Abstract

Here we report the laser actions inside an active organic–inorganic grating with some irregular perturbation. In an optical excitation experiment, band-edge and random-laser emissions were both observed. The laser thresholds of the two laser actions are very close, which shows that random laser sometimes can operate with a threshold comparable to band-edge emission. Owing to the diffraction of the grating, directional emission with a narrow divergence angle was also obtained.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. Cao, Y. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. C. X. Xu, X. W. Sun, X. H. Zhang, L. Ke, and S. J. Chua, Nanotechnology 15, 856 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2006 (1)

Q. H. Song, L. Y. Liu, S. M. Xiao, X. C. Zhou, W. C. Wang, and L. Xu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 033902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

M. Gurioli, F. Bogani, L. Cavigli, H. Gibbs, G. Khitrova, and D. S. Wiersma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. H. Song, L. Wang, S. M. Xiao, X. C. Zhou, L. Y. Liu, and L. Xu, Phys. Rev. B 72, 035424 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

C. X. Xu, X. W. Sun, X. H. Zhang, L. Ke, and S. J. Chua, Nanotechnology 15, 856 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

S. H. Chang, H. Cao, and S. T. Ho, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 364 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Q. H. Song, L. Y. Liu, T. Ling, L. Xu, and W. C. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2939 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Liu, B. Zhang, Y. Jia, and K. S. Xu, Opt. Commun. 218, 27 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

Y. Feng, Phys. Rev. A 68, 025803 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

H. Cao, Y. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, Phys. Rev. B 59, R5284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

Z. B. Hu, Y. Y. Chen, C. J. Wang, Y. D. Zheng, and Y. Li, Nature 393, 149 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

T. Tadokoro, H. Okamoto, Y. Kahama, T. Kawakami, and T. Kurokawa, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 409 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

S. John, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2486 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baughman, R. H.

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, Phys. Rev. B 59, R5284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bogani, F.

M. Gurioli, F. Bogani, L. Cavigli, H. Gibbs, G. Khitrova, and D. S. Wiersma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, H.

S. H. Chang, H. Cao, and S. T. Ho, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 364 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao, Y. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cavigli, L.

M. Gurioli, F. Bogani, L. Cavigli, H. Gibbs, G. Khitrova, and D. S. Wiersma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, R. P. H.

H. Cao, Y. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S. H.

S. H. Chang, H. Cao, and S. T. Ho, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 364 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. Y.

Z. B. Hu, Y. Y. Chen, C. J. Wang, Y. D. Zheng, and Y. Li, Nature 393, 149 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chua, S. J.

C. X. Xu, X. W. Sun, X. H. Zhang, L. Ke, and S. J. Chua, Nanotechnology 15, 856 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Feng, Y.

Y. Feng, Phys. Rev. A 68, 025803 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Frolov, S. V.

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, Phys. Rev. B 59, R5284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gibbs, H.

M. Gurioli, F. Bogani, L. Cavigli, H. Gibbs, G. Khitrova, and D. S. Wiersma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gurioli, M.

M. Gurioli, F. Bogani, L. Cavigli, H. Gibbs, G. Khitrova, and D. S. Wiersma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, S. T.

S. H. Chang, H. Cao, and S. T. Ho, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 364 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao, Y. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Z. B.

Z. B. Hu, Y. Y. Chen, C. J. Wang, Y. D. Zheng, and Y. Li, Nature 393, 149 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jia, Y.

Y. J. Liu, B. Zhang, Y. Jia, and K. S. Xu, Opt. Commun. 218, 27 (2003).
[CrossRef]

John, S.

S. John, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2486 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kahama, Y.

T. Tadokoro, H. Okamoto, Y. Kahama, T. Kawakami, and T. Kurokawa, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 409 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kawakami, T.

T. Tadokoro, H. Okamoto, Y. Kahama, T. Kawakami, and T. Kurokawa, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 409 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ke, L.

C. X. Xu, X. W. Sun, X. H. Zhang, L. Ke, and S. J. Chua, Nanotechnology 15, 856 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Khitrova, G.

M. Gurioli, F. Bogani, L. Cavigli, H. Gibbs, G. Khitrova, and D. S. Wiersma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurokawa, T.

T. Tadokoro, H. Okamoto, Y. Kahama, T. Kawakami, and T. Kurokawa, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 409 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Z. B. Hu, Y. Y. Chen, C. J. Wang, Y. D. Zheng, and Y. Li, Nature 393, 149 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ling, T.

Q. H. Song, L. Y. Liu, T. Ling, L. Xu, and W. C. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2939 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L. Y.

Q. H. Song, L. Y. Liu, S. M. Xiao, X. C. Zhou, W. C. Wang, and L. Xu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 033902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. H. Song, L. Wang, S. M. Xiao, X. C. Zhou, L. Y. Liu, and L. Xu, Phys. Rev. B 72, 035424 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. H. Song, L. Y. Liu, T. Ling, L. Xu, and W. C. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2939 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y. J.

Y. J. Liu, B. Zhang, Y. Jia, and K. S. Xu, Opt. Commun. 218, 27 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, H.

T. Tadokoro, H. Okamoto, Y. Kahama, T. Kawakami, and T. Kurokawa, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 409 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Seelig, E. W.

