Abstract

IR-transparent β-GeS2 crystallized glasses were fabricated by crystallization of the glass with a stoichiometric composition corresponding to target crystal and only β-GeS2 crystallites were precipitated. A clear second-harmonic generation was observed in the crystallized glasses by the Maker fringe technique. The optical nonlinear susceptibility, χ(2), of β-GeS2 crystallized glasses was found to be 7.3pmV, being comparable to that created by thermal/electric or other poling methods, which opens a new way to an optical converter operating in the mid-IR spectral region.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. Guo, H. Tao, S. Gu, X. Zheng, Y. Zhai, S. Chu, X. Zhao, S. Wang, and Q. Gong, Solid State Chem. 180, 240 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Takahashi, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 223 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

C. Lin, H. Tao, R. Pan, X. Zheng, G. Dong, H. Zang, and X. Zhao, Chem. Phys. Lett. 460, 125 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (5)

H. Guo, H. Tao, S. Gu, X. Zheng, Y. Zhai, S. Chu, X. Zhao, S. Wang, and Q. Gong, Solid State Chem. 180, 240 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. V. Kityk, M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, X. Zhang, J. Troles, F. Smektala, B. Sahraoui, and G. Boudebs, Physica B 391, 222 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, X. Zhang, F. Smektala, A. Moréac, S. Pechev, H. Zeghlache, A. Kudlinski, G. Martinelli, and Y. Quiquempois, Opt. Mater. 30, 338 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Tao, C. Lin, S. Gu, C. Jing, and X. Zhao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 011904 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Calvez, H. Ma, J. Lucas, and X. Zhang, Adv. Mater. 19, 129 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

Y. Takahashi, K. Kitamura, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 091110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

M. Baudrier-Raybaut, R. Haïdar, Ph. Kupecek, Ph. Lemasson, and E. Rosencher, Nature 432, 374 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

Y. Takahashi, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 223 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Hendy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1171 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

Y. Takahashi, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5282 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

Z. Černošek, E. Černošková, and L. Beneš, J. Mol. Struct. 435, 193 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

G. Lucovsky, F. L. Galeener, R. C. Keezer, R. H. Geils, and H. A. Six, Phys. Rev. B 10, 5134 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

A. Hruby, Czech J. Phys. B 23, 1263 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

J. Jerphagnon and S. K. Kurtz, Phys. Rev. B 1, 1739 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Baudrier-Raybaut, M.

M. Baudrier-Raybaut, R. Haïdar, Ph. Kupecek, Ph. Lemasson, and E. Rosencher, Nature 432, 374 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beneš, L.

Z. Černošek, E. Černošková, and L. Beneš, J. Mol. Struct. 435, 193 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Benino, Y.

Y. Takahashi, K. Kitamura, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 091110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takahashi, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 223 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takahashi, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5282 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Boudebs, G.

I. V. Kityk, M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, X. Zhang, J. Troles, F. Smektala, B. Sahraoui, and G. Boudebs, Physica B 391, 222 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Calvez, L.

L. Calvez, H. Ma, J. Lucas, and X. Zhang, Adv. Mater. 19, 129 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cernošek, Z.

Z. Černošek, E. Černošková, and L. Beneš, J. Mol. Struct. 435, 193 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cernošková, E.

Z. Černošek, E. Černošková, and L. Beneš, J. Mol. Struct. 435, 193 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S.

H. Guo, H. Tao, S. Gu, X. Zheng, Y. Zhai, S. Chu, X. Zhao, S. Wang, and Q. Gong, Solid State Chem. 180, 240 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dong, G.

C. Lin, H. Tao, R. Pan, X. Zheng, G. Dong, H. Zang, and X. Zhao, Chem. Phys. Lett. 460, 125 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, T.

Y. Takahashi, K. Kitamura, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 091110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takahashi, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 223 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takahashi, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5282 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Galeener, F. L.

G. Lucovsky, F. L. Galeener, R. C. Keezer, R. H. Geils, and H. A. Six, Phys. Rev. B 10, 5134 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Geils, R. H.

