Abstract

We experimentally report an asymmetrical spherical microcavity with thermal-induced deformation, in which five-bounce whispering-gallery modes possess not only ultrahigh quality factors (Q) but also remarkably directional escape emission from the microsphere boundary. With efficient free-space excitation and collection, a low-threshold microlaser is demonstrated and exhibits a highly directional emission. Our measurement agrees well with the theoretical predictions by corrected Fresnel law.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. U. Nöckel and A. D. Stone, Nature 358, 45 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, Science 280, 1556 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. T. Harayama, P. Davis, and K. S. Ikeda, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 063901 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Lebental, J. S. Lauret, R. Hierle, and J. Zyss, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 031108 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. Fang, H. Cao, and G. S. Solomon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 081108 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. D. Chern, H. E. Tureci, A. D. Stone, R. K. Chang, M. Kneissl, and N. M. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1710 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Ben-Messaoud and J. Zyss, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241110 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Kneissl, M. Teepe, N. Miyashita, N. M. Johnson, G. D. Chern, and R. K. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2485 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S.-B. Lee, J.-H. Lee, J.-S. Chang, H.-J. Moon, S. W. Kim, and K. An, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 033903 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, Science 317, 783 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. P. Bowen, A. S. Parkins, H. J. Kimble, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, Nature 443, 671 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Y. S. Park, A. K. Cook, and H. Wang, Nano Lett. 6, 2075 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S. Lacey and H. Wang, Opt. Lett. 16, 1943 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Lacey, H. Wang, D. H. Foster, and J. U. Nockel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 033902 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Y.-F. Xiao, C.-H. Dong, Z.-F. Han, G.-C. Guo, and Y.-S. Park, Opt. Lett. 32, 644 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. C.-H. Dong, Y.-F. Xiao, Z.-F. Han, G.-C. Guo, X. Jiang, L. Tong, C. Gu, and H. Ming, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 342 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. B. Lee, J. Yang, S. Moon, J.-H. Lee, K. An, J.-B. Shim, H.-W. Lee, and S. W. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041106 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Hentschel and H. Schomerus, Phys. Rev. E 65, 045603(R) (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Tunneling rates of TE and TM modes have a very minor difference. Here we plot the TM mode case.

2008 (1)

C.-H. Dong, Y.-F. Xiao, Z.-F. Han, G.-C. Guo, X. Jiang, L. Tong, C. Gu, and H. Ming, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 342 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

S. B. Lee, J. Yang, S. Moon, J.-H. Lee, K. An, J.-B. Shim, H.-W. Lee, and S. W. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y.-F. Xiao, C.-H. Dong, Z.-F. Han, G.-C. Guo, and Y.-S. Park, Opt. Lett. 32, 644 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, Science 317, 783 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Fang, H. Cao, and G. S. Solomon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 081108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

M. Lebental, J. S. Lauret, R. Hierle, and J. Zyss, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 031108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. P. Bowen, A. S. Parkins, H. J. Kimble, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, Nature 443, 671 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. S. Park, A. K. Cook, and H. Wang, Nano Lett. 6, 2075 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

T. Ben-Messaoud and J. Zyss, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

M. Kneissl, M. Teepe, N. Miyashita, N. M. Johnson, G. D. Chern, and R. K. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2485 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

G. D. Chern, H. E. Tureci, A. D. Stone, R. K. Chang, M. Kneissl, and N. M. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1710 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Harayama, P. Davis, and K. S. Ikeda, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 063901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lacey, H. Wang, D. H. Foster, and J. U. Nockel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 033902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

M. Hentschel and H. Schomerus, Phys. Rev. E 65, 045603(R) (2002).
[CrossRef]

S.-B. Lee, J.-H. Lee, J.-S. Chang, H.-J. Moon, S. W. Kim, and K. An, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 033903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

S. Lacey and H. Wang, Opt. Lett. 16, 1943 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, Science 280, 1556 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

J. U. Nöckel and A. D. Stone, Nature 358, 45 (1997).
[CrossRef]

An, K.

