Abstract

A high-speed compact silicon modulator based on the lateral capacitor configuration is experimentally demonstrated with low-power consumption and 3dB modulation depth. The capacitor layout is introduced to scale down the total modulator capacitance to 30×1015F, which effectively reduces the rf power consumption to 0.54pJbit. Exploiting the slow group velocity of light in the slot photonic crystal waveguides, the device reported herein exhibits higher modulation efficiency than conventional capacitor modulator and provides a VπL figure of merit of 0.18Vcm at the wavelength of 1548nm.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2007 (7)

2005 (3)

Y. Jiang, W. Jiang, L. Gu, X. Chen, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 221105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, M. Morse, A. Liu, D. Hodge, D. Rubin, U. D. Keil, and T. Franck, Opt. Express 13, 3129 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

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R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, A.

A. Agarwal and J. H. Lang, Foundations of Analog and Digital Electronic Circuits, 1st ed. (Morgan Kaufmann, 2005), p. 596.

Almeida, V. R.

Barrios, C. A.

C. A. Barrios, V. R. Almeida, R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2332 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Blasco and C. A. Barrios, Proceedings of the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe (IEEE, 2005), p. 607.
[CrossRef]

Barwicz, T.

Bennett, B. R.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Blasco, J.

J. Blasco and C. A. Barrios, Proceedings of the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe (IEEE, 2005), p. 607.
[CrossRef]

Byun, H.

Chen, R. T.

L. Gu, W. Jiang, X. Chen, L. Wang, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 071105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, W. Jiang, L. Gu, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Jiang, L. Gu, X. Chen, and R. T. Chen, Solid-State Electron. 51, 1278 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jiang, W. Jiang, L. Gu, X. Chen, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 221105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

W. Jiang, L. Gu, X. Chen, and R. T. Chen, Solid-State Electron. 51, 1278 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, W. Jiang, L. Gu, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Gu, W. Jiang, X. Chen, L. Wang, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 071105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jiang, W. Jiang, L. Gu, X. Chen, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 221105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chetrit, Y.

Ciftcioglu, B.

Cohen, O.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franck, T.

Gan, F.

Geis, M.

Green, W. M. J.

Grein, M.

Gu, L.

X. Chen, W. Jiang, L. Gu, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Gu, W. Jiang, X. Chen, L. Wang, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 071105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Jiang, L. Gu, X. Chen, and R. T. Chen, Solid-State Electron. 51, 1278 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jiang, W. Jiang, L. Gu, X. Chen, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 221105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hamann, H. F.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O' Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, Nature 438, 65 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hodge, D.

Holzwarth, C. W.

Hoyt, J. L.

Ippen, E. P.

Izhaky, N.

Jiang, W.

L. Gu, W. Jiang, X. Chen, L. Wang, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 071105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, W. Jiang, L. Gu, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Jiang, L. Gu, X. Chen, and R. T. Chen, Solid-State Electron. 51, 1278 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jiang, W. Jiang, L. Gu, X. Chen, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 221105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Y.

Y. Jiang, W. Jiang, L. Gu, X. Chen, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 221105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kartner, F. X.

Keil, U. D.

Lang, J. H.

A. Agarwal and J. H. Lang, Foundations of Analog and Digital Electronic Circuits, 1st ed. (Morgan Kaufmann, 2005), p. 596.

Liao, L.

Lipson, M.

Liu, A.

Lyszczarz, T.

Manipatruni, S.

McNab, S. J.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O' Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, Nature 438, 65 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morse, M.

Ng, K. K.

S. M. Sze and K. K. Ng, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 3rd ed. (Wiley, 2007), p. 233.

Nguyen, H.

Nicolaescu, R.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O' Boyle, M.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O' Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, Nature 438, 65 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olubuyide, O. O.

Orcutt, J. S.

Panepucci, R.

Paniccia, M.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, Opt. Express 15, 660 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popovic, M. A.

Rakich, P. T.

Ram, R. J.

Rooks, M. J.

Rubin, D.

Samara-Rubio, D.

L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, M. Morse, A. Liu, D. Hodge, D. Rubin, U. D. Keil, and T. Franck, Opt. Express 13, 3129 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, B.

Sekaric, L.

Shakya, J.

Smith, H. I.

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Spector, S.

Stojanovic, V.

Sze, S. M.

S. M. Sze and K. K. Ng, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 3rd ed. (Wiley, 2007), p. 233.

Vlasov, Y. A.

Wang, L.

L. Gu, W. Jiang, X. Chen, L. Wang, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 071105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Watts, M. R.

Xu, Q.

Yoon, J. U.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

L. Gu, W. Jiang, X. Chen, L. Wang, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 071105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, W. Jiang, L. Gu, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jiang, W. Jiang, L. Gu, X. Chen, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 221105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Netw. (1)

Nature (2)

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O' Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, Nature 438, 65 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Solid-State Electron. (1)

W. Jiang, L. Gu, X. Chen, and R. T. Chen, Solid-State Electron. 51, 1278 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

A. Agarwal and J. H. Lang, Foundations of Analog and Digital Electronic Circuits, 1st ed. (Morgan Kaufmann, 2005), p. 596.

S. M. Sze and K. K. Ng, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 3rd ed. (Wiley, 2007), p. 233.

J. Blasco and C. A. Barrios, Proceedings of the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe (IEEE, 2005), p. 607.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematics and calculation results. (a) Top and cross-sectional views of a lateral capacitor-embedded photonic crystal waveguide. The cross-sectional view shows the simulated two-dimensional field amplitude contour. (b) Dispersion diagram of the slot photonic crystal waveguide. The thick line is the light line. The thin curves indicate the defect modes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated profiles of (a) the hole carriers and (b) the corresponding refractive index changes under different driving voltages.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Overall modulator schematic and image of the fabricated device. Microscopic image of a capacitor-embedded photonic crystal Mach–Zehnder interferometer, where colored overlays indicate the p and p + regions. The inset is a scanning electron microscopy image of one end of the slot PCW.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Modulation measurement results. (a) Optical intensity at the modulator output and the leakage current as a function of the static driving voltage. (b) Normalized output optical intensities of the modulator working at 1.6 Gbit s .

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