G. Lucovsky, F. L. Galeener, R. C. Keezer, R. H. Geils, and H. A. Six, Phys. Rev. B 10, 5134 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Q.

H. Guo, H. Tao, S. Gu, X. Zheng, Y. Zhai, S. Chu, X. Zhao, S. Wang, and Q. Gong, Solid State Chem. 180, 240 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gu, S.

H. Guo, H. Tao, S. Gu, X. Zheng, Y. Zhai, S. Chu, X. Zhao, S. Wang, and Q. Gong, Solid State Chem. 180, 240 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Tao, C. Lin, S. Gu, C. Jing, and X. Zhao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 011904 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guignard, M.

M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, X. Zhang, F. Smektala, A. Moréac, S. Pechev, H. Zeghlache, A. Kudlinski, G. Martinelli, and Y. Quiquempois, Opt. Mater. 30, 338 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. V. Kityk, M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, X. Zhang, J. Troles, F. Smektala, B. Sahraoui, and G. Boudebs, Physica B 391, 222 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guo, H.

H. Guo, H. Tao, S. Gu, X. Zheng, Y. Zhai, S. Chu, X. Zhao, S. Wang, and Q. Gong, Solid State Chem. 180, 240 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Haïdar, R.

M. Baudrier-Raybaut, R. Haïdar, Ph. Kupecek, Ph. Lemasson, and E. Rosencher, Nature 432, 374 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hendy, S.

S. Hendy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1171 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hruby, A.

A. Hruby, Czech J. Phys. B 23, 1263 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Jerphagnon, J.

J. Jerphagnon and S. K. Kurtz, Phys. Rev. B 1, 1739 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Jing, C.

H. Tao, C. Lin, S. Gu, C. Jing, and X. Zhao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 011904 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Keezer, R. C.

G. Lucovsky, F. L. Galeener, R. C. Keezer, R. H. Geils, and H. A. Six, Phys. Rev. B 10, 5134 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Kitamura, K.

Y. Takahashi, K. Kitamura, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 091110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kityk, I. V.

I. V. Kityk, M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, X. Zhang, J. Troles, F. Smektala, B. Sahraoui, and G. Boudebs, Physica B 391, 222 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Komatsu, T.

Y. Takahashi, K. Kitamura, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 091110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takahashi, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 223 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takahashi, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5282 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kudlinski, A.

M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, X. Zhang, F. Smektala, A. Moréac, S. Pechev, H. Zeghlache, A. Kudlinski, G. Martinelli, and Y. Quiquempois, Opt. Mater. 30, 338 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kupecek, Ph.

M. Baudrier-Raybaut, R. Haïdar, Ph. Kupecek, Ph. Lemasson, and E. Rosencher, Nature 432, 374 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurtz, S. K.

J. Jerphagnon and S. K. Kurtz, Phys. Rev. B 1, 1739 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Lemasson, Ph.

M. Baudrier-Raybaut, R. Haïdar, Ph. Kupecek, Ph. Lemasson, and E. Rosencher, Nature 432, 374 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C.

C. Lin, H. Tao, R. Pan, X. Zheng, G. Dong, H. Zang, and X. Zhao, Chem. Phys. Lett. 460, 125 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Tao, C. Lin, S. Gu, C. Jing, and X. Zhao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 011904 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lucas, J.

L. Calvez, H. Ma, J. Lucas, and X. Zhang, Adv. Mater. 19, 129 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lucovsky, G.

G. Lucovsky, F. L. Galeener, R. C. Keezer, R. H. Geils, and H. A. Six, Phys. Rev. B 10, 5134 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Ma, H.

L. Calvez, H. Ma, J. Lucas, and X. Zhang, Adv. Mater. 19, 129 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Martinelli, G.

M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, X. Zhang, F. Smektala, A. Moréac, S. Pechev, H. Zeghlache, A. Kudlinski, G. Martinelli, and Y. Quiquempois, Opt. Mater. 30, 338 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Moréac, A.