S. B. Lee, J. Yang, S. Moon, J.-H. Lee, K. An, J.-B. Shim, H.-W. Lee, and S. W. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S.-B. Lee, J.-H. Lee, J.-S. Chang, H.-J. Moon, S. W. Kim, and K. An, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 033903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aoki, T.

T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. P. Bowen, A. S. Parkins, H. J. Kimble, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, Nature 443, 671 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Armani, A. M.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, Science 317, 783 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ben-Messaoud, T.

T. Ben-Messaoud and J. Zyss, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bowen, W. P.

T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. P. Bowen, A. S. Parkins, H. J. Kimble, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, Nature 443, 671 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, H.

W. Fang, H. Cao, and G. S. Solomon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 081108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, Science 280, 1556 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, J.-S.

S.-B. Lee, J.-H. Lee, J.-S. Chang, H.-J. Moon, S. W. Kim, and K. An, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 033903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, R. K.

M. Kneissl, M. Teepe, N. Miyashita, N. M. Johnson, G. D. Chern, and R. K. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2485 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Chern, H. E. Tureci, A. D. Stone, R. K. Chang, M. Kneissl, and N. M. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1710 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chern, G. D.

M. Kneissl, M. Teepe, N. Miyashita, N. M. Johnson, G. D. Chern, and R. K. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2485 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Chern, H. E. Tureci, A. D. Stone, R. K. Chang, M. Kneissl, and N. M. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1710 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A. Y.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, Science 280, 1556 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cook, A. K.

Y. S. Park, A. K. Cook, and H. Wang, Nano Lett. 6, 2075 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, P.

T. Harayama, P. Davis, and K. S. Ikeda, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 063901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dayan, B.

T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. P. Bowen, A. S. Parkins, H. J. Kimble, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, Nature 443, 671 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dong, C.-H.

C.-H. Dong, Y.-F. Xiao, Z.-F. Han, G.-C. Guo, X. Jiang, L. Tong, C. Gu, and H. Ming, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 342 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y.-F. Xiao, C.-H. Dong, Z.-F. Han, G.-C. Guo, and Y.-S. Park, Opt. Lett. 32, 644 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faist, J.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, Science 280, 1556 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, W.

W. Fang, H. Cao, and G. S. Solomon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 081108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Flagan, R. C.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, Science 317, 783 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foster, D. H.

S. Lacey, H. Wang, D. H. Foster, and J. U. Nockel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 033902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fraser, S. E.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, Science 317, 783 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gmachl, C.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, Science 280, 1556 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gu, C.

C.-H. Dong, Y.-F. Xiao, Z.-F. Han, G.-C. Guo, X. Jiang, L. Tong, C. Gu, and H. Ming, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 342 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Guo, G.-C.

C.-H. Dong, Y.-F. Xiao, Z.-F. Han, G.-C. Guo, X. Jiang, L. Tong, C. Gu, and H. Ming, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 342 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y.-F. Xiao, C.-H. Dong, Z.-F. Han, G.-C. Guo, and Y.-S. Park, Opt. Lett. 32, 644 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, Z.-F.

C.-H. Dong, Y.-F. Xiao, Z.-F. Han, G.-C. Guo, X. Jiang, L. Tong, C. Gu, and H. Ming, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 342 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y.-F. Xiao, C.-H. Dong, Z.-F. Han, G.-C. Guo, and Y.-S. Park, Opt. Lett. 32, 644 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harayama, T.

T. Harayama, P. Davis, and K. S. Ikeda, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 063901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hentschel, M.

M. Hentschel and H. Schomerus, Phys. Rev. E 65, 045603(R) (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hierle, R.

M. Lebental, J. S. Lauret, R. Hierle, and J. Zyss, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 031108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, K. S.

T. Harayama, P. Davis, and K. S. Ikeda, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 063901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, X.

C.-H. Dong, Y.-F. Xiao, Z.-F. Han, G.-C. Guo, X. Jiang, L. Tong, C. Gu, and H. Ming, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 342 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, N. M.

M. Kneissl, M. Teepe, N. Miyashita, N. M. Johnson, G. D. Chern, and R. K. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2485 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Chern, H. E. Tureci, A. D. Stone, R. K. Chang, M. Kneissl, and N. M. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1710 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. W.

