Abstract

This work demonstrates a rib waveguide photodetector based on a vertical Si p-i-n junction with Ge islands operating in the spectral region around λ=1.55μm at room temperature. A vertical stack of four layers of Ge islands is grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a silicon-on-insulator. Each layer is organized in a two-dimensional square grid with a period of 460nm. The spectral response of the detector extends well beyond 1.6μm at 300K. The absorption length of 135μm (at 1/e decrease of intensity) at λ=1.55μm along the waveguide allows for relatively small-size devices for all-on-one-platform integration.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. L. Ng, M. A. Lourenço, R. M. Gwilliam, S. Ledain, G. Shao and K. P. Homewood, Nature 410, 192 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. RSoft Photonics CAD Suite, BeamPROP, FullWave, www.rsoftdesign.com.
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2006 (2)

Gang Chen, H. Lichtenberger, G. Bauer, W. Jantsch and F. Schäffler, Phys. Rev. B 74, 035302 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Talalaev, G. E. Cirlin, A. A. Tonkikh, N. D. Zakharov, P. Werner, U. Gösele, J. W. Tomm and T. Elsaesser, Nanoscale Res. Lett. 1, 137 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

A. Alguno, N. Usami, T. Ujihara, K. Fujiwara, G. Sazaki, K. Nakajima, K. Sawano and Y. Shiraki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1802 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

A. Alguno, N. Usami, T. Ujihara, K. Fujiwara, G. Sazaki, K. Nakajima and Y. Shiraki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1258 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhong, A. Halilovic, T. Fromherz, F. Schäffler, and G. Bauer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4779 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. Elkurdi, P. Boucaud, S. Sauvage, O. Kermarec, Y. Campidelli, D. Bensahel, G. Saint-Girons and I. Sagnes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 509 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

W. L. Ng, M. A. Lourenço, R. M. Gwilliam, S. Ledain, G. Shao and K. P. Homewood, Nature 410, 192 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

T. Meyer, M. Klemec and H. von Känel, Phys. Rev. B 60, R8493 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. G. Schmidt, O. Kienzle, Y. Hao, K. Eberl, and F. Ernst, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1272 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

S. Yu. Shiryaev, E. V. Pedersen, F. Jensen, J. W. Petersen, J. L. Hansen, and A. N. Larsen, Thin Solid Films 294, 311 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

H. Sunamura, Y. Shiraki and S. Fukatsu, Solid-State Electron. 40, 693 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

D. E. Eaglesham and M. Cerullo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1943 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

J. Weber and M. I. Alonso, Phys. Rev. B 40, 5683 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Alguno, A.

A. Alguno, N. Usami, T. Ujihara, K. Fujiwara, G. Sazaki, K. Nakajima, K. Sawano and Y. Shiraki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1802 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Alguno, N. Usami, T. Ujihara, K. Fujiwara, G. Sazaki, K. Nakajima and Y. Shiraki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1258 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Alonso, M. I.

J. Weber and M. I. Alonso, Phys. Rev. B 40, 5683 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, G.

Gang Chen, H. Lichtenberger, G. Bauer, W. Jantsch and F. Schäffler, Phys. Rev. B 74, 035302 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhong, A. Halilovic, T. Fromherz, F. Schäffler, and G. Bauer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4779 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bensahel, D.

M. Elkurdi, P. Boucaud, S. Sauvage, O. Kermarec, Y. Campidelli, D. Bensahel, G. Saint-Girons and I. Sagnes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 509 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Boucaud, P.

M. Elkurdi, P. Boucaud, S. Sauvage, O. Kermarec, Y. Campidelli, D. Bensahel, G. Saint-Girons and I. Sagnes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 509 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Campidelli, Y.

M. Elkurdi, P. Boucaud, S. Sauvage, O. Kermarec, Y. Campidelli, D. Bensahel, G. Saint-Girons and I. Sagnes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 509 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cerullo, M.