M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, X. Zhang, F. Smektala, A. Moréac, S. Pechev, H. Zeghlache, A. Kudlinski, G. Martinelli, and Y. Quiquempois, Opt. Mater. 30, 338 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nazabal, V.

I. V. Kityk, M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, X. Zhang, J. Troles, F. Smektala, B. Sahraoui, and G. Boudebs, Physica B 391, 222 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, X. Zhang, F. Smektala, A. Moréac, S. Pechev, H. Zeghlache, A. Kudlinski, G. Martinelli, and Y. Quiquempois, Opt. Mater. 30, 338 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pan, R.

C. Lin, H. Tao, R. Pan, X. Zheng, G. Dong, H. Zang, and X. Zhao, Chem. Phys. Lett. 460, 125 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pechev, S.

M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, X. Zhang, F. Smektala, A. Moréac, S. Pechev, H. Zeghlache, A. Kudlinski, G. Martinelli, and Y. Quiquempois, Opt. Mater. 30, 338 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Quiquempois, Y.

M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, X. Zhang, F. Smektala, A. Moréac, S. Pechev, H. Zeghlache, A. Kudlinski, G. Martinelli, and Y. Quiquempois, Opt. Mater. 30, 338 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rosencher, E.

M. Baudrier-Raybaut, R. Haïdar, Ph. Kupecek, Ph. Lemasson, and E. Rosencher, Nature 432, 374 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sahraoui, B.

I. V. Kityk, M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, X. Zhang, J. Troles, F. Smektala, B. Sahraoui, and G. Boudebs, Physica B 391, 222 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Six, H. A.

G. Lucovsky, F. L. Galeener, R. C. Keezer, R. H. Geils, and H. A. Six, Phys. Rev. B 10, 5134 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Smektala, F.

M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, X. Zhang, F. Smektala, A. Moréac, S. Pechev, H. Zeghlache, A. Kudlinski, G. Martinelli, and Y. Quiquempois, Opt. Mater. 30, 338 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. V. Kityk, M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, X. Zhang, J. Troles, F. Smektala, B. Sahraoui, and G. Boudebs, Physica B 391, 222 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, Y.

Y. Takahashi, K. Kitamura, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 091110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takahashi, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 223 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takahashi, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5282 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tao, H.

C. Lin, H. Tao, R. Pan, X. Zheng, G. Dong, H. Zang, and X. Zhao, Chem. Phys. Lett. 460, 125 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Guo, H. Tao, S. Gu, X. Zheng, Y. Zhai, S. Chu, X. Zhao, S. Wang, and Q. Gong, Solid State Chem. 180, 240 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Tao, C. Lin, S. Gu, C. Jing, and X. Zhao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 011904 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Troles, J.

I. V. Kityk, M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, X. Zhang, J. Troles, F. Smektala, B. Sahraoui, and G. Boudebs, Physica B 391, 222 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

H. Guo, H. Tao, S. Gu, X. Zheng, Y. Zhai, S. Chu, X. Zhao, S. Wang, and Q. Gong, Solid State Chem. 180, 240 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zang, H.

C. Lin, H. Tao, R. Pan, X. Zheng, G. Dong, H. Zang, and X. Zhao, Chem. Phys. Lett. 460, 125 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zeghlache, H.

M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, X. Zhang, F. Smektala, A. Moréac, S. Pechev, H. Zeghlache, A. Kudlinski, G. Martinelli, and Y. Quiquempois, Opt. Mater. 30, 338 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhai, Y.

H. Guo, H. Tao, S. Gu, X. Zheng, Y. Zhai, S. Chu, X. Zhao, S. Wang, and Q. Gong, Solid State Chem. 180, 240 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, X. Zhang, F. Smektala, A. Moréac, S. Pechev, H. Zeghlache, A. Kudlinski, G. Martinelli, and Y. Quiquempois, Opt. Mater. 30, 338 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. V. Kityk, M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, X. Zhang, J. Troles, F. Smektala, B. Sahraoui, and G. Boudebs, Physica B 391, 222 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Calvez, H. Ma, J. Lucas, and X. Zhang, Adv. Mater. 19, 129 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, X.

