Abstract

A passively stabilized third-order optical interferometer that spatially separates the local oscillator and signal generation is demonstrated with long-term phase stability. The lack of spatial overlap eliminates unwanted contamination of either field. Fully independent optical control over both fields is exerted after the sample. This independence is taken advantage of with what we believe to be a new approach to scanning the relative phase between the local oscillator and signal that has very high precision and reproducibility. The independence of the fields is also exploited in a flexible balanced heterodyne detection scheme.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Mukamel, Principles of Nonlinear Optical Spectroscopy (Oxford U. Press, 1995).
  2. Y. J. Chang, P. Cong, and J. D. Simon, J. Phys. Chem. 99, 7857 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. J. Fecko, J. D. Eaves, and A. Tokmakoff, J. Chem. Phys. 117, 1139 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. N. T. Hunt, A. A. Jaye, and S. R. Meech, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 9, 2167 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. G. D. Goodno, G. Dadusc, and R. J. D. Miller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1791 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. A. Maznev, K. A. Nelson, and J. A. Rogers, Opt. Lett. 23, 1319 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. D. Goodno and R. J. D. Miller, J. Phys. Chem. A 103, 10619 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. D. Goodno, V. Astinov, and R. J. D. Miller, J. Phys. Chem. A 103, 10630 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. L. Cowan, J. P. Ogilvie, and R. J. D. Miller, Chem. Phys. Lett. 386, 184 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Brixner, T. Mančal, I. V. Stiopkin, and G. R. Fleming, J. Chem. Phys. 121, 4221 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Khalil, N. Demirdoven, O. Golonzka, C. J. Fecko, and A. Tokmakoff, J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 5711 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Q.-H. Xu, Y.-Z. Ma, and G. R. Fleming, Chem. Phys. Lett. 338, 254 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. M. Gallagher, A. W. Albrecht, J. D. Hybl, B. L. Landin, B. Rajaram, and D. M. Jonas, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 2338 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. F. Underwood and D. A. Blank, J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 956 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Etchepare, G. Grillon, J. P. Chambaret, G. Hamoniaux, and A. Orszag, Opt. Commun. 63, 329 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Ogilvie, M. Plazanet, G. Dadusc, and R. Miller, J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 10460 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. Giraud, C. M. Gordon, I. R. Dunkin, and K. Wynne, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 464 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. J. Milne, Y. L. Li, T. L. C. Jansen, L. Huang, and R. J. D. Miller, J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 19867 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. D. McMorrow, N. Thantu, V. Kleiman, J. S. Melinger, and W. T. Lotshaw, J. Phys. Chem. A 105, 7960 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

N. T. Hunt, A. A. Jaye, and S. R. Meech, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 9, 2167 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

C. J. Milne, Y. L. Li, T. L. C. Jansen, L. Huang, and R. J. D. Miller, J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 19867 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

M. L. Cowan, J. P. Ogilvie, and R. J. D. Miller, Chem. Phys. Lett. 386, 184 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Brixner, T. Mančal, I. V. Stiopkin, and G. R. Fleming, J. Chem. Phys. 121, 4221 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

D. F. Underwood and D. A. Blank, J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 956 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Giraud, C. M. Gordon, I. R. Dunkin, and K. Wynne, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 464 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

J. Ogilvie, M. Plazanet, G. Dadusc, and R. Miller, J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 10460 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Fecko, J. D. Eaves, and A. Tokmakoff, J. Chem. Phys. 117, 1139 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

Q.-H. Xu, Y.-Z. Ma, and G. R. Fleming, Chem. Phys. Lett. 338, 254 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. McMorrow, N. Thantu, V. Kleiman, J. S. Melinger, and W. T. Lotshaw, J. Phys. Chem. A 105, 7960 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

M. Khalil, N. Demirdoven, O. Golonzka, C. J. Fecko, and A. Tokmakoff, J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 5711 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

G. D. Goodno and R. J. D. Miller, J. Phys. Chem. A 103, 10619 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Goodno, V. Astinov, and R. J. D. Miller, J. Phys. Chem. A 103, 10630 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

1995 (1)

Y. J. Chang, P. Cong, and J. D. Simon, J. Phys. Chem. 99, 7857 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

J. Etchepare, G. Grillon, J. P. Chambaret, G. Hamoniaux, and A. Orszag, Opt. Commun. 63, 329 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Albrecht, A. W.

Astinov, V.

G. D. Goodno, V. Astinov, and R. J. D. Miller, J. Phys. Chem. A 103, 10630 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Blank, D. A.

D. F. Underwood and D. A. Blank, J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 956 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brixner, T.

T. Brixner, T. Mančal, I. V. Stiopkin, and G. R. Fleming, J. Chem. Phys. 121, 4221 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chambaret, J. P.

J. Etchepare, G. Grillon, J. P. Chambaret, G. Hamoniaux, and A. Orszag, Opt. Commun. 63, 329 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y. J.

Y. J. Chang, P. Cong, and J. D. Simon, J. Phys. Chem. 99, 7857 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cong, P.

