Abstract

Iron and manganese doubly doped LiNbO3 (LN:Fe,Mn) has been suggested for nonvolatile photorefractive recording; however, its response time is still of the order of minutes. Here we present results on LiNbO3 triply doped with zirconium, iron, and manganese (LN:Zr,Fe,Mn). The codoping with Zr eliminates undesirable intrinsic traps, which strongly enhances the charge transition speed. The response time of LN:Zr,Fe,Mn for nonvolatile holographic storage shortens to only 0.95 s (wavelength of 532 nm and intensity of 400  mW/cm2), and the sensitivity reaches 1.31 cm/J. Thus it seems that we have found an excellent recording medium for practical holographic storage devices.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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[CrossRef]

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S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, J. Xu, and G. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101126 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2003 (2)

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G. Zhang, Y. Kong, and J. Xu, OSA Trends Opt. Photonics Ser. 62, 166 (2001).

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[CrossRef]

L. Hesselink, S. Orlov, A. Liu, A. Akella, D. Lande, and R. Neurgaonkar, Science 282, 1089 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

G. Zhang, J. Xu, S. Liu, Q. Sun, and G. Zhang, Proc. SPIE 2529, 14 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Psaltis and F. Mok, Sci. Am. 273, 70 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

P. Lerner, C. Legras, and J. P. Dumas, J. Cryst. Growth 3-4, 231 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Adibi, A.

Akella, A.

L. Hesselink, S. Orlov, A. Liu, A. Akella, D. Lande, and R. Neurgaonkar, Science 282, 1089 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. Adibi, K. Buse, and D. Psaltis, Opt. Lett. 24, 652 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Cadena, G. H.

Chen, S.

Y. Kong, S. Wu, S. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 251107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Curtis, K.

L. Dhar, K. Curtis, and T. Fäcke, Nat. Photonics 2, 403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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P. Lerner, C. Legras, and J. P. Dumas, J. Cryst. Growth 3-4, 231 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Fäcke, T.

L. Dhar, K. Curtis, and T. Fäcke, Nat. Photonics 2, 403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Hesselink, L.

L. Hesselink, S. Orlov, A. Liu, A. Akella, D. Lande, and R. Neurgaonkar, Science 282, 1089 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kong, Y.

Y. Kong, S. Wu, S. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 251107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, J. Xu, and G. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101126 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Zhang, Y. Kong, and J. Xu, OSA Trends Opt. Photonics Ser. 62, 166 (2001).

Lande, D.

L. Hesselink, S. Orlov, A. Liu, A. Akella, D. Lande, and R. Neurgaonkar, Science 282, 1089 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Legras, C.

P. Lerner, C. Legras, and J. P. Dumas, J. Cryst. Growth 3-4, 231 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Lerner, P.

P. Lerner, C. Legras, and J. P. Dumas, J. Cryst. Growth 3-4, 231 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Li, S.

S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, J. Xu, and G. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101126 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, A.

L. Hesselink, S. Orlov, A. Liu, A. Akella, D. Lande, and R. Neurgaonkar, Science 282, 1089 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, S.

Y. Kong, S. Wu, S. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 251107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, J. Xu, and G. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101126 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Zhang, J. Xu, S. Liu, Q. Sun, and G. Zhang, Proc. SPIE 2529, 14 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mok, F.

D. Psaltis and F. Mok, Sci. Am. 273, 70 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Momtahan, O.

Neurgaonkar, R.

L. Hesselink, S. Orlov, A. Liu, A. Akella, D. Lande, and R. Neurgaonkar, Science 282, 1089 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Orlov, S.

L. Hesselink, S. Orlov, A. Liu, A. Akella, D. Lande, and R. Neurgaonkar, Science 282, 1089 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Psaltis, D.

A. Adibi, K. Buse, and D. Psaltis, Opt. Lett. 24, 652 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Buse, A. Adibi, and D. Psaltis, Nature 393, 665 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Psaltis and F. Mok, Sci. Am. 273, 70 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Q.

G. Zhang, J. Xu, S. Liu, Q. Sun, and G. Zhang, Proc. SPIE 2529, 14 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.

Y. Kong, S. Wu, S. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 251107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

Y. Kong, S. Wu, S. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 251107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, J. Xu, and G. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101126 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Zhang, Y. Kong, and J. Xu, OSA Trends Opt. Photonics Ser. 62, 166 (2001).

G. Zhang, J. Xu, S. Liu, Q. Sun, and G. Zhang, Proc. SPIE 2529, 14 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G.

S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, J. Xu, and G. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101126 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Zhang, Y. Kong, and J. Xu, OSA Trends Opt. Photonics Ser. 62, 166 (2001).

G. Zhang, J. Xu, S. Liu, Q. Sun, and G. Zhang, Proc. SPIE 2529, 14 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Zhang, J. Xu, S. Liu, Q. Sun, and G. Zhang, Proc. SPIE 2529, 14 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, J. Xu, and G. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101126 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kong, S. Wu, S. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 251107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

P. Lerner, C. Legras, and J. P. Dumas, J. Cryst. Growth 3-4, 231 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nat. Photonics (1)

L. Dhar, K. Curtis, and T. Fäcke, Nat. Photonics 2, 403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

M. Haw, Nature 422, 556 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Buse, A. Adibi, and D. Psaltis, Nature 393, 665 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

OSA Trends Opt. Photonics Ser. (1)

G. Zhang, Y. Kong, and J. Xu, OSA Trends Opt. Photonics Ser. 62, 166 (2001).

Proc. SPIE (1)

G. Zhang, J. Xu, S. Liu, Q. Sun, and G. Zhang, Proc. SPIE 2529, 14 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sci. Am. (1)

D. Psaltis and F. Mok, Sci. Am. 273, 70 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

A. Hellemans, Science 286, 1502 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Hesselink, S. Orlov, A. Liu, A. Akella, D. Lande, and R. Neurgaonkar, Science 282, 1089 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for experiments on nonvolatile holographic storage: M1–M4, mirrors; BS, beam splitter; S1–S5, shutters; D1–D4, detectors; L, lens; C, crystal.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Holographic recording and fixing characteristics of LN:Zr,Fe,Mn. Recording time is 30 s; readout time is about 80 min. The inset shows the recording process (0–30 s).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Energy level diagram of dopants and intrinsic defects in the forbidden gap of LN. (a) Normal congruent LN, doubly doped with iron and manganese; (b) ideal doubly doped LN.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Two-Color Holographic Storage for Different Oxidation States and Light Intensities a

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