Abstract

Data-format-independent all-optical transmitter and receiver modules for free-space optical communications in the 3.8μm region have been developed, essentially consisting of Ti-indiffused, periodically poled LiNbO3 waveguides. Using these modules, conversion of C-band radiation to/from the mid-infrared (MIR) via difference-frequency generation was demonstrated. More than 10mW of MIR power could be generated with the transmitter unit; the internal low-power conversion efficiency was 69%W. A free-space MIR link was set up with a 41dB fiber-to-fiber loss; only 15dB are due to the parametric processes.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Martini, C. Gmachl, J. Falciglia, F. G. Curti, C. G. Bethea, F. Capasso, E. A. Whittaker, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, Electron. Lett. 37, 191 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. A. Traub and M. T. Stier, Appl. Opt. 15, 364 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. K. P. Petrov, A. T. Ryan, T. L. Patterson, L. Huang, S. J. Field, and D. J. Bamford, Appl. Phys. B 67, 357 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061101 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Yanagawa, O. Tadanaga, K. Magari, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 221115 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Richter, P. Weibring, A. Fried, O. Tadanaga, Y. Nishida, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, Opt. Express 15, 564 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, T. Umeki, Y. Nishida, and H. Suzuki, Electron. Lett. 44, 288 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. Ip, D. Büchter, C. Langrock, J. M. Kahn, H. Herrmann, W. Sohler, and M. M. Fejer, in Proceedings of the European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (IEEE, 2008), paper Tu.3.E.7.
  9. S. Orlov, W. Grundkötter, D. Hofmann, V. Quiring, R. Ricken, H. Suche, and W. Sohler, in Mid-Infrared Coherent Sources and Applications, NATO Science Series--B: Physics and Biophysics, M.Ebrahimzadeh and I.T.Sorokina, eds. (Springer, 2008).

2008 (1)

M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, T. Umeki, Y. Nishida, and H. Suzuki, Electron. Lett. 44, 288 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Yanagawa, O. Tadanaga, K. Magari, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 221115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

R. Martini, C. Gmachl, J. Falciglia, F. G. Curti, C. G. Bethea, F. Capasso, E. A. Whittaker, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, Electron. Lett. 37, 191 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

K. P. Petrov, A. T. Ryan, T. L. Patterson, L. Huang, S. J. Field, and D. J. Bamford, Appl. Phys. B 67, 357 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

Asobe, M.

M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, T. Umeki, Y. Nishida, and H. Suzuki, Electron. Lett. 44, 288 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Richter, P. Weibring, A. Fried, O. Tadanaga, Y. Nishida, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, Opt. Express 15, 564 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yanagawa, O. Tadanaga, K. Magari, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 221115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bamford, D. J.

K. P. Petrov, A. T. Ryan, T. L. Patterson, L. Huang, S. J. Field, and D. J. Bamford, Appl. Phys. B 67, 357 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bethea, C. G.

R. Martini, C. Gmachl, J. Falciglia, F. G. Curti, C. G. Bethea, F. Capasso, E. A. Whittaker, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, Electron. Lett. 37, 191 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Büchter, D.

E. Ip, D. Büchter, C. Langrock, J. M. Kahn, H. Herrmann, W. Sohler, and M. M. Fejer, in Proceedings of the European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (IEEE, 2008), paper Tu.3.E.7.

Capasso, F.

R. Martini, C. Gmachl, J. Falciglia, F. G. Curti, C. G. Bethea, F. Capasso, E. A. Whittaker, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, Electron. Lett. 37, 191 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A. Y.

R. Martini, C. Gmachl, J. Falciglia, F. G. Curti, C. G. Bethea, F. Capasso, E. A. Whittaker, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, Electron. Lett. 37, 191 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Curti, F. G.

R. Martini, C. Gmachl, J. Falciglia, F. G. Curti, C. G. Bethea, F. Capasso, E. A. Whittaker, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, Electron. Lett. 37, 191 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Falciglia, J.

R. Martini, C. Gmachl, J. Falciglia, F. G. Curti, C. G. Bethea, F. Capasso, E. A. Whittaker, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, Electron. Lett. 37, 191 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

E. Ip, D. Büchter, C. Langrock, J. M. Kahn, H. Herrmann, W. Sohler, and M. M. Fejer, in Proceedings of the European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (IEEE, 2008), paper Tu.3.E.7.

Field, S. J.

K. P. Petrov, A. T. Ryan, T. L. Patterson, L. Huang, S. J. Field, and D. J. Bamford, Appl. Phys. B 67, 357 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fried, A.

Gmachl, C.

