Abstract

Lasing action in an electrically pumped organic laser device is demonstrated with a high quality factor (Q) microcavity structure formed by two high-reflective and low-loss electrical contacts. A 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-i-propyl-6-(1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidyl-9-enyl)-4H-pyran-doped tris(8-hydroxy- quinoline)aluminum (Alq3) film serves as the active layer. A single longitudinal lasing cavity mode is obtained at 621.7nm with a threshold current density of 860mAcm2 under a room temperature pulse operation.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  19. ISO 11146, Lasers and laser-related equipment--test methods for laser beam parameters--beam width, divergence, angle, and beam propagation factor (1999).

2008 (2)

2007 (3)

C. Gärtner, C. Karnutsch, C. Pflumm, and U. Lemmer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 1006 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Gärtner, C. Karnutsch, U. Lemmer, and C. Pflumm, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 023107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Duarte, Opt. Lett. 32, 412 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

M. Reufer, J. Feldmann, P. Rudati, A. Ruhl, D. Müller, K. Meerholz, C. Karnutsch, M. Gerken, and U. Lemmer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 221102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Pflumm, C. Karnutsch, M. Gerken, and U. Lemmer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 316 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

X. Liu, C. Py, Y. Tao, Y. Li, J. Ding, and M. Day, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2727 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

T. W. Lee, O. O. Park, H. N. Cho, and Y. C. Kim, Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) 21, 673 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Baldo, R. J. Holmes, and S. R. Forrest, Phys. Rev. B 66, 035321 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

C. J. Brabec, N. S. Sariciftci, and J. C. Hummelen, Adv. Funct. Mater. 11, 15 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Negi, H. Yamamoto, Y. Hayasaki, and N. Nishida, Proc. SPIE 4416, 384 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

M. D. McGehee and A. J. Heeger, Adv. Mater. 12, 1655 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

N. Tessler, J. Adv. Mater. 11, 363 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, M. Baldo, V. B. Khalfin, G. Parthasarathy, and S. R. Forrest, J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4096 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

D. J. Gundlach, Y. Y. Lin, T. N. Jackson, S. F. Nelson, and D. G. Schlom, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 18, 87 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

H. Yokoyama, Science 256, 66 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 913 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Baldo, M.

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, M. Baldo, V. B. Khalfin, G. Parthasarathy, and S. R. Forrest, J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4096 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Baldo, M. A.

M. A. Baldo, R. J. Holmes, and S. R. Forrest, Phys. Rev. B 66, 035321 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brabec, C. J.

C. J. Brabec, N. S. Sariciftci, and J. C. Hummelen, Adv. Funct. Mater. 11, 15 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bulovic, V.

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, M. Baldo, V. B. Khalfin, G. Parthasarathy, and S. R. Forrest, J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4096 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, P. E.

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, M. Baldo, V. B. Khalfin, G. Parthasarathy, and S. R. Forrest, J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4096 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cho, H. N.

T. W. Lee, O. O. Park, H. N. Cho, and Y. C. Kim, Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) 21, 673 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Day, M.

X. Liu, C. Py, Y. Tao, Y. Li, J. Ding, and M. Day, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2727 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ding, J.

X. Liu, C. Py, Y. Tao, Y. Li, J. Ding, and M. Day, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2727 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Duarte, F. J.

Feldmann, J.

M. Reufer, J. Feldmann, P. Rudati, A. Ruhl, D. Müller, K. Meerholz, C. Karnutsch, M. Gerken, and U. Lemmer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 221102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

M. A. Baldo, R. J. Holmes, and S. R. Forrest, Phys. Rev. B 66, 035321 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, M. Baldo, V. B. Khalfin, G. Parthasarathy, and S. R. Forrest, J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4096 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gärtner, C.

C. Gärtner, C. Karnutsch, C. Pflumm, and U. Lemmer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 1006 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Gärtner, C. Karnutsch, U. Lemmer, and C. Pflumm, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 023107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gerken, M.

C. Pflumm, C. Karnutsch, M. Gerken, and U. Lemmer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 316 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Reufer, J. Feldmann, P. Rudati, A. Ruhl, D. Müller, K. Meerholz, C. Karnutsch, M. Gerken, and U. Lemmer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 221102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gundlach, D. J.