H. Cao, Y. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Song, Q. H.

Q. H. Song, L. Y. Liu, S. M. Xiao, X. C. Zhou, W. C. Wang, and L. Xu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 033902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. H. Song, L. Wang, S. M. Xiao, X. C. Zhou, L. Y. Liu, and L. Xu, Phys. Rev. B 72, 035424 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. H. Song, L. Y. Liu, T. Ling, L. Xu, and W. C. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2939 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X. W.

C. X. Xu, X. W. Sun, X. H. Zhang, L. Ke, and S. J. Chua, Nanotechnology 15, 856 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tadokoro, T.

T. Tadokoro, H. Okamoto, Y. Kahama, T. Kawakami, and T. Kurokawa, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 409 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Vardeny, Z. V.

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, Phys. Rev. B 59, R5284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. J.

Z. B. Hu, Y. Y. Chen, C. J. Wang, Y. D. Zheng, and Y. Li, Nature 393, 149 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

Q. H. Song, L. Wang, S. M. Xiao, X. C. Zhou, L. Y. Liu, and L. Xu, Phys. Rev. B 72, 035424 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q. H.

H. Cao, Y. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W. C.

Q. H. Song, L. Y. Liu, S. M. Xiao, X. C. Zhou, W. C. Wang, and L. Xu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 033902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. H. Song, L. Y. Liu, T. Ling, L. Xu, and W. C. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2939 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wiersma, D. S.

M. Gurioli, F. Bogani, L. Cavigli, H. Gibbs, G. Khitrova, and D. S. Wiersma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiao, S. M.

Q. H. Song, L. Y. Liu, S. M. Xiao, X. C. Zhou, W. C. Wang, and L. Xu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 033902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. H. Song, L. Wang, S. M. Xiao, X. C. Zhou, L. Y. Liu, and L. Xu, Phys. Rev. B 72, 035424 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xu, C. X.

C. X. Xu, X. W. Sun, X. H. Zhang, L. Ke, and S. J. Chua, Nanotechnology 15, 856 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xu, K. S.

Y. J. Liu, B. Zhang, Y. Jia, and K. S. Xu, Opt. Commun. 218, 27 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xu, L.

Q. H. Song, L. Y. Liu, S. M. Xiao, X. C. Zhou, W. C. Wang, and L. Xu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 033902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. H. Song, L. Wang, S. M. Xiao, X. C. Zhou, L. Y. Liu, and L. Xu, Phys. Rev. B 72, 035424 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. H. Song, L. Y. Liu, T. Ling, L. Xu, and W. C. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2939 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, K.

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, Phys. Rev. B 59, R5284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zakhidov, A.

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, Phys. Rev. B 59, R5284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, B.

Y. J. Liu, B. Zhang, Y. Jia, and K. S. Xu, Opt. Commun. 218, 27 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. H.

C. X. Xu, X. W. Sun, X. H. Zhang, L. Ke, and S. J. Chua, Nanotechnology 15, 856 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

H. Cao, Y. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Y. D.

Z. B. Hu, Y. Y. Chen, C. J. Wang, Y. D. Zheng, and Y. Li, Nature 393, 149 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, X. C.

Q. H. Song, L. Y. Liu, S. M. Xiao, X. C. Zhou, W. C. Wang, and L. Xu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 033902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. H. Song, L. Wang, S. M. Xiao, X. C. Zhou, L. Y. Liu, and L. Xu, Phys. Rev. B 72, 035424 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Q. H. Song, L. Y. Liu, T. Ling, L. Xu, and W. C. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2939 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. H. Chang, H. Cao, and S. T. Ho, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 364 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

T. Tadokoro, H. Okamoto, Y. Kahama, T. Kawakami, and T. Kurokawa, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 409 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (1)

C. X. Xu, X. W. Sun, X. H. Zhang, L. Ke, and S. J. Chua, Nanotechnology 15, 856 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

Z. B. Hu, Y. Y. Chen, C. J. Wang, Y. D. Zheng, and Y. Li, Nature 393, 149 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

Y. J. Liu, B. Zhang, Y. Jia, and K. S. Xu, Opt. Commun. 218, 27 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

Y. Feng, Phys. Rev. A 68, 025803 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

Q. H. Song, L. Wang, S. M. Xiao, X. C. Zhou, L. Y. Liu, and L. Xu, Phys. Rev. B 72, 035424 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, Phys. Rev. B 59, R5284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

H. Cao, Y. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Gurioli, F. Bogani, L. Cavigli, H. Gibbs, G. Khitrova, and D. S. Wiersma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. H. Song, L. Y. Liu, S. M. Xiao, X. C. Zhou, W. C. Wang, and L. Xu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 033902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. John, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2486 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic picture of setup. (b) SEM picture of the Bragg grating.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Spectra of two samples fabricated under the same condition at different times. (b) Calculated band structure of the grating with the transfer-matrix method.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Observed laser spectrum from a particular position and random laser around 590 nm .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Laser thresholds of band-edge emission and random laser. (b) Low-resolution laser spectra with 0.45 and 0.55 mW pump power.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Far-field pattern at 6 cm far from the sample surface. (b) Angular distribution of diffracted laser emission, with the center angle about 60° away from the normal direction of surface.

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