Abstract

We demonstrate an erbium-doped silica toroidal microcavity upconversion laser on a silicon chip lasing in the visible spectral range (510580nm). The microcavity is pumped at 1458nm by a tapered optical fiber coupled to the cavity and the lasing threshold is 690μW. Lasing is observed at room temperature despite the high nonradiative relaxation rates of Er in pure silica that usually precludes upconversion lasing from higher excited states. This is attributed to the very high circulating pump power in the high-Q microcavity (Q>107).

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Polman, B. Min, J. Kalkman, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1037 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. Yang, T. Carmon, B. Min, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 091114 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. M. Oxborrow, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 55, 1209 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  22. P. E. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, O. Painter, B. Lev, and H. Mabuchi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131108 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (3)

T. Carmon and K. J. Vahala, Nat. Phys. 3, 430 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Oxborrow, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 55, 1209 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Min, L. Yang, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. A 76, 013823 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

P. E. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, O. Painter, B. Lev, and H. Mabuchi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Jalali and S. Fathpour, J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4600 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Kippenberg, J. Kalkman, A. Polman, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. A 74, 051802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

L. Yang, T. Carmon, B. Min, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 091114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

F. Auzel, Chem. Rev. 104, 139 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Polman, B. Min, J. Kalkman, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1037 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

L. Yang, D. K. Armani, and K. J. Vahala, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 825 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Nature 421, 925 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

M. J. A. de Dood, L. H. Slooff, A. Polman, A. Moroz, and A. van Blaaderen, Phys. Rev. A 64, 033807 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

W. von Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. Hare, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, J. Opt. B 2, 204 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Cai, O. Painter, K. J. Vahala, and P. C. Sercel, Opt. Lett. 25, 1430 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1996 (1)

E. Snoeks, P. G. Kik, and A. Polman, Opt. Mater. 5, 159 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

S. G. Grubb, K. W. Bennett, R. S. Cannon, and W. F. Humer, Electron. Lett. 28, 1243 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

R. G. Smart, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, and D. Szebesta, Electron. Lett. 27, 1307 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, and H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 26, 261 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

C. B. Layne and M. J. Weber, Phys. Rev. B 53, 6065 (1977).

Allain, J. Y.

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, and H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 26, 261 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Armani, D. K.

L. Yang, D. K. Armani, and K. J. Vahala, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 825 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Nature 421, 925 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Auzel, F.

F. Auzel, Chem. Rev. 104, 139 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barclay, P. E.

P. E. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, O. Painter, B. Lev, and H. Mabuchi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, K. W.

S. G. Grubb, K. W. Bennett, R. S. Cannon, and W. F. Humer, Electron. Lett. 28, 1243 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cai, M.

Cannon, R. S.

S. G. Grubb, K. W. Bennett, R. S. Cannon, and W. F. Humer, Electron. Lett. 28, 1243 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Carmon, T.

T. Carmon and K. J. Vahala, Nat. Phys. 3, 430 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Yang, T. Carmon, B. Min, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 091114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Carter, S. F.

R. G. Smart, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, and D. Szebesta, Electron. Lett. 27, 1307 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Davey, S. T.

R. G. Smart, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, and D. Szebesta, Electron. Lett. 27, 1307 (1991).
[CrossRef]

de Dood, M. J. A.

M. J. A. de Dood, L. H. Slooff, A. Polman, A. Moroz, and A. van Blaaderen, Phys. Rev. A 64, 033807 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fathpour, S.

Gorodetsky, M. L.

Grubb, S. G.

S. G. Grubb, K. W. Bennett, R. S. Cannon, and W. F. Humer, Electron. Lett. 28, 1243 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hanna, D. C.

R. G. Smart, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, and D. Szebesta, Electron. Lett. 27, 1307 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hare, J.

W. von Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. Hare, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, J. Opt. B 2, 204 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Haroche, S.

W. von Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. Hare, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, J. Opt. B 2, 204 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Humer, W. F.

S. G. Grubb, K. W. Bennett, R. S. Cannon, and W. F. Humer, Electron. Lett. 28, 1243 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ilchenko, V. S.

Jahier, E.

W. von Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. Hare, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, J. Opt. B 2, 204 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

Kalkman, J.

T. J. Kippenberg, J. Kalkman, A. Polman, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. A 74, 051802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Polman, B. Min, J. Kalkman, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1037 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kik, P. G.

E. Snoeks, P. G. Kik, and A. Polman, Opt. Mater. 5, 159 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kippenberg, T. J.

T. J. Kippenberg, J. Kalkman, A. Polman, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. A 74, 051802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Polman, B. Min, J. Kalkman, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1037 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Nature 421, 925 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Layne, C. B.

C. B. Layne and M. J. Weber, Phys. Rev. B 53, 6065 (1977).

Lefèvre-Seguin, V.

W. von Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. Hare, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, J. Opt. B 2, 204 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lev, B.

P. E. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, O. Painter, B. Lev, and H. Mabuchi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Leverenz, H. W.

H. W. Leverenz, Introduction to Luminescence of Solids (Wiley, 1950).

Lissillour, F.

W. von Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. Hare, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, J. Opt. B 2, 204 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Long, R.

W. von Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. Hare, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, J. Opt. B 2, 204 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mabuchi, H.

P. E. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, O. Painter, B. Lev, and H. Mabuchi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Min, B.

B. Min, L. Yang, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. A 76, 013823 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Yang, T. Carmon, B. Min, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 091114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Polman, B. Min, J. Kalkman, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1037 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Monerie, M.

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, and H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 26, 261 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Moroz, A.

