Abstract

Micropillars and microlenses, integrated at the end of optical fibers, were fabricated by microfabrication by direct photopolymerization in the near-IR (NIR) region (700950nm). They were built by self-guiding polymerization using the NIR-light emerging from the optical fiber. The aim is to demonstrate that photopolymer material can be used to fabricate micro-optical devices by a single step process utilizing NIR activation. The material and process described here fulfill the requirements for a simple and fast implementation of micro-optics onto NIR sources.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. G. Cohen and M. V. Schneider, Appl. Opt. 13, 89 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. H. Ghafouri-Shiraz and T. Aruga, Opt. Laser Technol. 28, 367 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. Schiappelli, R. Kumar, M. Prasciolu, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, M. De Vittorio, G. Visimberga, A. Gerardino, V. Degiorgio, and E. Di Fabrizio, Microelectron. Eng. 73-74, 397 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. K. Eah, H. M. Jaeger, N. F. Schereret, G. P. Wiederrecht, and X.-M. Lin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 0319021 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Kato, J. Appl. Phys. 44, 2756 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. M. Persby, A. F. Benner, and C. A. Edwards, Appl. Opt. 29, 2692 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Eisenstein and D. Vitello, Appl. Opt. 21, 3470 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. Bachelot, P. Royer, G. Wurtz, C. Ecoffet, A. Espanet, and D. J. Lougnot, 'Monomodal or weakly multimodal optical fibers, with large numerical aperture at ends, having tip(s) of transparent plastics for forming specific connections e.g. to other optical fibers or lasers,' French patent FR27980740 (2001).
  9. M. Hocine, N. Fressengeas, G. Kugel, C. Carré, D. J. Lougnot, R. Bachelot, and P. Royer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 611 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. D. Dorkenoo, F. Gillot, O. Cregut, Y. Sonnefraud, A. Fort, and H. Leblond, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 143905 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. H. I. El Ahrach, R. Bachelot, A. Vial, G. Lerondel, J. Plain, P. Royer, and O. Soppera, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 107402 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. C. Croutxé-Barghorn, O. Soppera, and D. J. Lougnot, Appl. Surf. Sci. 168, 89 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. N. Noiret, C. Meyer, and D. J. Lougnot, Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 55 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  15. E. Watanabe, M. Kawabata, and I. Sumiyoshi, “Near infrared polymerizable composition,” U.S. Patent 5,496,903 (Mar. 5, 1996).
  16. T. Urano, H. Nagasaka, M. Shimizu, and T. Yamaoka, J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 41, 407 (1997).
  17. S. Zhang, B. Li, L. Tang, X. Wang, D. Liu, and Q. Zhou, Polymer 42, 7575 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  18. T. Galstian and Y. Boiko, “Optical connection of waveguides of an optical element using a near infrared sensitive photopolymerizable composition,” European patent EP1257613 (Sept. 15, 2004) and references therein.
  19. S. Jradi, O. Soppera, and D. J. Lougnot, Opt. Mater. 31, 640 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

S. Jradi, O. Soppera, and D. J. Lougnot, Opt. Mater. 31, 640 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

O. Soppera, S. Jradi, and D. J. Lougnot, J. Polym. Sci. Part A Polym. Chem. 46, 3783 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

H. I. El Ahrach, R. Bachelot, A. Vial, G. Lerondel, J. Plain, P. Royer, and O. Soppera, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 107402 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

S. K. Eah, H. M. Jaeger, N. F. Schereret, G. P. Wiederrecht, and X.-M. Lin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 0319021 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

F. Schiappelli, R. Kumar, M. Prasciolu, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, M. De Vittorio, G. Visimberga, A. Gerardino, V. Degiorgio, and E. Di Fabrizio, Microelectron. Eng. 73-74, 397 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Dorkenoo, F. Gillot, O. Cregut, Y. Sonnefraud, A. Fort, and H. Leblond, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 143905 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

S. Zhang, B. Li, L. Tang, X. Wang, D. Liu, and Q. Zhou, Polymer 42, 7575 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

C. Croutxé-Barghorn, O. Soppera, and D. J. Lougnot, Appl. Surf. Sci. 168, 89 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

T. Urano, H. Nagasaka, M. Shimizu, and T. Yamaoka, J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 41, 407 (1997).

