Abstract

We demonstrated a tunable molding process to fabricate aspherical polymer lenses that can reduce aberrations and the total length of an optical system. Radius of curvature and conic constant are shown to be the key parameters to characterize the lens profile. The good agreement between the measured profiles and the simulated profiles allows us to design and fabricate lenses of a wide range of user-specified properties. Compared to the conventional aspherical lens fabrication method using injection molding with a diamond-turned mold, the proposed method may yield savings in time and cost.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Deegan, W. Hurley, B. Bundschuh, and K. Walsh, Precision Glass Molding Technical Brief (Rochester Precision Optics, 2007).
  2. Y. Aono, M. Negishi, and J. Takano, Proc. SPIE 4231, 16-3 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Zhang, N. Justis, and Y.-H. Lo, Opt. Lett. 29, 2855 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Zhang, N. Justis, and Y.-H. Lo, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 97 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. S. Tsai, S. H. Cho, Y. H. Lo, B. Vasko, and J. Vasko, Opt. Lett. 33, 291 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. N. Sugiura and S. Morita, Appl. Opt. 32, 4181 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. E. Fischer and B. Tadic-galeb, Optical System Design (McGraw-Hill, 2000).
  8. S. J. Lee and J. C. Chan, J. Micromech. Microeng. 17, 843 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. R. Rammage, D. R. Neal, and R. J. Copland, Proc. SPIE 4779, 161 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. W. Lee and S. S. Lee, Microsyst. Technol. 14, 205 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (2)

2007 (1)

S. J. Lee and J. C. Chan, J. Micromech. Microeng. 17, 843 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

D. Zhang, N. Justis, and Y.-H. Lo, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 97 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

R. R. Rammage, D. R. Neal, and R. J. Copland, Proc. SPIE 4779, 161 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

Y. Aono, M. Negishi, and J. Takano, Proc. SPIE 4231, 16-3 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

Aono, Y.

Y. Aono, M. Negishi, and J. Takano, Proc. SPIE 4231, 16-3 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bundschuh, B.

J. Deegan, W. Hurley, B. Bundschuh, and K. Walsh, Precision Glass Molding Technical Brief (Rochester Precision Optics, 2007).

Chan, J. C.

S. J. Lee and J. C. Chan, J. Micromech. Microeng. 17, 843 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S. H.

Copland, R. J.

R. R. Rammage, D. R. Neal, and R. J. Copland, Proc. SPIE 4779, 161 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Deegan, J.

J. Deegan, W. Hurley, B. Bundschuh, and K. Walsh, Precision Glass Molding Technical Brief (Rochester Precision Optics, 2007).

Fischer, R. E.

R. E. Fischer and B. Tadic-galeb, Optical System Design (McGraw-Hill, 2000).

Hurley, W.

J. Deegan, W. Hurley, B. Bundschuh, and K. Walsh, Precision Glass Molding Technical Brief (Rochester Precision Optics, 2007).

Justis, N.

D. Zhang, N. Justis, and Y.-H. Lo, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 97 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhang, N. Justis, and Y.-H. Lo, Opt. Lett. 29, 2855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. J.

S. J. Lee and J. C. Chan, J. Micromech. Microeng. 17, 843 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. S.

S. W. Lee and S. S. Lee, Microsyst. Technol. 14, 205 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. W.

S. W. Lee and S. S. Lee, Microsyst. Technol. 14, 205 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lo, Y. H.

Lo, Y.-H.

D. Zhang, N. Justis, and Y.-H. Lo, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 97 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhang, N. Justis, and Y.-H. Lo, Opt. Lett. 29, 2855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Morita, S.

Neal, D. R.

R. R. Rammage, D. R. Neal, and R. J. Copland, Proc. SPIE 4779, 161 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Negishi, M.

Y. Aono, M. Negishi, and J. Takano, Proc. SPIE 4231, 16-3 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rammage, R. R.

R. R. Rammage, D. R. Neal, and R. J. Copland, Proc. SPIE 4779, 161 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sugiura, N.

Tadic-galeb, B.

R. E. Fischer and B. Tadic-galeb, Optical System Design (McGraw-Hill, 2000).

Takano, J.

Y. Aono, M. Negishi, and J. Takano, Proc. SPIE 4231, 16-3 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, F. S.

Vasko, B.

Vasko, J.

Walsh, K.

J. Deegan, W. Hurley, B. Bundschuh, and K. Walsh, Precision Glass Molding Technical Brief (Rochester Precision Optics, 2007).

Zhang, D.

D. Zhang, N. Justis, and Y.-H. Lo, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 97 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhang, N. Justis, and Y.-H. Lo, Opt. Lett. 29, 2855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. Zhang, N. Justis, and Y.-H. Lo, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 97 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

S. J. Lee and J. C. Chan, J. Micromech. Microeng. 17, 843 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Microsyst. Technol. (1)

S. W. Lee and S. S. Lee, Microsyst. Technol. 14, 205 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. SPIE (2)

Y. Aono, M. Negishi, and J. Takano, Proc. SPIE 4231, 16-3 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Rammage, D. R. Neal, and R. J. Copland, Proc. SPIE 4779, 161 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

R. E. Fischer and B. Tadic-galeb, Optical System Design (McGraw-Hill, 2000).

J. Deegan, W. Hurley, B. Bundschuh, and K. Walsh, Precision Glass Molding Technical Brief (Rochester Precision Optics, 2007).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Process flow of PDMS lens casting: (a) achieve the desired curvature by controlling the fluid volume and/or pressure, (b) pour PDMS prepolymer onto the fluid-filled mold and cure, (c) a plano–convex lens fabricated from liquid-filled mold casting.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Measurement setup using a Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor to measure the lens profile. (b) Distorted wavefront from the lens-under-test is relayed and imaged onto the wavefront sensor. The aspherical profile of the lens is then calculated from the measured wavefront at the exit pupil (dotted curve).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured relationship between the curvatures and the conic constants of the fixed-focused lenses (dots). The simulated result (curve) was from a liquid-filled mold with a 200 - μ m -thick PDMS membrane and 10% prestretch.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Curvature versus conic constant of aspherical PDMS lenses. The amount of prestretch and the thickness of the membrane are used as adjustable parameters.

Equations (1)

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z ( r ) = c r 2 1 + 1 ( 1 + k ) c 2 r 2 .

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