Abstract

We propose a refractive index sensor based on the interference of two surface-plasmon waves on both surfaces of a gold film with a two-slit structure. The phase of the interference was solved, and the dispersion relation of the real part of Au dielectric function was considered. The sensor was performed with NaClH2O solutions of different concentrations and exhibited a linear response and a high sensitivity of 4547nmRIU (refractive index unit) to the refractive index change.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, Chem. Rev. 108, 494 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, Nano Lett. 3, 485 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. M. Larsson, J. Alegret, M. Käll, and D. S. Sutherland, Nano Lett. 7, 1256 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. O. Telezhnikova and J. Homola, Opt. Lett. 31, 3339 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, Langmuir 20, 4813 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Lesuffleur, H. Im, N. C. Lindquist, and S.-H. Oh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 243110 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer, 1988).
  9. J. A. Porto, F. J. García-Vidal, and J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2845 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Calculated from the dispersion formula of the glass provided by the corporation.
  11. P. E. Ciddor, Appl. Opt. 35, 1566 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985).
  13. V. Krishna, C. H. Fan, and J. P. Longtin, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3864 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (2)

J. Homola, Chem. Rev. 108, 462 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, Chem. Rev. 108, 494 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

E. M. Larsson, J. Alegret, M. Käll, and D. S. Sutherland, Nano Lett. 7, 1256 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lesuffleur, H. Im, N. C. Lindquist, and S.-H. Oh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 243110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2004 (1)

A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, Langmuir 20, 4813 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, Nano Lett. 3, 485 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

V. Krishna, C. H. Fan, and J. P. Longtin, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3864 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. A. Porto, F. J. García-Vidal, and J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2845 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1988 (1)

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer, 1988).

1985 (1)

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985).

Alegret, J.

E. M. Larsson, J. Alegret, M. Käll, and D. S. Sutherland, Nano Lett. 7, 1256 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderton, C. R.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, Chem. Rev. 108, 494 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brolo, A. G.

A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, Langmuir 20, 4813 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ciddor, P. E.

Fan, C. H.

V. Krishna, C. H. Fan, and J. P. Longtin, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3864 (2000).
[CrossRef]

García-Vidal, F. J.

J. A. Porto, F. J. García-Vidal, and J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2845 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, R.

A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, Langmuir 20, 4813 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gray, S. K.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, Chem. Rev. 108, 494 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Homola, J.

Im, H.

A. Lesuffleur, H. Im, N. C. Lindquist, and S.-H. Oh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 243110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Käll, M.

E. M. Larsson, J. Alegret, M. Käll, and D. S. Sutherland, Nano Lett. 7, 1256 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kavanagh, K. L.

A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, Langmuir 20, 4813 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Krishna, V.

V. Krishna, C. H. Fan, and J. P. Longtin, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3864 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Larsson, E. M.

E. M. Larsson, J. Alegret, M. Käll, and D. S. Sutherland, Nano Lett. 7, 1256 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leathem, B.

A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, Langmuir 20, 4813 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lesuffleur, A.

A. Lesuffleur, H. Im, N. C. Lindquist, and S.-H. Oh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 243110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lindquist, N. C.

A. Lesuffleur, H. Im, N. C. Lindquist, and S.-H. Oh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 243110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Longtin, J. P.

V. Krishna, C. H. Fan, and J. P. Longtin, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3864 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Maria, J.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, Chem. Rev. 108, 494 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mock, J. J.

J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, Nano Lett. 3, 485 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nuzzo, R. G.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, Chem. Rev. 108, 494 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oh, S.-H.

A. Lesuffleur, H. Im, N. C. Lindquist, and S.-H. Oh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 243110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985).

Pendry, J. B.

J. A. Porto, F. J. García-Vidal, and J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2845 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Porto, J. A.

J. A. Porto, F. J. García-Vidal, and J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2845 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Raether, H.

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer, 1988).

Rogers, J. A.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, Chem. Rev. 108, 494 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schultz, S.

J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, Nano Lett. 3, 485 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, Nano Lett. 3, 485 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, M. E.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, Chem. Rev. 108, 494 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sutherland, D. S.

E. M. Larsson, J. Alegret, M. Käll, and D. S. Sutherland, Nano Lett. 7, 1256 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Telezhnikova, O.

Thompson, L. B.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, Chem. Rev. 108, 494 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Lesuffleur, H. Im, N. C. Lindquist, and S.-H. Oh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 243110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (2)

J. Homola, Chem. Rev. 108, 462 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, Chem. Rev. 108, 494 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langmuir (1)

A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, Langmuir 20, 4813 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (2)

J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, Nano Lett. 3, 485 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Larsson, J. Alegret, M. Käll, and D. S. Sutherland, Nano Lett. 7, 1256 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. A. Porto, F. J. García-Vidal, and J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2845 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

V. Krishna, C. H. Fan, and J. P. Longtin, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3864 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

Calculated from the dispersion formula of the glass provided by the corporation.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985).

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer, 1988).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental schemes. The backconverted light is detected on upper and lower sides for schemes A and B.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Interference spectra for air as the upper dielectric. (a) Scheme A: solid curve, measured spectrum; dashed curve, fit of the measured spectrum considering the dispersion of ɛ m ; dotted curve, calculated spectrum with the same parameters as the dashed curve except that b = 0 (not considering the dispersion of ɛ m ). (b) Scheme B: solid curve, measured spectrum; dashed curve, fit of the measured spectrum using the dispersion relation of ɛ m obtained from (a).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Valley wavelength of the interference spectra for Na Cl H 2 O solutions of different concentrations as the upper dielectrics (shown in the inset) versus refractive index of the solution.

Equations (7)

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E = a 1 exp [ i ( k SP 1 L + ϕ 1 ) ] + a 2 exp [ i ( k SP 2 L + ϕ 2 ) ] ,
k SP = 2 π λ ( ɛ m ɛ d ɛ m + ɛ d ) 1 2 ,
I = E 2 = a 1 2 + a 2 2 + 2 a 1 a 2 cos [ 2 π L ( n eff 1 n eff 2 ) 1 λ + ( ϕ 1 ϕ 2 ) ] .
ɛ m = ɛ m ( λ 0 ) + d ɛ m ( λ 0 ) d λ ( λ λ 0 ) = ɛ m ( λ 0 ) + b ( λ λ 0 ) ,
n eff = ( ɛ m ɛ d ɛ m + ɛ d ) 1 2 = ( ɛ m ( λ 0 ) ɛ d ɛ m ( λ 0 ) + ɛ d ) 1 2 + ( ɛ m ( λ 0 ) ɛ d ɛ m ( λ 0 ) + ɛ d ) 3 2 ɛ m ɛ m ( λ 0 ) 2 [ ɛ m ( λ 0 ) ] 2 .
n eff = ( ɛ m ( λ 0 ) ɛ d ɛ m ( λ 0 ) + ɛ d ) 1 2 + ( ɛ m ( λ 0 ) ɛ d ɛ m ( λ 0 ) + ɛ d ) 3 2 b 2 [ ɛ m ( λ 0 ) ] 2 ( λ λ 0 ) .
Δ λ = Δ n d 2 ( ɛ m ( λ 0 ) n d 2 2 ɛ m ( λ 0 ) + n d 2 2 ) 3 2 λ n d 2 3 [ ( ɛ m ( λ 0 ) n d 2 2 ɛ m ( λ 0 ) + n d 2 2 ) 1 2 ( ɛ m ( λ 0 ) n d 1 2 ɛ m ( λ 0 ) + n d 1 2 ) 1 2 ] ,

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