1996 (1)

H. Ghafouri-Shiraz and T. Aruga, Opt. Laser Technol. 28, 367 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

N. Noiret, C. Meyer, and D. J. Lougnot, Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1982 (1)

1974 (1)

1973 (1)

D. Kato, J. Appl. Phys. 44, 2756 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Aruga, T.

H. Ghafouri-Shiraz and T. Aruga, Opt. Laser Technol. 28, 367 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bachelot, R.

H. I. El Ahrach, R. Bachelot, A. Vial, G. Lerondel, J. Plain, P. Royer, and O. Soppera, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 107402 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hocine, N. Fressengeas, G. Kugel, C. Carré, D. J. Lougnot, R. Bachelot, and P. Royer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 611 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Bachelot, P. Royer, G. Wurtz, C. Ecoffet, A. Espanet, and D. J. Lougnot, 'Monomodal or weakly multimodal optical fibers, with large numerical aperture at ends, having tip(s) of transparent plastics for forming specific connections e.g. to other optical fibers or lasers,' French patent FR27980740 (2001).

Benner, A. F.

Boiko, Y.

T. Galstian and Y. Boiko, “Optical connection of waveguides of an optical element using a near infrared sensitive photopolymerizable composition,” European patent EP1257613 (Sept. 15, 2004) and references therein.

Cabrini, S.

F. Schiappelli, R. Kumar, M. Prasciolu, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, M. De Vittorio, G. Visimberga, A. Gerardino, V. Degiorgio, and E. Di Fabrizio, Microelectron. Eng. 73-74, 397 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Carré, C.

Cohen, L. G.

Cojoc, D.

F. Schiappelli, R. Kumar, M. Prasciolu, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, M. De Vittorio, G. Visimberga, A. Gerardino, V. Degiorgio, and E. Di Fabrizio, Microelectron. Eng. 73-74, 397 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cregut, O.

K. D. Dorkenoo, F. Gillot, O. Cregut, Y. Sonnefraud, A. Fort, and H. Leblond, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 143905 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Croutxé-Barghorn, C.

C. Croutxé-Barghorn, O. Soppera, and D. J. Lougnot, Appl. Surf. Sci. 168, 89 (2000).
[CrossRef]

De Vittorio, M.

F. Schiappelli, R. Kumar, M. Prasciolu, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, M. De Vittorio, G. Visimberga, A. Gerardino, V. Degiorgio, and E. Di Fabrizio, Microelectron. Eng. 73-74, 397 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Degiorgio, V.

F. Schiappelli, R. Kumar, M. Prasciolu, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, M. De Vittorio, G. Visimberga, A. Gerardino, V. Degiorgio, and E. Di Fabrizio, Microelectron. Eng. 73-74, 397 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Di Fabrizio, E.

F. Schiappelli, R. Kumar, M. Prasciolu, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, M. De Vittorio, G. Visimberga, A. Gerardino, V. Degiorgio, and E. Di Fabrizio, Microelectron. Eng. 73-74, 397 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dorkenoo, K. D.

K. D. Dorkenoo, F. Gillot, O. Cregut, Y. Sonnefraud, A. Fort, and H. Leblond, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 143905 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eah, S. K.

S. K. Eah, H. M. Jaeger, N. F. Schereret, G. P. Wiederrecht, and X.-M. Lin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 0319021 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ecoffet, C.

R. Bachelot, P. Royer, G. Wurtz, C. Ecoffet, A. Espanet, and D. J. Lougnot, 'Monomodal or weakly multimodal optical fibers, with large numerical aperture at ends, having tip(s) of transparent plastics for forming specific connections e.g. to other optical fibers or lasers,' French patent FR27980740 (2001).

Edwards, C. A.

Eisenstein, G.