R. Martini, C. Gmachl, J. Falciglia, F. G. Curti, C. G. Bethea, F. Capasso, E. A. Whittaker, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, Electron. Lett. 37, 191 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Grundkötter, W.

S. Orlov, W. Grundkötter, D. Hofmann, V. Quiring, R. Ricken, H. Suche, and W. Sohler, in Mid-Infrared Coherent Sources and Applications, NATO Science Series--B: Physics and Biophysics, M.Ebrahimzadeh and I.T.Sorokina, eds. (Springer, 2008).

Herrmann, H.

E. Ip, D. Büchter, C. Langrock, J. M. Kahn, H. Herrmann, W. Sohler, and M. M. Fejer, in Proceedings of the European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (IEEE, 2008), paper Tu.3.E.7.

Hofmann, D.

S. Orlov, W. Grundkötter, D. Hofmann, V. Quiring, R. Ricken, H. Suche, and W. Sohler, in Mid-Infrared Coherent Sources and Applications, NATO Science Series--B: Physics and Biophysics, M.Ebrahimzadeh and I.T.Sorokina, eds. (Springer, 2008).

Huang, L.

K. P. Petrov, A. T. Ryan, T. L. Patterson, L. Huang, S. J. Field, and D. J. Bamford, Appl. Phys. B 67, 357 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hutchinson, A. L.

R. Martini, C. Gmachl, J. Falciglia, F. G. Curti, C. G. Bethea, F. Capasso, E. A. Whittaker, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, Electron. Lett. 37, 191 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ip, E.

E. Ip, D. Büchter, C. Langrock, J. M. Kahn, H. Herrmann, W. Sohler, and M. M. Fejer, in Proceedings of the European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (IEEE, 2008), paper Tu.3.E.7.

Kahn, J. M.

E. Ip, D. Büchter, C. Langrock, J. M. Kahn, H. Herrmann, W. Sohler, and M. M. Fejer, in Proceedings of the European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (IEEE, 2008), paper Tu.3.E.7.

Langrock, C.

E. Ip, D. Büchter, C. Langrock, J. M. Kahn, H. Herrmann, W. Sohler, and M. M. Fejer, in Proceedings of the European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (IEEE, 2008), paper Tu.3.E.7.

Magari, K.

O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Yanagawa, O. Tadanaga, K. Magari, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 221115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Martini, R.

R. Martini, C. Gmachl, J. Falciglia, F. G. Curti, C. G. Bethea, F. Capasso, E. A. Whittaker, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, Electron. Lett. 37, 191 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Miyazawa, H.

T. Yanagawa, O. Tadanaga, K. Magari, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 221115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nishida, Y.

M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, T. Umeki, Y. Nishida, and H. Suzuki, Electron. Lett. 44, 288 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Richter, P. Weibring, A. Fried, O. Tadanaga, Y. Nishida, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, Opt. Express 15, 564 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yanagawa, O. Tadanaga, K. Magari, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 221115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Orlov, S.

S. Orlov, W. Grundkötter, D. Hofmann, V. Quiring, R. Ricken, H. Suche, and W. Sohler, in Mid-Infrared Coherent Sources and Applications, NATO Science Series--B: Physics and Biophysics, M.Ebrahimzadeh and I.T.Sorokina, eds. (Springer, 2008).

Paiella, R.

R. Martini, C. Gmachl, J. Falciglia, F. G. Curti, C. G. Bethea, F. Capasso, E. A. Whittaker, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, Electron. Lett. 37, 191 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Patterson, T. L.

K. P. Petrov, A. T. Ryan, T. L. Patterson, L. Huang, S. J. Field, and D. J. Bamford, Appl. Phys. B 67, 357 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, K. P.

K. P. Petrov, A. T. Ryan, T. L. Patterson, L. Huang, S. J. Field, and D. J. Bamford, Appl. Phys. B 67, 357 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Quiring, V.

S. Orlov, W. Grundkötter, D. Hofmann, V. Quiring, R. Ricken, H. Suche, and W. Sohler, in Mid-Infrared Coherent Sources and Applications, NATO Science Series--B: Physics and Biophysics, M.Ebrahimzadeh and I.T.Sorokina, eds. (Springer, 2008).

Richter, D.

Ricken, R.

S. Orlov, W. Grundkötter, D. Hofmann, V. Quiring, R. Ricken, H. Suche, and W. Sohler, in Mid-Infrared Coherent Sources and Applications, NATO Science Series--B: Physics and Biophysics, M.Ebrahimzadeh and I.T.Sorokina, eds. (Springer, 2008).

Ryan, A. T.

K. P. Petrov, A. T. Ryan, T. L. Patterson, L. Huang, S. J. Field, and D. J. Bamford, Appl. Phys. B 67, 357 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sivco, D. L.