M. J. A. de Dood, L. H. Slooff, A. Polman, A. Moroz, and A. van Blaaderen, Phys. Rev. A 64, 033807 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Oxborrow, M.

M. Oxborrow, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 55, 1209 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Painter, O.

P. E. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, O. Painter, B. Lev, and H. Mabuchi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Cai, O. Painter, K. J. Vahala, and P. C. Sercel, Opt. Lett. 25, 1430 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poignant, H.

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, and H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 26, 261 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

T. J. Kippenberg, J. Kalkman, A. Polman, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. A 74, 051802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Polman, B. Min, J. Kalkman, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1037 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. J. A. de Dood, L. H. Slooff, A. Polman, A. Moroz, and A. van Blaaderen, Phys. Rev. A 64, 033807 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Snoeks, P. G. Kik, and A. Polman, Opt. Mater. 5, 159 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Raimond, J.-M.

W. von Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. Hare, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, J. Opt. B 2, 204 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sercel, P. C.

Slooff, L. H.

M. J. A. de Dood, L. H. Slooff, A. Polman, A. Moroz, and A. van Blaaderen, Phys. Rev. A 64, 033807 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Smart, R. G.

R. G. Smart, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, and D. Szebesta, Electron. Lett. 27, 1307 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Snoeks, E.

E. Snoeks, P. G. Kik, and A. Polman, Opt. Mater. 5, 159 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Spillane, S. M.

L. Yang, T. Carmon, B. Min, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 091114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Nature 421, 925 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, K.

P. E. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, O. Painter, B. Lev, and H. Mabuchi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Szebesta, D.

R. G. Smart, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, and D. Szebesta, Electron. Lett. 27, 1307 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tropper, A. C.

R. G. Smart, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, and D. Szebesta, Electron. Lett. 27, 1307 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K. J.

T. Carmon and K. J. Vahala, Nat. Phys. 3, 430 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Min, L. Yang, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. A 76, 013823 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Kippenberg, J. Kalkman, A. Polman, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. A 74, 051802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Yang, T. Carmon, B. Min, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 091114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Polman, B. Min, J. Kalkman, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1037 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Yang, D. K. Armani, and K. J. Vahala, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 825 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Nature 421, 925 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Cai, O. Painter, K. J. Vahala, and P. C. Sercel, Opt. Lett. 25, 1430 (2000).
[CrossRef]

van Blaaderen, A.

M. J. A. de Dood, L. H. Slooff, A. Polman, A. Moroz, and A. van Blaaderen, Phys. Rev. A 64, 033807 (2001).
[CrossRef]

von Klitzing, W.

W. von Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. Hare, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, J. Opt. B 2, 204 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Weber, M. J.

C. B. Layne and M. J. Weber, Phys. Rev. B 53, 6065 (1977).

Yang, L.

B. Min, L. Yang, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. A 76, 013823 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Yang, T. Carmon, B. Min, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 091114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Yang, D. K. Armani, and K. J. Vahala, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 825 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

L. Yang, D. K. Armani, and K. J. Vahala, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 825 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Polman, B. Min, J. Kalkman, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1037 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Yang, T. Carmon, B. Min, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 091114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, O. Painter, B. Lev, and H. Mabuchi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

F. Auzel, Chem. Rev. 104, 139 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Electron. Lett. (3)

R. G. Smart, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, and D. Szebesta, Electron. Lett. 27, 1307 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, and H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 26, 261 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Grubb, K. W. Bennett, R. S. Cannon, and W. F. Humer, Electron. Lett. 28, 1243 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

M. Oxborrow, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 55, 1209 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. B (1)

W. von Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. Hare, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, J. Opt. B 2, 204 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nat. Phys. (1)

T. Carmon and K. J. Vahala, Nat. Phys. 3, 430 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Nature 421, 925 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. (1)

E. Snoeks, P. G. Kik, and A. Polman, Opt. Mater. 5, 159 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (3)

M. J. A. de Dood, L. H. Slooff, A. Polman, A. Moroz, and A. van Blaaderen, Phys. Rev. A 64, 033807 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Kippenberg, J. Kalkman, A. Polman, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. A 74, 051802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Min, L. Yang, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. A 76, 013823 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

C. B. Layne and M. J. Weber, Phys. Rev. B 53, 6065 (1977).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

H. W. Leverenz, Introduction to Luminescence of Solids (Wiley, 1950).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Photoluminescence decay measurements of the Er-doped cavity after excitation with a 514 nm pump pulse, taken for emission wavelengths of 1550 and 550 nm . The decay time from the upconversion level at 550 nm is less than 10 μ s . The inset is a scanning electron microscope image of the Er-doped silica toroidal microcavity on Si. (b) Optical image of pumped Er-doped cavity showing bidirectional upconversion lasing. The pump fiber is visible as the horizontal green line behind the cavity. The inset at the lower left corner is an optical image of a pumped pure silica cavity showing unidirectional third-harmonic emission.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized upconversion lasing power (integrated in the range λ = 510 580 nm ) as a function of absorbed pump power ( λ p = 1458 nm ) . The lasing threshold is 690 μ W . The inset shows the multimode lasing spectrum.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated mode profiles for a toroidal silica microcavity with a minor radius of 2 μ m and a major radius of 20 μ m . (a) Fundamental pump mode at 1457 nm . (b) Fundamental lasing mode at 520 nm showing overlap factor ( Γ = 0.73 ) . (c) Higher-order lasing mode at 520 nm showing improved overlap ( Γ = 0.77 ) with the pump mode at 1457 nm in (a).

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