Abstract

A design for a one-dimensional photonic crystal (1D PhC) based on thin-film optics is proposed to improve the light extraction efficiency of phosphor-converted flip-chip white-light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The 1D PhC thin film consisting of alternating layers of TiO2 and SiO2 is added between a phosphor layer and sapphire substrate of the LEDs. Monte Carlo simulation method is introduced to analyze performance of the proposed LEDs with a 1D PhC. Results show that the light extraction efficiency is higher than that of conventional LEDs by 16%, and the correlated color temperature becomes lower, below 4000K. These improvements are attributed to the efficient extraction of backscattered light from the phosphor layer by using the 1D PhC thin film.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, Science 308, 1274 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins and R. M. Fletcher, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 310 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. S. Lee, J. Lee, J. Kim, and J. Jeon, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1588 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. S. Han, J. Y. Kim, S. I. Na, and S. H. Kim, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1406 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. R. Lee, S. L. Na, and J. H. Jeong, J. Electrochem. Soc. 152, G92 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, and E. F. Schubert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 013501 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. K. Kim, H. Luo, and E. F. Schubert, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 44, L649 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. N. Ohta and A. R. Robertson, Colorimetry (Wiley, 2005).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

H. Winkler, H. Enderle, C. Kuehn, and R. Petry, Proc. SPIE 6797, 0A1 (2007).

2006 (4)

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, and E. F. Schubert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 013501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Lee, J. Lee, J. Kim, and J. Jeon, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1588 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Han, J. Y. Kim, S. I. Na, and S. H. Kim, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1406 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D.-X. (Michael) Wang, I. T. Ferguson, J. A. Buck, and D. Nicol, Proc. SPIE 6327, 0Q1 (2006).

2005 (4)

N. Ohta and A. R. Robertson, Colorimetry (Wiley, 2005).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Lee, S. L. Na, and J. H. Jeong, J. Electrochem. Soc. 152, G92 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, Science 308, 1274 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, and E. F. Schubert, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 44, L649 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

K. Yamada, Y. Imai, and K. Ishii, J. Light Visual Environ. 27, 70 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins and R. M. Fletcher, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 310 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1997 (1)

S. K. Griebel, M. Richardson, K. E. Devenport, and H. S. Hinton, Proc. SPIE 3005, 254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Layered Media (Wiley, 1988).

1986 (1)

H. A. Macleod, Thin Film Optical Filters (McGraw-Hill, 1986).
[CrossRef]

1941 (1)

L. G. Henyey and J. L. Greenstein, Astrophys. J. 93, 70 (1941).
[CrossRef]

(Michael) Wang, D.-X.

D.-X. (Michael) Wang, I. T. Ferguson, J. A. Buck, and D. Nicol, Proc. SPIE 6327, 0Q1 (2006).

Bhat, J. C.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins and R. M. Fletcher, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 310 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Buck, J. A.

D.-X. (Michael) Wang, I. T. Ferguson, J. A. Buck, and D. Nicol, Proc. SPIE 6327, 0Q1 (2006).

Collins, D.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins and R. M. Fletcher, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 310 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Devenport, K. E.

S. K. Griebel, M. Richardson, K. E. Devenport, and H. S. Hinton, Proc. SPIE 3005, 254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Enderle, H.

H. Winkler, H. Enderle, C. Kuehn, and R. Petry, Proc. SPIE 6797, 0A1 (2007).

Ferguson, I. T.

D.-X. (Michael) Wang, I. T. Ferguson, J. A. Buck, and D. Nicol, Proc. SPIE 6327, 0Q1 (2006).

Fletcher, R. M.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins and R. M. Fletcher, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 310 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gessmann, T.

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, and E. F. Schubert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 013501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Greenstein, J. L.

L. G. Henyey and J. L. Greenstein, Astrophys. J. 93, 70 (1941).
[CrossRef]

Griebel, S. K.

S. K. Griebel, M. Richardson, K. E. Devenport, and H. S. Hinton, Proc. SPIE 3005, 254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Han, D. S.

D. S. Han, J. Y. Kim, S. I. Na, and S. H. Kim, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1406 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Henyey, L. G.

L. G. Henyey and J. L. Greenstein, Astrophys. J. 93, 70 (1941).
[CrossRef]

Hinton, H. S.

S. K. Griebel, M. Richardson, K. E. Devenport, and H. S. Hinton, Proc. SPIE 3005, 254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Imai, Y.

K. Yamada, Y. Imai, and K. Ishii, J. Light Visual Environ. 27, 70 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ishii, K.

K. Yamada, Y. Imai, and K. Ishii, J. Light Visual Environ. 27, 70 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, J.

J. S. Lee, J. Lee, J. Kim, and J. Jeon, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1588 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, J. H.