El Ahrach, H. I.

H. I. El Ahrach, R. Bachelot, A. Vial, G. Lerondel, J. Plain, P. Royer, and O. Soppera, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 107402 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Espanet, A.

R. Bachelot, P. Royer, G. Wurtz, C. Ecoffet, A. Espanet, and D. J. Lougnot, 'Monomodal or weakly multimodal optical fibers, with large numerical aperture at ends, having tip(s) of transparent plastics for forming specific connections e.g. to other optical fibers or lasers,' French patent FR27980740 (2001).

Fort, A.

K. D. Dorkenoo, F. Gillot, O. Cregut, Y. Sonnefraud, A. Fort, and H. Leblond, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 143905 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fressengeas, N.

Galstian, T.

T. Galstian and Y. Boiko, “Optical connection of waveguides of an optical element using a near infrared sensitive photopolymerizable composition,” European patent EP1257613 (Sept. 15, 2004) and references therein.

Gerardino, A.

F. Schiappelli, R. Kumar, M. Prasciolu, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, M. De Vittorio, G. Visimberga, A. Gerardino, V. Degiorgio, and E. Di Fabrizio, Microelectron. Eng. 73-74, 397 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ghafouri-Shiraz, H.

H. Ghafouri-Shiraz and T. Aruga, Opt. Laser Technol. 28, 367 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gillot, F.

K. D. Dorkenoo, F. Gillot, O. Cregut, Y. Sonnefraud, A. Fort, and H. Leblond, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 143905 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hocine, M.

Jaeger, H. M.

S. K. Eah, H. M. Jaeger, N. F. Schereret, G. P. Wiederrecht, and X.-M. Lin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 0319021 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jradi, S.

S. Jradi, O. Soppera, and D. J. Lougnot, Opt. Mater. 31, 640 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Soppera, S. Jradi, and D. J. Lougnot, J. Polym. Sci. Part A Polym. Chem. 46, 3783 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kato, D.

D. Kato, J. Appl. Phys. 44, 2756 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Kawabata, M.

E. Watanabe, M. Kawabata, and I. Sumiyoshi, “Near infrared polymerizable composition,” U.S. Patent 5,496,903 (Mar. 5, 1996).

Kugel, G.

Kumar, R.

F. Schiappelli, R. Kumar, M. Prasciolu, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, M. De Vittorio, G. Visimberga, A. Gerardino, V. Degiorgio, and E. Di Fabrizio, Microelectron. Eng. 73-74, 397 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Leblond, H.

K. D. Dorkenoo, F. Gillot, O. Cregut, Y. Sonnefraud, A. Fort, and H. Leblond, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 143905 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lerondel, G.

H. I. El Ahrach, R. Bachelot, A. Vial, G. Lerondel, J. Plain, P. Royer, and O. Soppera, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 107402 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, B.

S. Zhang, B. Li, L. Tang, X. Wang, D. Liu, and Q. Zhou, Polymer 42, 7575 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lin, X.-M.

S. K. Eah, H. M. Jaeger, N. F. Schereret, G. P. Wiederrecht, and X.-M. Lin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 0319021 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, D.

S. Zhang, B. Li, L. Tang, X. Wang, D. Liu, and Q. Zhou, Polymer 42, 7575 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lougnot, D. J.

S. Jradi, O. Soppera, and D. J. Lougnot, Opt. Mater. 31, 640 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Soppera, S. Jradi, and D. J. Lougnot, J. Polym. Sci. Part A Polym. Chem. 46, 3783 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Hocine, N. Fressengeas, G. Kugel, C. Carré, D. J. Lougnot, R. Bachelot, and P. Royer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 611 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Croutxé-Barghorn, O. Soppera, and D. J. Lougnot, Appl. Surf. Sci. 168, 89 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Noiret, C. Meyer, and D. J. Lougnot, Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Bachelot, P. Royer, G. Wurtz, C. Ecoffet, A. Espanet, and D. J. Lougnot, 'Monomodal or weakly multimodal optical fibers, with large numerical aperture at ends, having tip(s) of transparent plastics for forming specific connections e.g. to other optical fibers or lasers,' French patent FR27980740 (2001).