D. J. Gundlach, Y. Y. Lin, T. N. Jackson, S. F. Nelson, and D. G. Schlom, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 18, 87 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hayasaki, Y.

N. Negi, H. Yamamoto, Y. Hayasaki, and N. Nishida, Proc. SPIE 4416, 384 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Heeger, A. J.

M. D. McGehee and A. J. Heeger, Adv. Mater. 12, 1655 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Holmes, R. J.

M. A. Baldo, R. J. Holmes, and S. R. Forrest, Phys. Rev. B 66, 035321 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hummelen, J. C.

C. J. Brabec, N. S. Sariciftci, and J. C. Hummelen, Adv. Funct. Mater. 11, 15 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, T. N.

D. J. Gundlach, Y. Y. Lin, T. N. Jackson, S. F. Nelson, and D. G. Schlom, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 18, 87 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Karnutsch, C.

C. Gärtner, C. Karnutsch, C. Pflumm, and U. Lemmer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 1006 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Gärtner, C. Karnutsch, U. Lemmer, and C. Pflumm, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 023107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Pflumm, C. Karnutsch, M. Gerken, and U. Lemmer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 316 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Reufer, J. Feldmann, P. Rudati, A. Ruhl, D. Müller, K. Meerholz, C. Karnutsch, M. Gerken, and U. Lemmer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 221102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Khalfin, V. B.

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, M. Baldo, V. B. Khalfin, G. Parthasarathy, and S. R. Forrest, J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4096 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. C.

T. W. Lee, O. O. Park, H. N. Cho, and Y. C. Kim, Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) 21, 673 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kozlov, V. G.

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, M. Baldo, V. B. Khalfin, G. Parthasarathy, and S. R. Forrest, J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4096 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lee, T. W.

T. W. Lee, O. O. Park, H. N. Cho, and Y. C. Kim, Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) 21, 673 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lemmer, U.

C. Gärtner, C. Karnutsch, C. Pflumm, and U. Lemmer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 1006 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Gärtner, C. Karnutsch, U. Lemmer, and C. Pflumm, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 023107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Pflumm, C. Karnutsch, M. Gerken, and U. Lemmer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 316 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Reufer, J. Feldmann, P. Rudati, A. Ruhl, D. Müller, K. Meerholz, C. Karnutsch, M. Gerken, and U. Lemmer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 221102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

Li, Y.

X. Liu, C. Py, Y. Tao, Y. Li, J. Ding, and M. Day, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2727 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. Y.

D. J. Gundlach, Y. Y. Lin, T. N. Jackson, S. F. Nelson, and D. G. Schlom, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 18, 87 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

H. Li, N. Wang, and X. Liu, Opt. Express 16, 194 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liu, C. Py, Y. Tao, Y. Li, J. Ding, and M. Day, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2727 (2004).
[CrossRef]

McGehee, M. D.

M. D. McGehee and A. J. Heeger, Adv. Mater. 12, 1655 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Meerholz, K.

M. Reufer, J. Feldmann, P. Rudati, A. Ruhl, D. Müller, K. Meerholz, C. Karnutsch, M. Gerken, and U. Lemmer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 221102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Müller, D.

M. Reufer, J. Feldmann, P. Rudati, A. Ruhl, D. Müller, K. Meerholz, C. Karnutsch, M. Gerken, and U. Lemmer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 221102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Negi, N.

N. Negi, H. Yamamoto, Y. Hayasaki, and N. Nishida, Proc. SPIE 4416, 384 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, S. F.

D. J. Gundlach, Y. Y. Lin, T. N. Jackson, S. F. Nelson, and D. G. Schlom, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 18, 87 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nishida, N.

N. Negi, H. Yamamoto, Y. Hayasaki, and N. Nishida, Proc. SPIE 4416, 384 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Park, O. O.

T. W. Lee, O. O. Park, H. N. Cho, and Y. C. Kim, Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) 21, 673 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Parthasarathy, G.

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, M. Baldo, V. B. Khalfin, G. Parthasarathy, and S. R. Forrest, J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4096 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pflumm, C.

