Abstract

We report on two fluidic lenses that have been developed for ophthalmic applications. The lenses use a circular aperture to demonstrate optical powers between 20 and +20D and a rectangular aperture to demonstrate astigmatism with values ranging from 0to8D. Measurements of image quality were made with the fluidic lens using a model eye. Both lenses were variable and controllable by adjusting the fluid volume of the lens. To the best of our knowledge this is the first demonstration of a continuously variable lens for control of astigmatism.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. F. S. Tsai, S. H. Cho, Y.-H. Lo, B. Vasko, and J. Vasko, Opt. Lett. 33, 291 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S.-H. Ahn and Y.-K. Kim, Sens. Actuators 78, 48 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D.-Y. Zhang, N. Justis, V. Lien, Y. Berdichevsky, and Y.-H. Lo, Appl. Opt. 43, 783 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. A. Gunasekaran, M. Agarwal, S. Singh, P. Dubasi, P. Coane, and K. Varahramyan, Opt. Lasers Eng. 43, 686 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D.-Y. Zhang, N. Justis, and Y.-H. Lo, Opt. Commun. 249, 175 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Customer support representative, Dow Corning Corporation, Midland, Mich. 48686 (personal communication, 2007).
  7. D.Gary, ed., American Institute of Physics Handbook, 3rd ed. (McGraw Hill, 1972).

2008

2005

R. A. Gunasekaran, M. Agarwal, S. Singh, P. Dubasi, P. Coane, and K. Varahramyan, Opt. Lasers Eng. 43, 686 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D.-Y. Zhang, N. Justis, and Y.-H. Lo, Opt. Commun. 249, 175 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

1999

S.-H. Ahn and Y.-K. Kim, Sens. Actuators 78, 48 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, M.

R. A. Gunasekaran, M. Agarwal, S. Singh, P. Dubasi, P. Coane, and K. Varahramyan, Opt. Lasers Eng. 43, 686 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, S.-H.

S.-H. Ahn and Y.-K. Kim, Sens. Actuators 78, 48 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Berdichevsky, Y.

Cho, S. H.

Coane, P.

R. A. Gunasekaran, M. Agarwal, S. Singh, P. Dubasi, P. Coane, and K. Varahramyan, Opt. Lasers Eng. 43, 686 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dubasi, P.

R. A. Gunasekaran, M. Agarwal, S. Singh, P. Dubasi, P. Coane, and K. Varahramyan, Opt. Lasers Eng. 43, 686 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gunasekaran, R. A.

R. A. Gunasekaran, M. Agarwal, S. Singh, P. Dubasi, P. Coane, and K. Varahramyan, Opt. Lasers Eng. 43, 686 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Justis, N.

Kim, Y.-K.

S.-H. Ahn and Y.-K. Kim, Sens. Actuators 78, 48 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lien, V.

Lo, Y.-H.

Singh, S.

R. A. Gunasekaran, M. Agarwal, S. Singh, P. Dubasi, P. Coane, and K. Varahramyan, Opt. Lasers Eng. 43, 686 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, F. S.

Varahramyan, K.

R. A. Gunasekaran, M. Agarwal, S. Singh, P. Dubasi, P. Coane, and K. Varahramyan, Opt. Lasers Eng. 43, 686 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vasko, B.

Vasko, J.

Zhang, D.-Y.

Appl. Opt.

Opt. Commun.

D.-Y. Zhang, N. Justis, and Y.-H. Lo, Opt. Commun. 249, 175 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lasers Eng.

R. A. Gunasekaran, M. Agarwal, S. Singh, P. Dubasi, P. Coane, and K. Varahramyan, Opt. Lasers Eng. 43, 686 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Sens. Actuators

S.-H. Ahn and Y.-K. Kim, Sens. Actuators 78, 48 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other

Customer support representative, Dow Corning Corporation, Midland, Mich. 48686 (personal communication, 2007).

D.Gary, ed., American Institute of Physics Handbook, 3rd ed. (McGraw Hill, 1972).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cell mount for the fluidic lens. The top plate is shown with a rectangular mount (astigmatism) for the PDMS membrane. A second, interchangeable plate with a circular mount was used to create defocus. See the text for discussion.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Line scans of the wavefront surface profiles for the fluidic lens with a circular mounting aperture. The scans were taken at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, and 2.0 D .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Wyko profile of astigmatic lens with (a) 2.69 D of cylinder at 90° with 1.66 D of optical power, (b) 0.35 D of cylinder at 85° with 0.81 D of optical power, and (c) 2.11 D of cylinder at 1.3° with 1.85 D of optical power. The reference point for each of the lens surface profiles was chosen to be at the center of the image. The surface profiles were measured over a 4.2 - mm -diameter area.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic of the imaging system that is composed of a model eye and the fluidic lens. The details of the system are discussed in the manuscript.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Images taken through the cylindrical glass lens when (a) the fluidic lens has no power and (b) the fluidic lens is adjusted to correct for the 2.0 D of astigmatism induced in image. For comparison, images taken (c) without the fluidic and spherical glass lens and (d) with just the circular fluidic lens at no power. Also shown are images taken through a spherical lens when (e) the fluidic lens has no power and (f) the fluidic lens is adjusted to correct for 3.0 D of optical power.

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