S. B. Lee, J. Yang, S. Moon, J.-H. Lee, K. An, J.-B. Shim, H.-W. Lee, and S. W. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S.-B. Lee, J.-H. Lee, J.-S. Chang, H.-J. Moon, S. W. Kim, and K. An, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 033903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimble, H. J.

T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. P. Bowen, A. S. Parkins, H. J. Kimble, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, Nature 443, 671 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. P. Bowen, A. S. Parkins, H. J. Kimble, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, Nature 443, 671 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kippenberg, T. J.

T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. P. Bowen, A. S. Parkins, H. J. Kimble, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, Nature 443, 671 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kneissl, M.

M. Kneissl, M. Teepe, N. Miyashita, N. M. Johnson, G. D. Chern, and R. K. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2485 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Chern, H. E. Tureci, A. D. Stone, R. K. Chang, M. Kneissl, and N. M. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1710 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kulkarni, R. P.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, Science 317, 783 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lacey, S.

S. Lacey, H. Wang, D. H. Foster, and J. U. Nockel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 033902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lacey and H. Wang, Opt. Lett. 16, 1943 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lauret, J. S.

M. Lebental, J. S. Lauret, R. Hierle, and J. Zyss, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 031108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lebental, M.

M. Lebental, J. S. Lauret, R. Hierle, and J. Zyss, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 031108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.-W.

S. B. Lee, J. Yang, S. Moon, J.-H. Lee, K. An, J.-B. Shim, H.-W. Lee, and S. W. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.-H.

S. B. Lee, J. Yang, S. Moon, J.-H. Lee, K. An, J.-B. Shim, H.-W. Lee, and S. W. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S.-B. Lee, J.-H. Lee, J.-S. Chang, H.-J. Moon, S. W. Kim, and K. An, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 033903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S. B.

S. B. Lee, J. Yang, S. Moon, J.-H. Lee, K. An, J.-B. Shim, H.-W. Lee, and S. W. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.-B.

S.-B. Lee, J.-H. Lee, J.-S. Chang, H.-J. Moon, S. W. Kim, and K. An, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 033903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ming, H.

C.-H. Dong, Y.-F. Xiao, Z.-F. Han, G.-C. Guo, X. Jiang, L. Tong, C. Gu, and H. Ming, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 342 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miyashita, N.

M. Kneissl, M. Teepe, N. Miyashita, N. M. Johnson, G. D. Chern, and R. K. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2485 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Moon, H.-J.

S.-B. Lee, J.-H. Lee, J.-S. Chang, H.-J. Moon, S. W. Kim, and K. An, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 033903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moon, S.

S. B. Lee, J. Yang, S. Moon, J.-H. Lee, K. An, J.-B. Shim, H.-W. Lee, and S. W. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Narimanov, E. E.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, Science 280, 1556 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nockel, J. U.

S. Lacey, H. Wang, D. H. Foster, and J. U. Nockel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 033902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nöckel, J. U.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, Science 280, 1556 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. U. Nöckel and A. D. Stone, Nature 358, 45 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y. S.

Y. S. Park, A. K. Cook, and H. Wang, Nano Lett. 6, 2075 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, Y.-S.

Parkins, A. S.

T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. P. Bowen, A. S. Parkins, H. J. Kimble, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, Nature 443, 671 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schomerus, H.

M. Hentschel and H. Schomerus, Phys. Rev. E 65, 045603(R) (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shim, J.-B.

S. B. Lee, J. Yang, S. Moon, J.-H. Lee, K. An, J.-B. Shim, H.-W. Lee, and S. W. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sivco, D. L.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, Science 280, 1556 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solomon, G. S.

W. Fang, H. Cao, and G. S. Solomon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 081108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stone, A. D.

G. D. Chern, H. E. Tureci, A. D. Stone, R. K. Chang, M. Kneissl, and N. M. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1710 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, Science 280, 1556 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. U. Nöckel and A. D. Stone, Nature 358, 45 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Teepe, M.

M. Kneissl, M. Teepe, N. Miyashita, N. M. Johnson, G. D. Chern, and R. K. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2485 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tong, L.

C.-H. Dong, Y.-F. Xiao, Z.-F. Han, G.-C. Guo, X. Jiang, L. Tong, C. Gu, and H. Ming, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 342 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tureci, H. E.