C. Gärtner, C. Karnutsch, C. Pflumm, and U. Lemmer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 1006 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Gärtner, C. Karnutsch, U. Lemmer, and C. Pflumm, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 023107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Pflumm, C. Karnutsch, M. Gerken, and U. Lemmer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 316 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Py, C.

X. Liu, C. Py, Y. Tao, Y. Li, J. Ding, and M. Day, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2727 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Reufer, M.

M. Reufer, J. Feldmann, P. Rudati, A. Ruhl, D. Müller, K. Meerholz, C. Karnutsch, M. Gerken, and U. Lemmer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 221102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rudati, P.

M. Reufer, J. Feldmann, P. Rudati, A. Ruhl, D. Müller, K. Meerholz, C. Karnutsch, M. Gerken, and U. Lemmer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 221102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ruhl, A.

M. Reufer, J. Feldmann, P. Rudati, A. Ruhl, D. Müller, K. Meerholz, C. Karnutsch, M. Gerken, and U. Lemmer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 221102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sariciftci, N. S.

C. J. Brabec, N. S. Sariciftci, and J. C. Hummelen, Adv. Funct. Mater. 11, 15 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schlom, D. G.

D. J. Gundlach, Y. Y. Lin, T. N. Jackson, S. F. Nelson, and D. G. Schlom, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 18, 87 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tang, C. W.

C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 913 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Tao, Y.

X. Liu, C. Py, Y. Tao, Y. Li, J. Ding, and M. Day, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2727 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tessler, N.

N. Tessler, J. Adv. Mater. 11, 363 (1999).
[CrossRef]

VanSlyke, S. A.

C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 913 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Wang, N.

Yamamoto, H.

N. Negi, H. Yamamoto, Y. Hayasaki, and N. Nishida, Proc. SPIE 4416, 384 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yokoyama, H.

H. Yokoyama, Science 256, 66 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

C. J. Brabec, N. S. Sariciftci, and J. C. Hummelen, Adv. Funct. Mater. 11, 15 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

M. D. McGehee and A. J. Heeger, Adv. Mater. 12, 1655 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

F. J. Duarte, Appl. Phys. B 90, 101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

M. Reufer, J. Feldmann, P. Rudati, A. Ruhl, D. Müller, K. Meerholz, C. Karnutsch, M. Gerken, and U. Lemmer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 221102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 913 (1987).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, C. Py, Y. Tao, Y. Li, J. Ding, and M. Day, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2727 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1)

D. J. Gundlach, Y. Y. Lin, T. N. Jackson, S. F. Nelson, and D. G. Schlom, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 18, 87 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

C. Gärtner, C. Karnutsch, C. Pflumm, and U. Lemmer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 1006 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Pflumm, C. Karnutsch, M. Gerken, and U. Lemmer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 316 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Adv. Mater. (1)

N. Tessler, J. Adv. Mater. 11, 363 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, M. Baldo, V. B. Khalfin, G. Parthasarathy, and S. R. Forrest, J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4096 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Gärtner, C. Karnutsch, U. Lemmer, and C. Pflumm, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 023107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) (1)

T. W. Lee, O. O. Park, H. N. Cho, and Y. C. Kim, Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) 21, 673 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. A. Baldo, R. J. Holmes, and S. R. Forrest, Phys. Rev. B 66, 035321 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

N. Negi, H. Yamamoto, Y. Hayasaki, and N. Nishida, Proc. SPIE 4416, 384 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

H. Yokoyama, Science 256, 66 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

ISO 11146, Lasers and laser-related equipment--test methods for laser beam parameters--beam width, divergence, angle, and beam propagation factor (1999).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the microcavity laser. (b) Measured reflectance spectra of top mirror, bottom mirror, and microcavity.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Emission spectra under a different current density; the two insets show the PL emission spectrum of Al q 3 : DCJTI film and I-V characteristic of the device.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

FWHM and output intensity of the microcavity laser as a function of injection current density.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Digital profile of the two-slit interference captured with a CCD camera below (solid curve) and above (dotted curve) threshold. (b) Far-field beam profiles below and above threshold.

Metrics