V. Finazzi, V. P. Minkovich, V. Pruneri, and G. Badenes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bang, O.

Bennion, I.

K. Zhou, L. Zhang, X. Chen, and I. Bennion, Opt. Lett. 31, 1193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Allsop, R. Reeves, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, and R. Neal, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1702 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bigot, L.

Blanc, W.

Bock, W. J.

Bouwmans, G.

Calixto, S.

Chen, C.

Chen, X.

Choi, S. S.

Cooper, K. L.

Cusano, A.

Dewynter, V.

Du, H.

Y. Zhu, Z. He, and H. Du, Sens. Actuators B 131, 265 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dussardier, B.

Farrell, G.

Ferdinand, P.

Finazzi, V.

J. Villatoro, V. Finazzi, V. P. Minkovich, V. Pruneri, and G. Badenes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Foglia Manzillo, P.

Giordano, M.

He, Z.

Y. Zhu, Z. He, and H. Du, Sens. Actuators B 131, 265 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huy, M. C. P.

Jang, J. N.

Jha, R.

R. Jha, J. Villatoro, and G. Badenes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 191106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jung, Y.

Y. Jung, S. Kim, D. Lee, and K. Oh, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1129 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. W.

Kim, S.

Y. Jung, S. Kim, D. Lee, and K. Oh, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1129 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Korwin-Pawlowski, M. L.

Labonte, L.

Laffont, G.

Laronche, A.

Lee, B. H.

Lee, D.

Y. Jung, S. Kim, D. Lee, and K. Oh, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1129 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. B.

Liu, Y.

Loock, H.

Minkovich, V.

Minkovich, V. P.

J. Villatoro, V. Finazzi, V. P. Minkovich, V. Pruneri, and G. Badenes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Villatoro, V. P. Minkovich, V. Pruneri, and G. Badenes, Opt. Express 15, 1491 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mo, Q. J.

T. Zhu, Y. J. Rao, and Q. J. Mo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2700 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Monzon-Hernandez, D.

Neal, R.

T. Allsop, R. Reeves, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, and R. Neal, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1702 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Oh, K.

Y. Jung, S. Kim, D. Lee, and K. Oh, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1129 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pagnoux, D.

Pilla, P.

Pruneri, V.

J. Villatoro, V. Finazzi, V. P. Minkovich, V. Pruneri, and G. Badenes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Villatoro, V. P. Minkovich, V. Pruneri, and G. Badenes, Opt. Express 15, 1491 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quiquempois, Y.

Rao, Y. J.

T. Zhu, Y. J. Rao, and Q. J. Mo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2700 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Reeves, R.

T. Allsop, R. Reeves, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, and R. Neal, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1702 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rindorf, L.

Roy, P.

Sotskaya, L.

Sotsky, A.

Swart, P. L.

P. L. Swart, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1576 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tian, Z.

Villatoro, J.

R. Jha, J. Villatoro, and G. Badenes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 191106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Villatoro, V. Finazzi, V. P. Minkovich, V. Pruneri, and G. Badenes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Villatoro, V. P. Minkovich, V. Pruneri, and G. Badenes, Opt. Express 15, 1491 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Minkovich, J. Villatoro, D. Monzon-Hernandez, S. Calixto, A. Sotsky, and L. Sotskaya, Opt. Express 13, 7609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, A.

Wang, Q.

Webb, D. J.

T. Allsop, R. Reeves, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, and R. Neal, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1702 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yam, S. S.

Zhang, L.

Zhang, Y.

Zhou, K.

Zhu, T.

T. Zhu, Y. J. Rao, and Q. J. Mo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2700 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Y.

Y. Zhu, Z. He, and H. Du, Sens. Actuators B 131, 265 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. Villatoro, V. Finazzi, V. P. Minkovich, V. Pruneri, and G. Badenes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Jha, J. Villatoro, and G. Badenes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 191106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

T. Zhu, Y. J. Rao, and Q. J. Mo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2700 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (3)

G. Laffont and P. Ferdinand, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 765 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jung, S. Kim, D. Lee, and K. Oh, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1129 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Swart, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1576 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

T. Allsop, R. Reeves, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, and R. Neal, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1702 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B (1)

Y. Zhu, Z. He, and H. Du, Sens. Actuators B 131, 265 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup, micrograph of the PCF used, and drawing of the interferometer. SMF, single-mode fiber; LED, light-emitting diode; OSA, optical spectrum analyzer; L, length of PCF.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Shift in interference pattern as a function of temperature. Top inset, drift as a function of time observed in 80 mm long interferometer. Bottom inset, interference pattern of the same device over 50 nm in air.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Shift of the interference pattern as a function of the external refractive index observed in a device with L = 17 mm . The solid circles are experimental data, and the continuous curve is a fitting to the data. Shift ( nm ) = 3.29163 + A [ exp ( R I 0.02659 ) ] shows the expression that fits to the experimental points with A = 4.75282 × 10 23 . Inset, transmission spectra of the device in air and water.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Shift of the interference pattern as a function of the external refractive index observed in a device with L = 32 mm . The solid circles are experimental data, and the continuous curve is a fitting to the data. Shift ( nm ) = 2.05046 + B [ exp ( R I 0.02503 ) ] shows the expression that fits to the experimental points with B = 2.3650 × 10 24 . Inset, transmission spectra of the device in air and in liquid with an index of 1.380.

Equations (1)

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T ( λ ) = I co ( λ ) + I cl ( λ ) + 2 [ I co ( λ ) I cl ( λ ) ] 1 2 cos ( 2 π Δ n ef L λ ) ,

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