Abstract

Interstitial photodynamic therapy (IPDT) provides a promising means to treat large cancerous tumors and solid organs inside the human body. The treatment outcome is dependent on the distributions of light, photosensitizer, and tissue oxygenation. We present a scheme for reconstructing the spatial distribution of a fluorescent photosensitizer. The reconstruction is based on measurements performed in the human prostate, acquired during an ongoing IPDT clinical trial, as well as in optical phantoms. We show that in an experimental setup we can quantitatively reconstruct a fluorescent inclusion in a fluorescent background. We also show reconstructions from a patient showing a heterogeneous distribution of the photosensitizer mTHPC in the human prostate.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. L. Du, R. Mick, T. Busch, T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, G. Yu, A. G. Yodh, S. B. Malkowicz, D. Smith, R. Whittington, D. Stripp, and S. M. Hahn, Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 427 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. C. M. Moore, T. R. Nathan, W. R. Lees, C. A. Mosse, A. Freeman, M. Emberton, and S. G. Bown, Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 356 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. A. Weersink, A. Bogaards, M. Gertner, S. R. H. Davidson, K. Zhang, G. Netchev, J. Trachtenberg, and B. C. Wilson, J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 79, 211 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. B. C. Wilson, M. S. Patterson, and L. Lilge, Lasers Med. Sci. 12, 182 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Johansson, J. Axelsson, S. Andersson-Engels, and J. Swartling, Med. Phys. 34, 4309 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. D. Altschuler, T. C. Zhu, J. Li, and S. M. Hahn, Med. Phys. 32, 3524 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. X. D. Zhou, B. W. Pogue, B. Chen, E. Demidenko, R. Joshi, J. Hoopes, and T. Hasan, Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 64, 1211 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. Soto-Thompson, A. Johansson, T. Johansson, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, N. Bendsoe, and K. Svanberg, Appl. Opt. 44, 4023 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. R. Arridge, Inverse Probl. 15, R41 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. V. Ntziachristos and R. Weissleder, Opt. Lett. 26, 893 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. K. Yalavarthy, B. W. Pogue, H. Dehghani, and K. D. Paulsen, Med. Phys. 34, 2085 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. B. A. Brooksby, “Combining near infrared tomography and magnetic resonance imaging to improve breast tissue chromophore and scattering assessment,” Ph.D. dissertation (Dartmouth College, 2005).
  13. P. C. Hansen, Numer. Algorithms 6, 1 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  14. E. Alerstam, S. Andersson-Engels, and T. Svensson, Opt. Express 16, 10440 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. R. Sens and K. H. Drexhage, J. Lumin. 24, 709 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Axelsson, J. Svensson, and S. Andersson-Engels, Opt. Express 15, 13574 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. J. C. Finlay, T. C. Zhu, A. Dimofte, D. Stripp, S. B. Malkowcz, T. M. Busch, and S. M. Hahn, Photochem. Photobiol. 82, 1270 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

2007 (3)

P. K. Yalavarthy, B. W. Pogue, H. Dehghani, and K. D. Paulsen, Med. Phys. 34, 2085 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Axelsson, J. Svensson, and S. Andersson-Engels, Opt. Express 15, 13574 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Johansson, J. Axelsson, S. Andersson-Engels, and J. Swartling, Med. Phys. 34, 4309 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

X. D. Zhou, B. W. Pogue, B. Chen, E. Demidenko, R. Joshi, J. Hoopes, and T. Hasan, Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 64, 1211 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Du, R. Mick, T. Busch, T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, G. Yu, A. G. Yodh, S. B. Malkowicz, D. Smith, R. Whittington, D. Stripp, and S. M. Hahn, Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 427 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Moore, T. R. Nathan, W. R. Lees, C. A. Mosse, A. Freeman, M. Emberton, and S. G. Bown, Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 356 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Finlay, T. C. Zhu, A. Dimofte, D. Stripp, S. B. Malkowcz, T. M. Busch, and S. M. Hahn, Photochem. Photobiol. 82, 1270 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

B. A. Brooksby, “Combining near infrared tomography and magnetic resonance imaging to improve breast tissue chromophore and scattering assessment,” Ph.D. dissertation (Dartmouth College, 2005).

R. A. Weersink, A. Bogaards, M. Gertner, S. R. H. Davidson, K. Zhang, G. Netchev, J. Trachtenberg, and B. C. Wilson, J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 79, 211 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Soto-Thompson, A. Johansson, T. Johansson, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, N. Bendsoe, and K. Svanberg, Appl. Opt. 44, 4023 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Altschuler, T. C. Zhu, J. Li, and S. M. Hahn, Med. Phys. 32, 3524 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1999 (1)

S. R. Arridge, Inverse Probl. 15, R41 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

B. C. Wilson, M. S. Patterson, and L. Lilge, Lasers Med. Sci. 12, 182 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

P. C. Hansen, Numer. Algorithms 6, 1 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

R. Sens and K. H. Drexhage, J. Lumin. 24, 709 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Alerstam, E.

Altschuler, M. D.