Meyer, C.

N. Noiret, C. Meyer, and D. J. Lougnot, Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nagasaka, H.

T. Urano, H. Nagasaka, M. Shimizu, and T. Yamaoka, J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 41, 407 (1997).

Noiret, N.

N. Noiret, C. Meyer, and D. J. Lougnot, Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Persby, H. M.

Plain, J.

H. I. El Ahrach, R. Bachelot, A. Vial, G. Lerondel, J. Plain, P. Royer, and O. Soppera, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 107402 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prasciolu, M.

F. Schiappelli, R. Kumar, M. Prasciolu, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, M. De Vittorio, G. Visimberga, A. Gerardino, V. Degiorgio, and E. Di Fabrizio, Microelectron. Eng. 73-74, 397 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Royer, P.

H. I. El Ahrach, R. Bachelot, A. Vial, G. Lerondel, J. Plain, P. Royer, and O. Soppera, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 107402 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hocine, N. Fressengeas, G. Kugel, C. Carré, D. J. Lougnot, R. Bachelot, and P. Royer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 611 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Bachelot, P. Royer, G. Wurtz, C. Ecoffet, A. Espanet, and D. J. Lougnot, 'Monomodal or weakly multimodal optical fibers, with large numerical aperture at ends, having tip(s) of transparent plastics for forming specific connections e.g. to other optical fibers or lasers,' French patent FR27980740 (2001).

Schereret, N. F.

S. K. Eah, H. M. Jaeger, N. F. Schereret, G. P. Wiederrecht, and X.-M. Lin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 0319021 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schiappelli, F.

F. Schiappelli, R. Kumar, M. Prasciolu, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, M. De Vittorio, G. Visimberga, A. Gerardino, V. Degiorgio, and E. Di Fabrizio, Microelectron. Eng. 73-74, 397 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, M. V.

Shimizu, M.

T. Urano, H. Nagasaka, M. Shimizu, and T. Yamaoka, J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 41, 407 (1997).

Sonnefraud, Y.

K. D. Dorkenoo, F. Gillot, O. Cregut, Y. Sonnefraud, A. Fort, and H. Leblond, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 143905 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soppera, O.

S. Jradi, O. Soppera, and D. J. Lougnot, Opt. Mater. 31, 640 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Soppera, S. Jradi, and D. J. Lougnot, J. Polym. Sci. Part A Polym. Chem. 46, 3783 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. I. El Ahrach, R. Bachelot, A. Vial, G. Lerondel, J. Plain, P. Royer, and O. Soppera, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 107402 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Croutxé-Barghorn, O. Soppera, and D. J. Lougnot, Appl. Surf. Sci. 168, 89 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sumiyoshi, I.

E. Watanabe, M. Kawabata, and I. Sumiyoshi, “Near infrared polymerizable composition,” U.S. Patent 5,496,903 (Mar. 5, 1996).

Tang, L.

S. Zhang, B. Li, L. Tang, X. Wang, D. Liu, and Q. Zhou, Polymer 42, 7575 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Urano, T.

T. Urano, H. Nagasaka, M. Shimizu, and T. Yamaoka, J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 41, 407 (1997).

Vial, A.

H. I. El Ahrach, R. Bachelot, A. Vial, G. Lerondel, J. Plain, P. Royer, and O. Soppera, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 107402 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Visimberga, G.

F. Schiappelli, R. Kumar, M. Prasciolu, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, M. De Vittorio, G. Visimberga, A. Gerardino, V. Degiorgio, and E. Di Fabrizio, Microelectron. Eng. 73-74, 397 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vitello, D.

Wang, X.

S. Zhang, B. Li, L. Tang, X. Wang, D. Liu, and Q. Zhou, Polymer 42, 7575 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, E.

E. Watanabe, M. Kawabata, and I. Sumiyoshi, “Near infrared polymerizable composition,” U.S. Patent 5,496,903 (Mar. 5, 1996).

