Abstract

Frequency-shifted solitons in a highly nonlinear photonic-crystal fiber (PCF) are shown to give rise to high-visibility interference fringes in PCF output spectra, indicating flat spectral phase profiles of individual solitons in the PCF output. This experimental finding, supported by numerical simulations, suggests a promising method of fiber-format pulse shaping and an attractive technology for few-cycle pulse synthesis through a coherent addition of frequency-shifted solitons generated in a highly nonlinear fiber.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, Science 301, 1702 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, P. S. Light, and M. G. Raymer, Science 318, 1118 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

P. B. Corkum and F. Krausz, Nat. Phys. 3, 381 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rep. 441, 47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, P. S. Light, and M. G. Raymer, Science 318, 1118 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

A. A. Ivanov, A. A. Podshivalov, and A. M. Zheltikov, Opt. Lett. 31, 3318 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Zheltikov, Phys. Usp. 49, 605 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 79, 673 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

P. St.J. Russell, Science 299, 358 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, Nature 424, 847 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, Science 301, 1702 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

N. Zhavoronkov and G. Korn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 203901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, Nature 418, 512 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 545 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2001).

Ahmad, F. R.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, Science 301, 1702 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benabid, F.

F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, P. S. Light, and M. G. Raymer, Science 318, 1118 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergé, L.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Biegert, J.

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 79, 673 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brabec, T.

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 545 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Coen, S.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

P. B. Corkum and F. Krausz, Nat. Phys. 3, 381 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Couairon, A.

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rep. 441, 47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 79, 673 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Couny, F.

F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, P. S. Light, and M. G. Raymer, Science 318, 1118 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dudley, J. M.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dudovich, N.

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, Nature 418, 512 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaeta, A. L.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, Science 301, 1702 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gallagher, M. T.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, Science 301, 1702 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Genty, G.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hauri, C. P.

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 79, 673 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Heinrich, A.

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 79, 673 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Helbing, F. W.

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 79, 673 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, A. A.

Kasparian, J.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Keller, U.

B. Schenkel, R. Paschotta, and U. Keller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 687 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 79, 673 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J. C.

J. C. Knight, Nature 424, 847 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koch, K. W.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, Science 301, 1702 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Korn, G.

N. Zhavoronkov and G. Korn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 203901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kornelis, W.

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 79, 673 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Krausz, F.

P. B. Corkum and F. Krausz, Nat. Phys. 3, 381 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 545 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Zheltikov, A. L'Huillier, and F. Krausz, in Handbook of Lasers and Optics, F.Träger, ed. (Springer, 2007), p. 157.
[CrossRef]

L'Huillier, A.

A. M. Zheltikov, A. L'Huillier, and F. Krausz, in Handbook of Lasers and Optics, F.Träger, ed. (Springer, 2007), p. 157.
[CrossRef]

Light, P. S.

F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, P. S. Light, and M. G. Raymer, Science 318, 1118 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Müller, D.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, Science 301, 1702 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mysyrowicz, A.

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rep. 441, 47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 79, 673 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nuter, R.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oron, D.

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, Nature 418, 512 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ouzounov, D. G.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, Science 301, 1702 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paschotta, R.

Podshivalov, A. A.

Raymer, M. G.

F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, P. S. Light, and M. G. Raymer, Science 318, 1118 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roberts, P. J.

F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, P. S. Light, and M. G. Raymer, Science 318, 1118 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russell, P. St.J.

P. St.J. Russell, Science 299, 358 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schenkel, B.

Shen, Y. R.

Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, 1984).

Silberberg, Y.

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, Nature 418, 512 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silcox, J.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, Science 301, 1702 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skupin, S.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, M. G.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, Science 301, 1702 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Venkataraman, N.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, Science 301, 1702 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, J.-P.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhavoronkov, N.

N. Zhavoronkov and G. Korn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 203901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheltikov, A. M.

A. M. Zheltikov, Phys. Usp. 49, 605 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Ivanov, A. A. Podshivalov, and A. M. Zheltikov, Opt. Lett. 31, 3318 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Zheltikov, A. L'Huillier, and F. Krausz, in Handbook of Lasers and Optics, F.Träger, ed. (Springer, 2007), p. 157.
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 79, 673 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Nat. Phys.

P. B. Corkum and F. Krausz, Nat. Phys. 3, 381 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature

J. C. Knight, Nature 424, 847 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, Nature 418, 512 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rep.

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rep. 441, 47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

N. Zhavoronkov and G. Korn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 203901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Usp.

A. M. Zheltikov, Phys. Usp. 49, 605 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 545 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Science

P. St.J. Russell, Science 299, 358 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, P. S. Light, and M. G. Raymer, Science 318, 1118 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, Science 301, 1702 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2001).

Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, 1984).

A. M. Zheltikov, A. L'Huillier, and F. Krausz, in Handbook of Lasers and Optics, F.Träger, ed. (Springer, 2007), p. 157.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectra of the input Ti:sapphire laser pulses (dashed curve) and pulses transmitted through a photonic-crystal fiber with a length of 1.5 m and cross-section structure shown in the inset (solid curve). The energy of input laser pulses is (a) 0.6 and (b) 7 nJ .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Interference fringes in the experimental spectrum of PCF output (filled circles) and theoretical fit of the experimental data with three solitons in accordance with Eq. (1) with parameters specified in the text (solid curve). The dashed line shows the profile of the group delay used to transform the three-soliton PCF output into an ultrashort light pulse. (b) Temporal envelope (solid curve) and the phase (dashed curve) of the pulse synthesized after such a group-delay compensation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectrum of laser pulses with an initial central wavelength of 1250 nm , a pulse width of 100 fs , and an energy of 30 nJ transmitted through a 5 cm piece of nonlinear fiber with parameters specified in the text. The dashed line shows the profile of the group delay used to transform the five-soliton PCF output into a few-cycle light pulse. The inset shows the temporal envelope (solid curve) and the phase (dashed curve) of the pulse synthesized upon such a group-delay compensation.

Equations (1)

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E ( θ ) = m = 1 M A m sec h ( θ Δ m τ m ) exp [ i ( ϕ m 2 π ν m θ ) ] ,

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