M. D. Altschuler, T. C. Zhu, J. Li, and S. M. Hahn, Med. Phys. 32, 3524 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Andersson-Engels, S.

Arridge, S. R.

S. R. Arridge, Inverse Probl. 15, R41 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Axelsson, J.

A. Johansson, J. Axelsson, S. Andersson-Engels, and J. Swartling, Med. Phys. 34, 4309 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Axelsson, J. Svensson, and S. Andersson-Engels, Opt. Express 15, 13574 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bendsoe, N.

Bogaards, A.

R. A. Weersink, A. Bogaards, M. Gertner, S. R. H. Davidson, K. Zhang, G. Netchev, J. Trachtenberg, and B. C. Wilson, J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 79, 211 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bown, S. G.

C. M. Moore, T. R. Nathan, W. R. Lees, C. A. Mosse, A. Freeman, M. Emberton, and S. G. Bown, Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 356 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brooksby, B. A.

B. A. Brooksby, “Combining near infrared tomography and magnetic resonance imaging to improve breast tissue chromophore and scattering assessment,” Ph.D. dissertation (Dartmouth College, 2005).

Busch, T.

K. L. Du, R. Mick, T. Busch, T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, G. Yu, A. G. Yodh, S. B. Malkowicz, D. Smith, R. Whittington, D. Stripp, and S. M. Hahn, Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 427 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Busch, T. M.

J. C. Finlay, T. C. Zhu, A. Dimofte, D. Stripp, S. B. Malkowcz, T. M. Busch, and S. M. Hahn, Photochem. Photobiol. 82, 1270 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, B.

X. D. Zhou, B. W. Pogue, B. Chen, E. Demidenko, R. Joshi, J. Hoopes, and T. Hasan, Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 64, 1211 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davidson, S. R. H.

R. A. Weersink, A. Bogaards, M. Gertner, S. R. H. Davidson, K. Zhang, G. Netchev, J. Trachtenberg, and B. C. Wilson, J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 79, 211 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dehghani, H.

P. K. Yalavarthy, B. W. Pogue, H. Dehghani, and K. D. Paulsen, Med. Phys. 34, 2085 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Demidenko, E.

X. D. Zhou, B. W. Pogue, B. Chen, E. Demidenko, R. Joshi, J. Hoopes, and T. Hasan, Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 64, 1211 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dimofte, A.

J. C. Finlay, T. C. Zhu, A. Dimofte, D. Stripp, S. B. Malkowcz, T. M. Busch, and S. M. Hahn, Photochem. Photobiol. 82, 1270 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drexhage, K. H.

R. Sens and K. H. Drexhage, J. Lumin. 24, 709 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Du, K. L.

K. L. Du, R. Mick, T. Busch, T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, G. Yu, A. G. Yodh, S. B. Malkowicz, D. Smith, R. Whittington, D. Stripp, and S. M. Hahn, Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 427 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Emberton, M.

C. M. Moore, T. R. Nathan, W. R. Lees, C. A. Mosse, A. Freeman, M. Emberton, and S. G. Bown, Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 356 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Finlay, J. C.

K. L. Du, R. Mick, T. Busch, T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, G. Yu, A. G. Yodh, S. B. Malkowicz, D. Smith, R. Whittington, D. Stripp, and S. M. Hahn, Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 427 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Finlay, T. C. Zhu, A. Dimofte, D. Stripp, S. B. Malkowcz, T. M. Busch, and S. M. Hahn, Photochem. Photobiol. 82, 1270 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freeman, A.

C. M. Moore, T. R. Nathan, W. R. Lees, C. A. Mosse, A. Freeman, M. Emberton, and S. G. Bown, Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 356 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gertner, M.

R. A. Weersink, A. Bogaards, M. Gertner, S. R. H. Davidson, K. Zhang, G. Netchev, J. Trachtenberg, and B. C. Wilson, J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 79, 211 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hahn, S. M.

K. L. Du, R. Mick, T. Busch, T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, G. Yu, A. G. Yodh, S. B. Malkowicz, D. Smith, R. Whittington, D. Stripp, and S. M. Hahn, Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 427 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Finlay, T. C. Zhu, A. Dimofte, D. Stripp, S. B. Malkowcz, T. M. Busch, and S. M. Hahn, Photochem. Photobiol. 82, 1270 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Altschuler, T. C. Zhu, J. Li, and S. M. Hahn, Med. Phys. 32, 3524 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, P. C.

P. C. Hansen, Numer. Algorithms 6, 1 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hasan, T.

X. D. Zhou, B. W. Pogue, B. Chen, E. Demidenko, R. Joshi, J. Hoopes, and T. Hasan, Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 64, 1211 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoopes, J.