J. R. Lee, S. L. Na, and J. H. Jeong, J. Electrochem. Soc. 152, G92 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

J. S. Lee, J. Lee, J. Kim, and J. Jeon, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1588 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, and E. F. Schubert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 013501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, Science 308, 1274 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, and E. F. Schubert, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 44, L649 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. Y.

D. S. Han, J. Y. Kim, S. I. Na, and S. H. Kim, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1406 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. H.

D. S. Han, J. Y. Kim, S. I. Na, and S. H. Kim, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1406 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kuehn, C.

H. Winkler, H. Enderle, C. Kuehn, and R. Petry, Proc. SPIE 6797, 0A1 (2007).

Lee, J.

J. S. Lee, J. Lee, J. Kim, and J. Jeon, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1588 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. R.

J. R. Lee, S. L. Na, and J. H. Jeong, J. Electrochem. Soc. 152, G92 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. S.

J. S. Lee, J. Lee, J. Kim, and J. Jeon, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1588 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. J.

Luo, H.

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, and E. F. Schubert, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 44, L649 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Macleod, H. A.

H. A. Macleod, Thin Film Optical Filters (McGraw-Hill, 1986).
[CrossRef]

Na, S. I.

D. S. Han, J. Y. Kim, S. I. Na, and S. H. Kim, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1406 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Na, S. L.

J. R. Lee, S. L. Na, and J. H. Jeong, J. Electrochem. Soc. 152, G92 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nicol, D.

D.-X. (Michael) Wang, I. T. Ferguson, J. A. Buck, and D. Nicol, Proc. SPIE 6327, 0Q1 (2006).

Ohta, N.

N. Ohta and A. R. Robertson, Colorimetry (Wiley, 2005).
[CrossRef]

Petry, R.

H. Winkler, H. Enderle, C. Kuehn, and R. Petry, Proc. SPIE 6797, 0A1 (2007).

Richardson, M.

S. K. Griebel, M. Richardson, K. E. Devenport, and H. S. Hinton, Proc. SPIE 3005, 254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, A. R.

N. Ohta and A. R. Robertson, Colorimetry (Wiley, 2005).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, and E. F. Schubert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 013501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, and E. F. Schubert, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 44, L649 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, Science 308, 1274 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steigerwald, D. A.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins and R. M. Fletcher, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 310 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Winkler, H.

H. Winkler, H. Enderle, C. Kuehn, and R. Petry, Proc. SPIE 6797, 0A1 (2007).

Yamada, K.

K. Yamada, Y. Imai, and K. Ishii, J. Light Visual Environ. 27, 70 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, P.

P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Layered Media (Wiley, 1988).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, and E. F. Schubert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 013501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. J. (1)

L. G. Henyey and J. L. Greenstein, Astrophys. J. 93, 70 (1941).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins and R. M. Fletcher, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 310 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

J. S. Lee, J. Lee, J. Kim, and J. Jeon, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1588 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Han, J. Y. Kim, S. I. Na, and S. H. Kim, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1406 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

J. R. Lee, S. L. Na, and J. H. Jeong, J. Electrochem. Soc. 152, G92 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Light Visual Environ. (1)

K. Yamada, Y. Imai, and K. Ishii, J. Light Visual Environ. 27, 70 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 (1)

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, and E. F. Schubert, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 44, L649 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (3)

H. Winkler, H. Enderle, C. Kuehn, and R. Petry, Proc. SPIE 6797, 0A1 (2007).

S. K. Griebel, M. Richardson, K. E. Devenport, and H. S. Hinton, Proc. SPIE 3005, 254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D.-X. (Michael) Wang, I. T. Ferguson, J. A. Buck, and D. Nicol, Proc. SPIE 6327, 0Q1 (2006).

Science (1)

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, Science 308, 1274 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

N. Ohta and A. R. Robertson, Colorimetry (Wiley, 2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Layered Media (Wiley, 1988).

H. A. Macleod, Thin Film Optical Filters (McGraw-Hill, 1986).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the proposed flip-chip LED with 1D PhC.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Periodic structure of the designed 1D PhC.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated reflectance of unpolarized light of the 1D PhC at different incident angles of 0°, 5°, 10°, 15°, 20°, and 25° as a function of the wavelength.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Ray-tracing model.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Film Stack of the Designed 1D PhC

Tables Icon

Table 2 Simulation Results of the Proposed White LED with and without 1D PhC

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S ( L H ) n L n + 1 E ,
[ B C ] = { j = 1 K [ cos ( δ j ) i n j sin ( δ j ) i n j sin ( δ j ) cos ( δ j ) ] } [ 1 n K + 1 ] ,
δ j = 2 π λ n j d j cos θ j ,
R = ( n 0 B C n 0 B + C ) ( n 0 B C n 0 B + C ) * ,
T = 437 n 3 + 360 n 2 6861 n + 5514.31 ,
n = ( x 0.3320 ) ( y 0.1858 ) ,

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