C. Lin, H. Tao, R. Pan, X. Zheng, G. Dong, H. Zang, and X. Zhao, Chem. Phys. Lett. 460, 125 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Tao, C. Lin, S. Gu, C. Jing, and X. Zhao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 011904 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Guo, H. Tao, S. Gu, X. Zheng, Y. Zhai, S. Chu, X. Zhao, S. Wang, and Q. Gong, Solid State Chem. 180, 240 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, X.

C. Lin, H. Tao, R. Pan, X. Zheng, G. Dong, H. Zang, and X. Zhao, Chem. Phys. Lett. 460, 125 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Guo, H. Tao, S. Gu, X. Zheng, Y. Zhai, S. Chu, X. Zhao, S. Wang, and Q. Gong, Solid State Chem. 180, 240 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

L. Calvez, H. Ma, J. Lucas, and X. Zhang, Adv. Mater. 19, 129 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

S. Hendy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1171 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takahashi, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 223 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takahashi, K. Kitamura, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 091110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Tao, C. Lin, S. Gu, C. Jing, and X. Zhao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 011904 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. Lin, H. Tao, R. Pan, X. Zheng, G. Dong, H. Zang, and X. Zhao, Chem. Phys. Lett. 460, 125 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Czech J. Phys. B (1)

A. Hruby, Czech J. Phys. B 23, 1263 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Takahashi, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5282 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Struct. (1)

Z. Černošek, E. Černošková, and L. Beneš, J. Mol. Struct. 435, 193 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

M. Baudrier-Raybaut, R. Haïdar, Ph. Kupecek, Ph. Lemasson, and E. Rosencher, Nature 432, 374 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Mater. (1)

M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, X. Zhang, F. Smektala, A. Moréac, S. Pechev, H. Zeghlache, A. Kudlinski, G. Martinelli, and Y. Quiquempois, Opt. Mater. 30, 338 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

G. Lucovsky, F. L. Galeener, R. C. Keezer, R. H. Geils, and H. A. Six, Phys. Rev. B 10, 5134 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Jerphagnon and S. K. Kurtz, Phys. Rev. B 1, 1739 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Physica B (1)

I. V. Kityk, M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, X. Zhang, J. Troles, F. Smektala, B. Sahraoui, and G. Boudebs, Physica B 391, 222 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Chem. (1)

H. Guo, H. Tao, S. Gu, X. Zheng, Y. Zhai, S. Chu, X. Zhao, S. Wang, and Q. Gong, Solid State Chem. 180, 240 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

XRD patterns of the crystallized glasses obtained by heat treatments at T HT = 460 ° C for (a) 48, (b) 72, (c) 96, (d) 120 h , and JCPDF cards of (e) no. 26-693 ( β - Ge S 2 , orthorhombic system) and (f) no. 74-1465 ( α - S 8 , orthorhombic system).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Raman spectra of (a) as-prepared Ge S 2 glass; Ge S 2 glasses heat treated at 460 ° C for (b) 48, (c) 72, (d) 96, and (e) 120 h , and (f) β - Ge S 2 ([10]).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Mid-IR transmission spectra of as-prepared and the sample heat treated at 460 ° C for 72 h . The inset is Vis-NIR transmission spectra of as-prepared and samples heat treated at 460 ° C for 48, 72, 96, and 120 h , respectively. The thickness of all samples is about 1 mm .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

SEM image of the cross section of β - Ge S 2 surface crystallized glass obtained at T HT = 460 ° C for 72 h .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Maker fringe patterns of the crystallized samples. The maximum of SH intensity of the reference Y-cut quartz is set to 1.

Equations (2)

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P 2 ω = C d eff 2 t ω 4 T 2 ω R ( θ ) P ω 2 sin 2 ψ ( n ω 2 n 2 ω 2 ) 2 ,
ψ = 2 π L λ ( n ω cos θ ω n 2 ω cos θ 2 ω ) π 2 L L c ( θ ) ,

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