Abstract

We consider wavelength-selective splitting of radiation using directional couplers (DCs) formed by dielectric-loaded surface-plasmon-polariton waveguides (DLSPPWs). The DCs were fabricated by depositing sub-wavelength-sized polymer ridges on a gold film using large-scale UV photolithography and characterized at telecommunications wavelengths with near-field microscopy. We demonstrate a DLSPPW-based 45-μm-long DC comprising 3μm offset S bends and 25-μm-long parallel waveguides that changes from the “through” state at 1500nmto3dB splitting at 1600nm, and show that a 50.5-μm-long DC should enable complete separation of the radiation channels at 1400 and 1620nm. The DC performance is found to be in good agreement with full vectorial three-dimensional finite-element simulations.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. T. W. Ebbesen, C. Genet, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Phys. Today 61, 44 (May 2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 094104 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Holmgaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Phys. Rev. B 75, 245405 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. V. Krasavin and A. V. Zayats, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 211101 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081111 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011124 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, Opt. Express 16, 13585 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2008 (4)

T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011124 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, C. Genet, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Phys. Today 61, 44 (May 2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, P. Bolger, and A. V. Zayats, Phys. Rev. B 78, 165431 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, Opt. Express 16, 13585 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

T. Holmgaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Phys. Rev. B 75, 245405 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krasavin and A. V. Zayats, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 211101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

A. Boltasseva and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1233 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Reinhardt, S. Passinger, B. N. Chichkov, C. Marquart, I. P. Radko, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Opt. Lett. 31, 1307 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 094104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 424, 824 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aussenegg, F. R.

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 094104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 424, 824 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bolger, P.

T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, P. Bolger, and A. V. Zayats, Phys. Rev. B 78, 165431 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Boltasseva, A.

A. Boltasseva and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1233 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011124 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, C. Genet, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Phys. Today 61, 44 (May 2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, P. Bolger, and A. V. Zayats, Phys. Rev. B 78, 165431 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, Opt. Express 16, 13585 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Holmgaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Phys. Rev. B 75, 245405 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Reinhardt, S. Passinger, B. N. Chichkov, C. Marquart, I. P. Radko, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Opt. Lett. 31, 1307 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Boltasseva and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1233 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

Chichkov, B. N.

Dereux, A.

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, Opt. Express 16, 13585 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, P. Bolger, and A. V. Zayats, Phys. Rev. B 78, 165431 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011124 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 424, 824 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ditlbacher, H.

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 094104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Drezet, A.

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 094104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

T. W. Ebbesen, C. Genet, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Phys. Today 61, 44 (May 2008).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 424, 824 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Genet, C.

T. W. Ebbesen, C. Genet, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Phys. Today 61, 44 (May 2008).
[CrossRef]

Hohenau, A.

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 094104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Holmgaard, T.

T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011124 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, Opt. Express 16, 13585 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, P. Bolger, and A. V. Zayats, Phys. Rev. B 78, 165431 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Holmgaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Phys. Rev. B 75, 245405 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Krasavin, A. V.

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, Opt. Express 16, 13585 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, P. Bolger, and A. V. Zayats, Phys. Rev. B 78, 165431 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krasavin and A. V. Zayats, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 211101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Krenn, J. R.

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 094104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Leitner, A.

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 094104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Markey, L.

T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011124 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, Opt. Express 16, 13585 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, P. Bolger, and A. V. Zayats, Phys. Rev. B 78, 165431 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Marquart, C.

Passinger, S.

Radko, I. P.

Reinhardt, C.

Steinberger, B.

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 094104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stepanov, A. L.

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 094104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zayats, A. V.

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, Opt. Express 16, 13585 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, P. Bolger, and A. V. Zayats, Phys. Rev. B 78, 165431 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krasavin and A. V. Zayats, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 211101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 094104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krasavin and A. V. Zayats, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 211101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011124 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Boltasseva and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1233 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 424, 824 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, P. Bolger, and A. V. Zayats, Phys. Rev. B 78, 165431 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Holmgaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Phys. Rev. B 75, 245405 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Today (1)

T. W. Ebbesen, C. Genet, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Phys. Today 61, 44 (May 2008).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Scanning electron microscope image of the fabricated DC showing the funnel structure facilitating the DLSPPW excitation. (b) Topographical and (c)–(e) near-field optical [ λ = ( c ) 1500, (d) 1620, and (e) 1500 nm ] SNOM images of 45 μ m long DCs with the separations (b)–(d) S = 1000 nm along with an inset showing SEM image of the coupling region and (e) S = 900 nm .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

DC coupling length evaluated for different wavelengths and separations directly from SNOM images similar to those shown in Figs. 1c, 1d, 1e and calculated with 3D-FEM simulations.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

DC output signals normalized with respect to the input when exciting only one waveguide, determined experimentally from SNOM images similar to those shown in Figs. 1c, 1d, 1e and calculated using Eq. (1) and the DC coupling length dispersion shown in Fig. 2.

Equations (1)

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T s , c ( λ ) = ( T bend ) 2 exp ( L p L S P ) { cos 2 sin 2 ( π L i 2 l c ( λ ) ) } ,

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