Abstract

We present theoretical arguments and experimental data in support of the use of thin alkaline-atom vapor cells, without buffer gas, for the realization of miniaturized (submillimetric) atomic frequency references.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Lutwak, A. Rashed, D. Serkland, G. Peak, M. Varghese, G. Teplot, J. Leblanc, and M. Mescher, in 2007 International Frequency Control Symposium, (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1327-1333.
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. F. Renzoni and E. Arimondo, Phys. Rev. A 58, 4717 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Théobald, N. Dimarq, V. Giordano, and P. Cérez, Opt. Commun. 71, 256 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Vanier and C. Audoin, Quantum Physics of Atomic Frequency Standards (Adam Hilger, 1989).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Vanier, M. Levine, D. Jansenn, and M. Delaney, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 52, 882 (2003).
  7. R. H. Dicke, Phys. Rev. 89, 472 (1953).
    [CrossRef]
  8. O. Firstenberg, M. Shuker, A. Ben-Kish, D. R. Fredkin, N. Davidson, and A. Ron, Phys. Rev. A 76, 013818 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Vanier, Appl. Phys. B 81, 421 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Merimaa, T. Lindvall, I. Tittonen, and E. Ikonen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 273 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Knappe, L. Hollberg, and J. Kitching, Opt. Lett. 29, 388 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. R. Lutwak, D. Emmons, T. English, W. Riley, A. Duwel, M. Varghese, D. Serkland, and G. Peake, in Proceedings of the 35th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval Meeting, L.A.Breakiron, ed. (U. S. Naval Observatory, 2003), pp. 1-12.
  13. J. Kitching, S. Knappe, and L. Hollberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 553 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. Budker and M. Romalis, Nat. Phys. 3, 227 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. V. Balabas, D. Budker, J. Kitching, P. D. D. Schwindt, and J. E. Stalnaker, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 1001 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. Failache, A. Lezama, D. Bloch, and M. Ducloy, in Europhysics Conference Abstract, K.M.Dunseath and M.Terao-Dunseath, eds. (EPS, 2004), Vol. 28F, p. 2.
  17. H. Failache, A. Lezama, and L. Lenci, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics Conference (Optical Society of America, 2007).
  18. H. Failache, L. Lenci, A. Lezama, D. Bloch, and M. Ducloy, Phys. Rev. A 76, 053826 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  19. N. Cyr, M. Tetu, and M. Breton, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-42, 640 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. Knappe, P. Schwindt, V. Shah, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L.-A. Liew, and J. Moreland, Opt. Express 13, 1249 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. H. Moon, S. Park, Y. Park, L. Lee, and J. Kim, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 2393 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. Stähler, R. Wynands, S. Knappe, J. Kitching, L. Hollberg, A. Taichenachev, and V. Yudin, Opt. Lett. 27, 1472 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2007

O. Firstenberg, M. Shuker, A. Ben-Kish, D. R. Fredkin, N. Davidson, and A. Ron, Phys. Rev. A 76, 013818 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Failache, L. Lenci, A. Lezama, D. Bloch, and M. Ducloy, Phys. Rev. A 76, 053826 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Budker and M. Romalis, Nat. Phys. 3, 227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

2004

2003

J. Vanier, M. Levine, D. Jansenn, and M. Delaney, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 52, 882 (2003).

M. Merimaa, T. Lindvall, I. Tittonen, and E. Ikonen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 273 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

1998

F. Renzoni and E. Arimondo, Phys. Rev. A 58, 4717 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1993

N. Cyr, M. Tetu, and M. Breton, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-42, 640 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1989

G. Théobald, N. Dimarq, V. Giordano, and P. Cérez, Opt. Commun. 71, 256 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1953

R. H. Dicke, Phys. Rev. 89, 472 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Arimondo, E.

F. Renzoni and E. Arimondo, Phys. Rev. A 58, 4717 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Audoin, C.

J. Vanier and C. Audoin, Quantum Physics of Atomic Frequency Standards (Adam Hilger, 1989).
[CrossRef]

Balabas, M. V.