X. D. Zhou, B. W. Pogue, B. Chen, E. Demidenko, R. Joshi, J. Hoopes, and T. Hasan, Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 64, 1211 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johansson, A.

Johansson, T.

Joshi, R.

X. D. Zhou, B. W. Pogue, B. Chen, E. Demidenko, R. Joshi, J. Hoopes, and T. Hasan, Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 64, 1211 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lees, W. R.

C. M. Moore, T. R. Nathan, W. R. Lees, C. A. Mosse, A. Freeman, M. Emberton, and S. G. Bown, Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 356 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, J.

M. D. Altschuler, T. C. Zhu, J. Li, and S. M. Hahn, Med. Phys. 32, 3524 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lilge, L.

B. C. Wilson, M. S. Patterson, and L. Lilge, Lasers Med. Sci. 12, 182 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malkowcz, S. B.

J. C. Finlay, T. C. Zhu, A. Dimofte, D. Stripp, S. B. Malkowcz, T. M. Busch, and S. M. Hahn, Photochem. Photobiol. 82, 1270 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malkowicz, S. B.

K. L. Du, R. Mick, T. Busch, T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, G. Yu, A. G. Yodh, S. B. Malkowicz, D. Smith, R. Whittington, D. Stripp, and S. M. Hahn, Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 427 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mick, R.

K. L. Du, R. Mick, T. Busch, T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, G. Yu, A. G. Yodh, S. B. Malkowicz, D. Smith, R. Whittington, D. Stripp, and S. M. Hahn, Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 427 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moore, C. M.

C. M. Moore, T. R. Nathan, W. R. Lees, C. A. Mosse, A. Freeman, M. Emberton, and S. G. Bown, Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 356 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mosse, C. A.

C. M. Moore, T. R. Nathan, W. R. Lees, C. A. Mosse, A. Freeman, M. Emberton, and S. G. Bown, Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 356 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nathan, T. R.

C. M. Moore, T. R. Nathan, W. R. Lees, C. A. Mosse, A. Freeman, M. Emberton, and S. G. Bown, Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 356 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Netchev, G.

R. A. Weersink, A. Bogaards, M. Gertner, S. R. H. Davidson, K. Zhang, G. Netchev, J. Trachtenberg, and B. C. Wilson, J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 79, 211 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ntziachristos, V.

Patterson, M. S.

B. C. Wilson, M. S. Patterson, and L. Lilge, Lasers Med. Sci. 12, 182 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paulsen, K. D.

P. K. Yalavarthy, B. W. Pogue, H. Dehghani, and K. D. Paulsen, Med. Phys. 34, 2085 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pogue, B. W.

P. K. Yalavarthy, B. W. Pogue, H. Dehghani, and K. D. Paulsen, Med. Phys. 34, 2085 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. D. Zhou, B. W. Pogue, B. Chen, E. Demidenko, R. Joshi, J. Hoopes, and T. Hasan, Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 64, 1211 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sens, R.

R. Sens and K. H. Drexhage, J. Lumin. 24, 709 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D.

K. L. Du, R. Mick, T. Busch, T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, G. Yu, A. G. Yodh, S. B. Malkowicz, D. Smith, R. Whittington, D. Stripp, and S. M. Hahn, Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 427 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soto-Thompson, M.

Stripp, D.

J. C. Finlay, T. C. Zhu, A. Dimofte, D. Stripp, S. B. Malkowcz, T. M. Busch, and S. M. Hahn, Photochem. Photobiol. 82, 1270 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Du, R. Mick, T. Busch, T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, G. Yu, A. G. Yodh, S. B. Malkowicz, D. Smith, R. Whittington, D. Stripp, and S. M. Hahn, Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 427 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svanberg, K.

Svanberg, S.

Svensson, J.

Svensson, T.

Swartling, J.

A. Johansson, J. Axelsson, S. Andersson-Engels, and J. Swartling, Med. Phys. 34, 4309 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trachtenberg, J.

R. A. Weersink, A. Bogaards, M. Gertner, S. R. H. Davidson, K. Zhang, G. Netchev, J. Trachtenberg, and B. C. Wilson, J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 79, 211 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weersink, R. A.

R. A. Weersink, A. Bogaards, M. Gertner, S. R. H. Davidson, K. Zhang, G. Netchev, J. Trachtenberg, and B. C. Wilson, J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 79, 211 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weissleder, R.

Whittington, R.

K. L. Du, R. Mick, T. Busch, T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, G. Yu, A. G. Yodh, S. B. Malkowicz, D. Smith, R. Whittington, D. Stripp, and S. M. Hahn, Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 427 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, B. C.