Y. J. Chang, P. Cong, and J. D. Simon, J. Phys. Chem. 99, 7857 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cowan, M. L.

M. L. Cowan, J. P. Ogilvie, and R. J. D. Miller, Chem. Phys. Lett. 386, 184 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dadusc, G.

J. Ogilvie, M. Plazanet, G. Dadusc, and R. Miller, J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 10460 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Goodno, G. Dadusc, and R. J. D. Miller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1791 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Demirdoven, N.

M. Khalil, N. Demirdoven, O. Golonzka, C. J. Fecko, and A. Tokmakoff, J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 5711 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dunkin, I. R.

G. Giraud, C. M. Gordon, I. R. Dunkin, and K. Wynne, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 464 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eaves, J. D.

C. J. Fecko, J. D. Eaves, and A. Tokmakoff, J. Chem. Phys. 117, 1139 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Etchepare, J.

J. Etchepare, G. Grillon, J. P. Chambaret, G. Hamoniaux, and A. Orszag, Opt. Commun. 63, 329 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Fecko, C. J.

C. J. Fecko, J. D. Eaves, and A. Tokmakoff, J. Chem. Phys. 117, 1139 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Khalil, N. Demirdoven, O. Golonzka, C. J. Fecko, and A. Tokmakoff, J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 5711 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fleming, G. R.

T. Brixner, T. Mančal, I. V. Stiopkin, and G. R. Fleming, J. Chem. Phys. 121, 4221 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q.-H. Xu, Y.-Z. Ma, and G. R. Fleming, Chem. Phys. Lett. 338, 254 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gallagher, S. M.

Giraud, G.

G. Giraud, C. M. Gordon, I. R. Dunkin, and K. Wynne, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 464 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Golonzka, O.

M. Khalil, N. Demirdoven, O. Golonzka, C. J. Fecko, and A. Tokmakoff, J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 5711 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Goodno, G. D.

G. D. Goodno, V. Astinov, and R. J. D. Miller, J. Phys. Chem. A 103, 10630 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Goodno and R. J. D. Miller, J. Phys. Chem. A 103, 10619 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Goodno, G. Dadusc, and R. J. D. Miller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1791 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, C. M.

G. Giraud, C. M. Gordon, I. R. Dunkin, and K. Wynne, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 464 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Grillon, G.

J. Etchepare, G. Grillon, J. P. Chambaret, G. Hamoniaux, and A. Orszag, Opt. Commun. 63, 329 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hamoniaux, G.

J. Etchepare, G. Grillon, J. P. Chambaret, G. Hamoniaux, and A. Orszag, Opt. Commun. 63, 329 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Huang, L.

C. J. Milne, Y. L. Li, T. L. C. Jansen, L. Huang, and R. J. D. Miller, J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 19867 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hunt, N. T.

N. T. Hunt, A. A. Jaye, and S. R. Meech, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 9, 2167 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hybl, J. D.

Jansen, T. L. C.

C. J. Milne, Y. L. Li, T. L. C. Jansen, L. Huang, and R. J. D. Miller, J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 19867 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jaye, A. A.

N. T. Hunt, A. A. Jaye, and S. R. Meech, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 9, 2167 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jonas, D. M.

Khalil, M.

M. Khalil, N. Demirdoven, O. Golonzka, C. J. Fecko, and A. Tokmakoff, J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 5711 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kleiman, V.

D. McMorrow, N. Thantu, V. Kleiman, J. S. Melinger, and W. T. Lotshaw, J. Phys. Chem. A 105, 7960 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Landin, B. L.

Li, Y. L.

C. J. Milne, Y. L. Li, T. L. C. Jansen, L. Huang, and R. J. D. Miller, J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 19867 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lotshaw, W. T.

D. McMorrow, N. Thantu, V. Kleiman, J. S. Melinger, and W. T. Lotshaw, J. Phys. Chem. A 105, 7960 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Y.-Z.

Q.-H. Xu, Y.-Z. Ma, and G. R. Fleming, Chem. Phys. Lett. 338, 254 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mancal, T.

T. Brixner, T. Mančal, I. V. Stiopkin, and G. R. Fleming, J. Chem. Phys. 121, 4221 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maznev, A. A.

McMorrow, D.

D. McMorrow, N. Thantu, V. Kleiman, J. S. Melinger, and W. T. Lotshaw, J. Phys. Chem. A 105, 7960 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Meech, S. R.

N. T. Hunt, A. A. Jaye, and S. R. Meech, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 9, 2167 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Melinger, J. S.

D. McMorrow, N. Thantu, V. Kleiman, J. S. Melinger, and W. T. Lotshaw, J. Phys. Chem. A 105, 7960 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Miller, R.

J. Ogilvie, M. Plazanet, G. Dadusc, and R. Miller, J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 10460 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Miller, R. J. D.