Ben-Kish, A.

O. Firstenberg, M. Shuker, A. Ben-Kish, D. R. Fredkin, N. Davidson, and A. Ron, Phys. Rev. A 76, 013818 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bloch, D.

H. Failache, L. Lenci, A. Lezama, D. Bloch, and M. Ducloy, Phys. Rev. A 76, 053826 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Failache, A. Lezama, D. Bloch, and M. Ducloy, in Europhysics Conference Abstract, K.M.Dunseath and M.Terao-Dunseath, eds. (EPS, 2004), Vol. 28F, p. 2.

Breton, M.

N. Cyr, M. Tetu, and M. Breton, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-42, 640 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Budker, D.

Cérez, P.

G. Théobald, N. Dimarq, V. Giordano, and P. Cérez, Opt. Commun. 71, 256 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Cyr, N.

N. Cyr, M. Tetu, and M. Breton, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-42, 640 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Davidson, N.

O. Firstenberg, M. Shuker, A. Ben-Kish, D. R. Fredkin, N. Davidson, and A. Ron, Phys. Rev. A 76, 013818 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Delaney, M.

J. Vanier, M. Levine, D. Jansenn, and M. Delaney, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 52, 882 (2003).

Dicke, R. H.

R. H. Dicke, Phys. Rev. 89, 472 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Dimarq, N.

G. Théobald, N. Dimarq, V. Giordano, and P. Cérez, Opt. Commun. 71, 256 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ducloy, M.

H. Failache, L. Lenci, A. Lezama, D. Bloch, and M. Ducloy, Phys. Rev. A 76, 053826 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Failache, A. Lezama, D. Bloch, and M. Ducloy, in Europhysics Conference Abstract, K.M.Dunseath and M.Terao-Dunseath, eds. (EPS, 2004), Vol. 28F, p. 2.

Duwel, A.

R. Lutwak, D. Emmons, T. English, W. Riley, A. Duwel, M. Varghese, D. Serkland, and G. Peake, in Proceedings of the 35th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval Meeting, L.A.Breakiron, ed. (U. S. Naval Observatory, 2003), pp. 1-12.

Emmons, D.

R. Lutwak, D. Emmons, T. English, W. Riley, A. Duwel, M. Varghese, D. Serkland, and G. Peake, in Proceedings of the 35th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval Meeting, L.A.Breakiron, ed. (U. S. Naval Observatory, 2003), pp. 1-12.

English, T.

R. Lutwak, D. Emmons, T. English, W. Riley, A. Duwel, M. Varghese, D. Serkland, and G. Peake, in Proceedings of the 35th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval Meeting, L.A.Breakiron, ed. (U. S. Naval Observatory, 2003), pp. 1-12.

Failache, H.

H. Failache, L. Lenci, A. Lezama, D. Bloch, and M. Ducloy, Phys. Rev. A 76, 053826 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Failache, A. Lezama, D. Bloch, and M. Ducloy, in Europhysics Conference Abstract, K.M.Dunseath and M.Terao-Dunseath, eds. (EPS, 2004), Vol. 28F, p. 2.

H. Failache, A. Lezama, and L. Lenci, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics Conference (Optical Society of America, 2007).

Firstenberg, O.

O. Firstenberg, M. Shuker, A. Ben-Kish, D. R. Fredkin, N. Davidson, and A. Ron, Phys. Rev. A 76, 013818 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fredkin, D. R.

O. Firstenberg, M. Shuker, A. Ben-Kish, D. R. Fredkin, N. Davidson, and A. Ron, Phys. Rev. A 76, 013818 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gerginov, V.

Giordano, V.

G. Théobald, N. Dimarq, V. Giordano, and P. Cérez, Opt. Commun. 71, 256 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hollberg, L.

Ikonen, E.

Jansenn, D.

J. Vanier, M. Levine, D. Jansenn, and M. Delaney, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 52, 882 (2003).

Kim, J.

Kitching, J.

Knappe, S.

Leblanc, J.