D. E. Eaglesham and M. Cerullo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1943 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Gang

Gang Chen, H. Lichtenberger, G. Bauer, W. Jantsch and F. Schäffler, Phys. Rev. B 74, 035302 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cirlin, G. E.

V. G. Talalaev, G. E. Cirlin, A. A. Tonkikh, N. D. Zakharov, P. Werner, U. Gösele, J. W. Tomm and T. Elsaesser, Nanoscale Res. Lett. 1, 137 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eaglesham, D. E.

D. E. Eaglesham and M. Cerullo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1943 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eberl, K.

O. G. Schmidt, O. Kienzle, Y. Hao, K. Eberl, and F. Ernst, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1272 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Elkurdi, M.

M. Elkurdi, P. Boucaud, S. Sauvage, O. Kermarec, Y. Campidelli, D. Bensahel, G. Saint-Girons and I. Sagnes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 509 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Elsaesser, T.

V. G. Talalaev, G. E. Cirlin, A. A. Tonkikh, N. D. Zakharov, P. Werner, U. Gösele, J. W. Tomm and T. Elsaesser, Nanoscale Res. Lett. 1, 137 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ernst, F.

O. G. Schmidt, O. Kienzle, Y. Hao, K. Eberl, and F. Ernst, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1272 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fromherz, T.

Z. Zhong, A. Halilovic, T. Fromherz, F. Schäffler, and G. Bauer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4779 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, K.

A. Alguno, N. Usami, T. Ujihara, K. Fujiwara, G. Sazaki, K. Nakajima, K. Sawano and Y. Shiraki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1802 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Alguno, N. Usami, T. Ujihara, K. Fujiwara, G. Sazaki, K. Nakajima and Y. Shiraki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1258 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fukatsu, S.

H. Sunamura, Y. Shiraki and S. Fukatsu, Solid-State Electron. 40, 693 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gösele, U.

V. G. Talalaev, G. E. Cirlin, A. A. Tonkikh, N. D. Zakharov, P. Werner, U. Gösele, J. W. Tomm and T. Elsaesser, Nanoscale Res. Lett. 1, 137 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gwilliam, R. M.

W. L. Ng, M. A. Lourenço, R. M. Gwilliam, S. Ledain, G. Shao and K. P. Homewood, Nature 410, 192 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Halilovic, A.

Z. Zhong, A. Halilovic, T. Fromherz, F. Schäffler, and G. Bauer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4779 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, J. L.

S. Yu. Shiryaev, E. V. Pedersen, F. Jensen, J. W. Petersen, J. L. Hansen, and A. N. Larsen, Thin Solid Films 294, 311 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hao, Y.

O. G. Schmidt, O. Kienzle, Y. Hao, K. Eberl, and F. Ernst, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1272 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Homewood, K. P.

W. L. Ng, M. A. Lourenço, R. M. Gwilliam, S. Ledain, G. Shao and K. P. Homewood, Nature 410, 192 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jantsch, W.

Gang Chen, H. Lichtenberger, G. Bauer, W. Jantsch and F. Schäffler, Phys. Rev. B 74, 035302 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, F.

S. Yu. Shiryaev, E. V. Pedersen, F. Jensen, J. W. Petersen, J. L. Hansen, and A. N. Larsen, Thin Solid Films 294, 311 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kermarec, O.

M. Elkurdi, P. Boucaud, S. Sauvage, O. Kermarec, Y. Campidelli, D. Bensahel, G. Saint-Girons and I. Sagnes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 509 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kienzle, O.

O. G. Schmidt, O. Kienzle, Y. Hao, K. Eberl, and F. Ernst, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1272 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Klemec, M.

T. Meyer, M. Klemec and H. von Känel, Phys. Rev. B 60, R8493 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Larsen, A. N.

S. Yu. Shiryaev, E. V. Pedersen, F. Jensen, J. W. Petersen, J. L. Hansen, and A. N. Larsen, Thin Solid Films 294, 311 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ledain, S.