Wiederrecht, G. P.

S. K. Eah, H. M. Jaeger, N. F. Schereret, G. P. Wiederrecht, and X.-M. Lin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 0319021 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wurtz, G.

R. Bachelot, P. Royer, G. Wurtz, C. Ecoffet, A. Espanet, and D. J. Lougnot, 'Monomodal or weakly multimodal optical fibers, with large numerical aperture at ends, having tip(s) of transparent plastics for forming specific connections e.g. to other optical fibers or lasers,' French patent FR27980740 (2001).

Yamaoka, T.

T. Urano, H. Nagasaka, M. Shimizu, and T. Yamaoka, J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 41, 407 (1997).

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, B. Li, L. Tang, X. Wang, D. Liu, and Q. Zhou, Polymer 42, 7575 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Q.

S. Zhang, B. Li, L. Tang, X. Wang, D. Liu, and Q. Zhou, Polymer 42, 7575 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. K. Eah, H. M. Jaeger, N. F. Schereret, G. P. Wiederrecht, and X.-M. Lin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 0319021 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

C. Croutxé-Barghorn, O. Soppera, and D. J. Lougnot, Appl. Surf. Sci. 168, 89 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. Kato, J. Appl. Phys. 44, 2756 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. Imaging Sci. Technol. (1)

T. Urano, H. Nagasaka, M. Shimizu, and T. Yamaoka, J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 41, 407 (1997).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Polym. Sci. Part A Polym. Chem. (1)

O. Soppera, S. Jradi, and D. J. Lougnot, J. Polym. Sci. Part A Polym. Chem. 46, 3783 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

F. Schiappelli, R. Kumar, M. Prasciolu, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, M. De Vittorio, G. Visimberga, A. Gerardino, V. Degiorgio, and E. Di Fabrizio, Microelectron. Eng. 73-74, 397 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

H. Ghafouri-Shiraz and T. Aruga, Opt. Laser Technol. 28, 367 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Mater. (1)

S. Jradi, O. Soppera, and D. J. Lougnot, Opt. Mater. 31, 640 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

K. D. Dorkenoo, F. Gillot, O. Cregut, Y. Sonnefraud, A. Fort, and H. Leblond, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 143905 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. I. El Ahrach, R. Bachelot, A. Vial, G. Lerondel, J. Plain, P. Royer, and O. Soppera, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 107402 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polymer (1)

S. Zhang, B. Li, L. Tang, X. Wang, D. Liu, and Q. Zhou, Polymer 42, 7575 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

N. Noiret, C. Meyer, and D. J. Lougnot, Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

E. Watanabe, M. Kawabata, and I. Sumiyoshi, “Near infrared polymerizable composition,” U.S. Patent 5,496,903 (Mar. 5, 1996).

R. Bachelot, P. Royer, G. Wurtz, C. Ecoffet, A. Espanet, and D. J. Lougnot, 'Monomodal or weakly multimodal optical fibers, with large numerical aperture at ends, having tip(s) of transparent plastics for forming specific connections e.g. to other optical fibers or lasers,' French patent FR27980740 (2001).

T. Galstian and Y. Boiko, “Optical connection of waveguides of an optical element using a near infrared sensitive photopolymerizable composition,” European patent EP1257613 (Sept. 15, 2004) and references therein.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Time evolution of the absorbance of the formulation upon irradiation at 830 nm . Incident light power was 0.36 mW cm 2 in laminated conditions, and irradiation times were chosen between 0 and 2400 s .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Example of a micropillar fabricated by self-guiding at 830 nm . The diameter is 14 μ m and the length is 35 μ m .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a), (b) Microtips obtained by irradiation at 780 nm , with 5 and 300 s exposures, respectively, and P = 500 nW . (c), (d) SEM images of a tip fabricated in the same conditions as (a).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Correlation Between the Doses Needed to Fabricate Micropillars (Same Dimensions as in Fig. 2) and the Relative Absorbance at Various Wavelengths

Metrics