G. D. Chern, H. E. Tureci, A. D. Stone, R. K. Chang, M. Kneissl, and N. M. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1710 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K. J.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, Science 317, 783 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. P. Bowen, A. S. Parkins, H. J. Kimble, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, Nature 443, 671 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

Y. S. Park, A. K. Cook, and H. Wang, Nano Lett. 6, 2075 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lacey, H. Wang, D. H. Foster, and J. U. Nockel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 033902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lacey and H. Wang, Opt. Lett. 16, 1943 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wilcut, E.

T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. P. Bowen, A. S. Parkins, H. J. Kimble, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, Nature 443, 671 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiao, Y.-F.

C.-H. Dong, Y.-F. Xiao, Z.-F. Han, G.-C. Guo, X. Jiang, L. Tong, C. Gu, and H. Ming, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 342 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y.-F. Xiao, C.-H. Dong, Z.-F. Han, G.-C. Guo, and Y.-S. Park, Opt. Lett. 32, 644 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, J.

S. B. Lee, J. Yang, S. Moon, J.-H. Lee, K. An, J.-B. Shim, H.-W. Lee, and S. W. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zyss, J.

M. Lebental, J. S. Lauret, R. Hierle, and J. Zyss, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 031108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Ben-Messaoud and J. Zyss, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

M. Lebental, J. S. Lauret, R. Hierle, and J. Zyss, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 031108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Fang, H. Cao, and G. S. Solomon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 081108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Chern, H. E. Tureci, A. D. Stone, R. K. Chang, M. Kneissl, and N. M. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1710 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Ben-Messaoud and J. Zyss, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Kneissl, M. Teepe, N. Miyashita, N. M. Johnson, G. D. Chern, and R. K. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2485 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Lee, J. Yang, S. Moon, J.-H. Lee, K. An, J.-B. Shim, H.-W. Lee, and S. W. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

C.-H. Dong, Y.-F. Xiao, Z.-F. Han, G.-C. Guo, X. Jiang, L. Tong, C. Gu, and H. Ming, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 342 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

Y. S. Park, A. K. Cook, and H. Wang, Nano Lett. 6, 2075 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (2)

J. U. Nöckel and A. D. Stone, Nature 358, 45 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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Other (1)

Tunneling rates of TE and TM modes have a very minor difference. Here we plot the TM mode case.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Sketched experimental setup. A pump laser beam (waist 5 μ m ) free-space couples into a gain-layer-coated microsphere near the boundary. Not shown for simplicity, the bottom objective actually has the same optical components in light path as the top, and it is held in a rotator so that we can selectively collect PL emission from different points. LPF, long pass filter; MMF, multimode fiber. Other abbreviations defined in text. (b) C O 2 laser pulse (beam waist 30 μ m ) reheats the microsphere from one side. The solid curve schematically describes the final shape of the equator plane while the dotted curve displays a standard circular boundary. (c)–(f) Optical images when the coupling point (gray large point) is closed to A, B, C, and D with polar angles φ = 135 ° , 135°, 45°, and 45 ° , respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Free-space collected PL of Er ions emission in the deformed microcavity demonstrates WGM-type spectrum distribution. (b) Lasing emission with the pump power above the threshold. (c) Thresholds of lasing emission in both 1080 and 1550 nm bands. (d) Typical transmission peak of the deformed microsphere. The excitation and collection points are A and B, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Far-field emission distribution of the lasing at 1552.5 nm in the deformed microsphere. We excite the WGMs in free-space close to point A. Emission spectra are recorded every 5° on the boundary of the microsphere. Inset, the optical image of the equator plane. The solid curve (blue online) draws the boundary of a normal circle, while the dashed curve (red online) describes the boundary of a half-circle and a half-quadrupole with ϵ = 2 % .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Poincaré SOS ( ϵ = 2 % ) . Inset, expanded SOS of the five-bounce mode. (b) Far-field distribution predicted by the corrected Fresnel theory. The size parameter n k R = 121 , where k = 2 π λ is the wave vector with λ as the wavelength and the refractive index n is chosen as 1.45.

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