R. Martini, C. Gmachl, J. Falciglia, F. G. Curti, C. G. Bethea, F. Capasso, E. A. Whittaker, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, Electron. Lett. 37, 191 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sohler, W.

S. Orlov, W. Grundkötter, D. Hofmann, V. Quiring, R. Ricken, H. Suche, and W. Sohler, in Mid-Infrared Coherent Sources and Applications, NATO Science Series--B: Physics and Biophysics, M.Ebrahimzadeh and I.T.Sorokina, eds. (Springer, 2008).

E. Ip, D. Büchter, C. Langrock, J. M. Kahn, H. Herrmann, W. Sohler, and M. M. Fejer, in Proceedings of the European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (IEEE, 2008), paper Tu.3.E.7.

Stier, M. T.

Suche, H.

S. Orlov, W. Grundkötter, D. Hofmann, V. Quiring, R. Ricken, H. Suche, and W. Sohler, in Mid-Infrared Coherent Sources and Applications, NATO Science Series--B: Physics and Biophysics, M.Ebrahimzadeh and I.T.Sorokina, eds. (Springer, 2008).

Suzuki, H.

M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, T. Umeki, Y. Nishida, and H. Suzuki, Electron. Lett. 44, 288 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Richter, P. Weibring, A. Fried, O. Tadanaga, Y. Nishida, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, Opt. Express 15, 564 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yanagawa, O. Tadanaga, K. Magari, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 221115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tadanaga, O.

M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, T. Umeki, Y. Nishida, and H. Suzuki, Electron. Lett. 44, 288 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Richter, P. Weibring, A. Fried, O. Tadanaga, Y. Nishida, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, Opt. Express 15, 564 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yanagawa, O. Tadanaga, K. Magari, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 221115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Traub, W. A.

Tredicucci, A.

R. Martini, C. Gmachl, J. Falciglia, F. G. Curti, C. G. Bethea, F. Capasso, E. A. Whittaker, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, Electron. Lett. 37, 191 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Umeki, T.

M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, T. Umeki, Y. Nishida, and H. Suzuki, Electron. Lett. 44, 288 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Weibring, P.

Whittaker, E. A.

R. Martini, C. Gmachl, J. Falciglia, F. G. Curti, C. G. Bethea, F. Capasso, E. A. Whittaker, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, Electron. Lett. 37, 191 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yanagawa, T.

M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, T. Umeki, Y. Nishida, and H. Suzuki, Electron. Lett. 44, 288 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Yanagawa, O. Tadanaga, K. Magari, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 221115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

K. P. Petrov, A. T. Ryan, T. L. Patterson, L. Huang, S. J. Field, and D. J. Bamford, Appl. Phys. B 67, 357 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Yanagawa, O. Tadanaga, K. Magari, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 221115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, T. Umeki, Y. Nishida, and H. Suzuki, Electron. Lett. 44, 288 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Martini, C. Gmachl, J. Falciglia, F. G. Curti, C. G. Bethea, F. Capasso, E. A. Whittaker, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, Electron. Lett. 37, 191 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Other (2)

E. Ip, D. Büchter, C. Langrock, J. M. Kahn, H. Herrmann, W. Sohler, and M. M. Fejer, in Proceedings of the European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (IEEE, 2008), paper Tu.3.E.7.

S. Orlov, W. Grundkötter, D. Hofmann, V. Quiring, R. Ricken, H. Suche, and W. Sohler, in Mid-Infrared Coherent Sources and Applications, NATO Science Series--B: Physics and Biophysics, M.Ebrahimzadeh and I.T.Sorokina, eds. (Springer, 2008).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Calculated MIR power in milliwatts generated by DFG in an 80 - mm -long Ti-diffused PPLN waveguide as a function of coupled pump and signal power.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the transmitter–receiver module. The receiver module has an additional dielectric mirror to enable copropagating DFG of MIR radiation and pump from right to left.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured phase-matching characteristics of both modules (left) as well as calculated ones, with and without parabolic chirp of Δ β (right); all are normalized to the enclosed area. The chirp corresponds to a variation of either temperature Δ T 13 ° C , Ti strip width Δ w 1.6 μ m , Ti strip thickness Δ d 5 nm , or diffusion temperature Δ T diff 2.3 ° C .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured output power of the transmitter module (symbols), depending on pump and signal power levels coupled to the waveguide. The curves represent corresponding calculations.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

MIR–FSO link of 1.5 m length set up with transmitter and receiver modules (left). Measured (circles) and expected (solid curve) output signal power versus the signal wavelength (input signal power: 320 mW ) (right).

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