C. J. Milne, Y. L. Li, T. L. C. Jansen, L. Huang, and R. J. D. Miller, J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 19867 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Cowan, J. P. Ogilvie, and R. J. D. Miller, Chem. Phys. Lett. 386, 184 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Goodno, V. Astinov, and R. J. D. Miller, J. Phys. Chem. A 103, 10630 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Goodno and R. J. D. Miller, J. Phys. Chem. A 103, 10619 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Goodno, G. Dadusc, and R. J. D. Miller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1791 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Milne, C. J.

C. J. Milne, Y. L. Li, T. L. C. Jansen, L. Huang, and R. J. D. Miller, J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 19867 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mukamel, S.

S. Mukamel, Principles of Nonlinear Optical Spectroscopy (Oxford U. Press, 1995).

Nelson, K. A.

Ogilvie, J.

J. Ogilvie, M. Plazanet, G. Dadusc, and R. Miller, J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 10460 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ogilvie, J. P.

M. L. Cowan, J. P. Ogilvie, and R. J. D. Miller, Chem. Phys. Lett. 386, 184 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Orszag, A.

J. Etchepare, G. Grillon, J. P. Chambaret, G. Hamoniaux, and A. Orszag, Opt. Commun. 63, 329 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Plazanet, M.

J. Ogilvie, M. Plazanet, G. Dadusc, and R. Miller, J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 10460 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rajaram, B.

Rogers, J. A.

Simon, J. D.

Y. J. Chang, P. Cong, and J. D. Simon, J. Phys. Chem. 99, 7857 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stiopkin, I. V.

T. Brixner, T. Mančal, I. V. Stiopkin, and G. R. Fleming, J. Chem. Phys. 121, 4221 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thantu, N.

D. McMorrow, N. Thantu, V. Kleiman, J. S. Melinger, and W. T. Lotshaw, J. Phys. Chem. A 105, 7960 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tokmakoff, A.

C. J. Fecko, J. D. Eaves, and A. Tokmakoff, J. Chem. Phys. 117, 1139 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Khalil, N. Demirdoven, O. Golonzka, C. J. Fecko, and A. Tokmakoff, J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 5711 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Underwood, D. F.

D. F. Underwood and D. A. Blank, J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 956 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wynne, K.

G. Giraud, C. M. Gordon, I. R. Dunkin, and K. Wynne, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 464 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q.-H.

Q.-H. Xu, Y.-Z. Ma, and G. R. Fleming, Chem. Phys. Lett. 338, 254 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (2)

Q.-H. Xu, Y.-Z. Ma, and G. R. Fleming, Chem. Phys. Lett. 338, 254 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Cowan, J. P. Ogilvie, and R. J. D. Miller, Chem. Phys. Lett. 386, 184 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (3)

T. Brixner, T. Mančal, I. V. Stiopkin, and G. R. Fleming, J. Chem. Phys. 121, 4221 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Giraud, C. M. Gordon, I. R. Dunkin, and K. Wynne, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 464 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Fecko, J. D. Eaves, and A. Tokmakoff, J. Chem. Phys. 117, 1139 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

Y. J. Chang, P. Cong, and J. D. Simon, J. Phys. Chem. 99, 7857 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. A (5)

G. D. Goodno and R. J. D. Miller, J. Phys. Chem. A 103, 10619 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Goodno, V. Astinov, and R. J. D. Miller, J. Phys. Chem. A 103, 10630 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Underwood and D. A. Blank, J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 956 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Khalil, N. Demirdoven, O. Golonzka, C. J. Fecko, and A. Tokmakoff, J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 5711 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. McMorrow, N. Thantu, V. Kleiman, J. S. Melinger, and W. T. Lotshaw, J. Phys. Chem. A 105, 7960 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (2)

J. Ogilvie, M. Plazanet, G. Dadusc, and R. Miller, J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 10460 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Milne, Y. L. Li, T. L. C. Jansen, L. Huang, and R. J. D. Miller, J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 19867 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. Etchepare, G. Grillon, J. P. Chambaret, G. Hamoniaux, and A. Orszag, Opt. Commun. 63, 329 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. (1)

N. T. Hunt, A. A. Jaye, and S. R. Meech, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 9, 2167 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

S. Mukamel, Principles of Nonlinear Optical Spectroscopy (Oxford U. Press, 1995).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram of experiment. DET1 and DET2, detectors; DO1 and DO2, diffractive optic; FC, 1 mm flow cell; H, λ 2 wave plate; L, lens; M1–M4, spherical mirrors ( f = 0.5 , 1.0, 0.5, and 0.5 m ); P, polarizer; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; Q, λ 4 wave plate; SM, spatial mask; W, window. (b) Beam diagram from the perspective behind M2 with beam numbering. (c) Close-up of the sample cell showing the separation between the LO and the three interacting beams. (d) Side view of collimation arm showing polarization optics in signal and LO. (e) Side view at DO2.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transient birefringence C S 2 taken at different relative signal phases. The phase is determined at τ = 250 fs .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relative signal phase measurements taken every half hour for 5 h . Phase was measured by rotation of the relative signal phase by translating DO2 normal to the LO. Using this method, the phase instability is λ 220 .

Equations (1)

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I ( t ) = n ω c 4 π E signal ( t ) + E LO ( t ) 2 ,

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