R. Lutwak, A. Rashed, D. Serkland, G. Peak, M. Varghese, G. Teplot, J. Leblanc, and M. Mescher, in 2007 International Frequency Control Symposium, (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1327-1333.

Lee, L.

Lenci, L.

H. Failache, L. Lenci, A. Lezama, D. Bloch, and M. Ducloy, Phys. Rev. A 76, 053826 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Failache, A. Lezama, and L. Lenci, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics Conference (Optical Society of America, 2007).

Levine, M.

J. Vanier, M. Levine, D. Jansenn, and M. Delaney, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 52, 882 (2003).

Lezama, A.

H. Failache, L. Lenci, A. Lezama, D. Bloch, and M. Ducloy, Phys. Rev. A 76, 053826 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Failache, A. Lezama, D. Bloch, and M. Ducloy, in Europhysics Conference Abstract, K.M.Dunseath and M.Terao-Dunseath, eds. (EPS, 2004), Vol. 28F, p. 2.

H. Failache, A. Lezama, and L. Lenci, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics Conference (Optical Society of America, 2007).

Liew, L.-A.

Lindvall, T.

Lutwak, R.

R. Lutwak, A. Rashed, D. Serkland, G. Peak, M. Varghese, G. Teplot, J. Leblanc, and M. Mescher, in 2007 International Frequency Control Symposium, (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1327-1333.

R. Lutwak, D. Emmons, T. English, W. Riley, A. Duwel, M. Varghese, D. Serkland, and G. Peake, in Proceedings of the 35th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval Meeting, L.A.Breakiron, ed. (U. S. Naval Observatory, 2003), pp. 1-12.

Merimaa, M.

Mescher, M.

R. Lutwak, A. Rashed, D. Serkland, G. Peak, M. Varghese, G. Teplot, J. Leblanc, and M. Mescher, in 2007 International Frequency Control Symposium, (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1327-1333.

Moon, H.

Moreland, J.

Park, S.

Park, Y.

Peak, G.

R. Lutwak, A. Rashed, D. Serkland, G. Peak, M. Varghese, G. Teplot, J. Leblanc, and M. Mescher, in 2007 International Frequency Control Symposium, (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1327-1333.

Peake, G.

R. Lutwak, D. Emmons, T. English, W. Riley, A. Duwel, M. Varghese, D. Serkland, and G. Peake, in Proceedings of the 35th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval Meeting, L.A.Breakiron, ed. (U. S. Naval Observatory, 2003), pp. 1-12.

Rashed, A.

R. Lutwak, A. Rashed, D. Serkland, G. Peak, M. Varghese, G. Teplot, J. Leblanc, and M. Mescher, in 2007 International Frequency Control Symposium, (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1327-1333.

Renzoni, F.

F. Renzoni and E. Arimondo, Phys. Rev. A 58, 4717 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Riley, W.

R. Lutwak, D. Emmons, T. English, W. Riley, A. Duwel, M. Varghese, D. Serkland, and G. Peake, in Proceedings of the 35th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval Meeting, L.A.Breakiron, ed. (U. S. Naval Observatory, 2003), pp. 1-12.

Robinson, H.

Romalis, M.

D. Budker and M. Romalis, Nat. Phys. 3, 227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ron, A.

O. Firstenberg, M. Shuker, A. Ben-Kish, D. R. Fredkin, N. Davidson, and A. Ron, Phys. Rev. A 76, 013818 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schwindt, P.

Schwindt, P. D. D.

Serkland, D.

R. Lutwak, D. Emmons, T. English, W. Riley, A. Duwel, M. Varghese, D. Serkland, and G. Peake, in Proceedings of the 35th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval Meeting, L.A.Breakiron, ed. (U. S. Naval Observatory, 2003), pp. 1-12.

R. Lutwak, A. Rashed, D. Serkland, G. Peak, M. Varghese, G. Teplot, J. Leblanc, and M. Mescher, in 2007 International Frequency Control Symposium, (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1327-1333.

Shah, V.

Shuker, M.