R. A. Weersink, A. Bogaards, M. Gertner, S. R. H. Davidson, K. Zhang, G. Netchev, J. Trachtenberg, and B. C. Wilson, J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 79, 211 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. C. Wilson, M. S. Patterson, and L. Lilge, Lasers Med. Sci. 12, 182 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yalavarthy, P. K.

P. K. Yalavarthy, B. W. Pogue, H. Dehghani, and K. D. Paulsen, Med. Phys. 34, 2085 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yodh, A. G.

K. L. Du, R. Mick, T. Busch, T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, G. Yu, A. G. Yodh, S. B. Malkowicz, D. Smith, R. Whittington, D. Stripp, and S. M. Hahn, Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 427 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, G.

K. L. Du, R. Mick, T. Busch, T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, G. Yu, A. G. Yodh, S. B. Malkowicz, D. Smith, R. Whittington, D. Stripp, and S. M. Hahn, Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 427 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, K.

R. A. Weersink, A. Bogaards, M. Gertner, S. R. H. Davidson, K. Zhang, G. Netchev, J. Trachtenberg, and B. C. Wilson, J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 79, 211 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, X. D.

X. D. Zhou, B. W. Pogue, B. Chen, E. Demidenko, R. Joshi, J. Hoopes, and T. Hasan, Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 64, 1211 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, T. C.

J. C. Finlay, T. C. Zhu, A. Dimofte, D. Stripp, S. B. Malkowcz, T. M. Busch, and S. M. Hahn, Photochem. Photobiol. 82, 1270 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Du, R. Mick, T. Busch, T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, G. Yu, A. G. Yodh, S. B. Malkowicz, D. Smith, R. Whittington, D. Stripp, and S. M. Hahn, Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 427 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Altschuler, T. C. Zhu, J. Li, and S. M. Hahn, Med. Phys. 32, 3524 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1)

X. D. Zhou, B. W. Pogue, B. Chen, E. Demidenko, R. Joshi, J. Hoopes, and T. Hasan, Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 64, 1211 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inverse Probl. (1)

S. R. Arridge, Inverse Probl. 15, R41 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin. (1)

R. Sens and K. H. Drexhage, J. Lumin. 24, 709 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Photochem. Photobiol. B (1)

R. A. Weersink, A. Bogaards, M. Gertner, S. R. H. Davidson, K. Zhang, G. Netchev, J. Trachtenberg, and B. C. Wilson, J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 79, 211 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasers Med. Sci. (1)

B. C. Wilson, M. S. Patterson, and L. Lilge, Lasers Med. Sci. 12, 182 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med. (2)

K. L. Du, R. Mick, T. Busch, T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, G. Yu, A. G. Yodh, S. B. Malkowicz, D. Smith, R. Whittington, D. Stripp, and S. M. Hahn, Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 427 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Moore, T. R. Nathan, W. R. Lees, C. A. Mosse, A. Freeman, M. Emberton, and S. G. Bown, Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 356 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Med. Phys. (3)

A. Johansson, J. Axelsson, S. Andersson-Engels, and J. Swartling, Med. Phys. 34, 4309 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Altschuler, T. C. Zhu, J. Li, and S. M. Hahn, Med. Phys. 32, 3524 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Yalavarthy, B. W. Pogue, H. Dehghani, and K. D. Paulsen, Med. Phys. 34, 2085 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Numer. Algorithms (1)

P. C. Hansen, Numer. Algorithms 6, 1 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Photochem. Photobiol. (1)

J. C. Finlay, T. C. Zhu, A. Dimofte, D. Stripp, S. B. Malkowcz, T. M. Busch, and S. M. Hahn, Photochem. Photobiol. 82, 1270 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

B. A. Brooksby, “Combining near infrared tomography and magnetic resonance imaging to improve breast tissue chromophore and scattering assessment,” Ph.D. dissertation (Dartmouth College, 2005).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic picture of the IPDT instrument.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a)–(c) Reconstruction results from a phantom experiment showing cross-sectional slices at z = 15 , 20, and 25 mm , respectively. (d) Schematic of the phantom fluorophore distribution. The fiber positions in the x y plane are also shown.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a)–(c) Reconstruction results from a clinical trial showing cross-sectional slices at z = 15 , 20, and 25 mm , respectively. White curves mark the prostate and urethra boundaries. (d) One slice of the prostate showing the tissue regions where 1 is normal, 2 is the prostate, and 3 is the urethra. The fiber positions in the x y plane are also shown.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ω = arg min η ( δ ( η ) 2 + λ L [ η η 0 ] 2 ) .
F ( η ) = 1 U x ( r s , r d ) n = 1 N N U m * ( r d , r n ) U x ( r s , r n ) Δ V η n ,
Ω η = J T δ ( η i ) λ L T L [ η i η 0 ] = 0 .
η i = η i 1 + ( J T J + λ L T L ) 1 × [ J T δ ( η i 1 ) λ L T L η i 1 ] .

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