O. Firstenberg, M. Shuker, A. Ben-Kish, D. R. Fredkin, N. Davidson, and A. Ron, Phys. Rev. A 76, 013818 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stähler, M.

Stalnaker, J. E.

Taichenachev, A.

Teplot, G.

R. Lutwak, A. Rashed, D. Serkland, G. Peak, M. Varghese, G. Teplot, J. Leblanc, and M. Mescher, in 2007 International Frequency Control Symposium, (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1327-1333.

Tetu, M.

N. Cyr, M. Tetu, and M. Breton, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-42, 640 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Théobald, G.

G. Théobald, N. Dimarq, V. Giordano, and P. Cérez, Opt. Commun. 71, 256 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Tittonen, I.

Vanier, J.

J. Vanier, Appl. Phys. B 81, 421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Vanier, M. Levine, D. Jansenn, and M. Delaney, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 52, 882 (2003).

J. Vanier and C. Audoin, Quantum Physics of Atomic Frequency Standards (Adam Hilger, 1989).
[CrossRef]

Varghese, M.

R. Lutwak, A. Rashed, D. Serkland, G. Peak, M. Varghese, G. Teplot, J. Leblanc, and M. Mescher, in 2007 International Frequency Control Symposium, (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1327-1333.

R. Lutwak, D. Emmons, T. English, W. Riley, A. Duwel, M. Varghese, D. Serkland, and G. Peake, in Proceedings of the 35th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval Meeting, L.A.Breakiron, ed. (U. S. Naval Observatory, 2003), pp. 1-12.

Wynands, R.

Yudin, V.

Appl. Phys. B

J. Vanier, Appl. Phys. B 81, 421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. Kitching, S. Knappe, and L. Hollberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 553 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas.

J. Vanier, M. Levine, D. Jansenn, and M. Delaney, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 52, 882 (2003).

N. Cyr, M. Tetu, and M. Breton, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-42, 640 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Nat. Phys.

D. Budker and M. Romalis, Nat. Phys. 3, 227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

G. Théobald, N. Dimarq, V. Giordano, and P. Cérez, Opt. Commun. 71, 256 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev.

R. H. Dicke, Phys. Rev. 89, 472 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

O. Firstenberg, M. Shuker, A. Ben-Kish, D. R. Fredkin, N. Davidson, and A. Ron, Phys. Rev. A 76, 013818 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Renzoni and E. Arimondo, Phys. Rev. A 58, 4717 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Failache, L. Lenci, A. Lezama, D. Bloch, and M. Ducloy, Phys. Rev. A 76, 053826 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. Lutwak, D. Emmons, T. English, W. Riley, A. Duwel, M. Varghese, D. Serkland, and G. Peake, in Proceedings of the 35th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval Meeting, L.A.Breakiron, ed. (U. S. Naval Observatory, 2003), pp. 1-12.

R. Lutwak, A. Rashed, D. Serkland, G. Peak, M. Varghese, G. Teplot, J. Leblanc, and M. Mescher, in 2007 International Frequency Control Symposium, (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1327-1333.

J. Vanier and C. Audoin, Quantum Physics of Atomic Frequency Standards (Adam Hilger, 1989).
[CrossRef]

H. Failache, A. Lezama, D. Bloch, and M. Ducloy, in Europhysics Conference Abstract, K.M.Dunseath and M.Terao-Dunseath, eds. (EPS, 2004), Vol. 28F, p. 2.

H. Failache, A. Lezama, and L. Lenci, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics Conference (Optical Society of America, 2007).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Dark resonances width and amplitude evolution with thin cell thickness L for a given laser intensity [ L o = Γ ( k γ p ) ] . (b) Example of calculated dark resonance line in a thin cell and (c) its derivative.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental values for the figure of merit Q for our measurements in thin cells (on fluorescence) and for buffered cells (on absorption) extracted from the literature, as indicated in the figure: dotted lines, eye guides, dependencies corresponding to different powers of L as indicated. Inset, derivative of the dark resonance, typical experimental spectra.

Tables (1)

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Table 1

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