W. L. Ng, M. A. Lourenço, R. M. Gwilliam, S. Ledain, G. Shao and K. P. Homewood, Nature 410, 192 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lichtenberger, H.

Gang Chen, H. Lichtenberger, G. Bauer, W. Jantsch and F. Schäffler, Phys. Rev. B 74, 035302 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lourenço, M. A.

W. L. Ng, M. A. Lourenço, R. M. Gwilliam, S. Ledain, G. Shao and K. P. Homewood, Nature 410, 192 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meyer, T.

T. Meyer, M. Klemec and H. von Känel, Phys. Rev. B 60, R8493 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, K.

A. Alguno, N. Usami, T. Ujihara, K. Fujiwara, G. Sazaki, K. Nakajima, K. Sawano and Y. Shiraki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1802 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Alguno, N. Usami, T. Ujihara, K. Fujiwara, G. Sazaki, K. Nakajima and Y. Shiraki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1258 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ng, W. L.

W. L. Ng, M. A. Lourenço, R. M. Gwilliam, S. Ledain, G. Shao and K. P. Homewood, Nature 410, 192 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pedersen, E. V.

S. Yu. Shiryaev, E. V. Pedersen, F. Jensen, J. W. Petersen, J. L. Hansen, and A. N. Larsen, Thin Solid Films 294, 311 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Petersen, J. W.

S. Yu. Shiryaev, E. V. Pedersen, F. Jensen, J. W. Petersen, J. L. Hansen, and A. N. Larsen, Thin Solid Films 294, 311 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sagnes, I.

M. Elkurdi, P. Boucaud, S. Sauvage, O. Kermarec, Y. Campidelli, D. Bensahel, G. Saint-Girons and I. Sagnes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 509 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Saint-Girons, G.

M. Elkurdi, P. Boucaud, S. Sauvage, O. Kermarec, Y. Campidelli, D. Bensahel, G. Saint-Girons and I. Sagnes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 509 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sauvage, S.

M. Elkurdi, P. Boucaud, S. Sauvage, O. Kermarec, Y. Campidelli, D. Bensahel, G. Saint-Girons and I. Sagnes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 509 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sawano, K.

A. Alguno, N. Usami, T. Ujihara, K. Fujiwara, G. Sazaki, K. Nakajima, K. Sawano and Y. Shiraki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1802 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sazaki, G.

A. Alguno, N. Usami, T. Ujihara, K. Fujiwara, G. Sazaki, K. Nakajima, K. Sawano and Y. Shiraki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1802 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Alguno, N. Usami, T. Ujihara, K. Fujiwara, G. Sazaki, K. Nakajima and Y. Shiraki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1258 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schäffler, F.

Gang Chen, H. Lichtenberger, G. Bauer, W. Jantsch and F. Schäffler, Phys. Rev. B 74, 035302 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhong, A. Halilovic, T. Fromherz, F. Schäffler, and G. Bauer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4779 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, O. G.

O. G. Schmidt, O. Kienzle, Y. Hao, K. Eberl, and F. Ernst, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1272 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shao, G.

W. L. Ng, M. A. Lourenço, R. M. Gwilliam, S. Ledain, G. Shao and K. P. Homewood, Nature 410, 192 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shiraki, Y.

A. Alguno, N. Usami, T. Ujihara, K. Fujiwara, G. Sazaki, K. Nakajima, K. Sawano and Y. Shiraki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1802 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Alguno, N. Usami, T. Ujihara, K. Fujiwara, G. Sazaki, K. Nakajima and Y. Shiraki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1258 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Sunamura, Y. Shiraki and S. Fukatsu, Solid-State Electron. 40, 693 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sunamura, H.

H. Sunamura, Y. Shiraki and S. Fukatsu, Solid-State Electron. 40, 693 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Talalaev, V. G.

V. G. Talalaev, G. E. Cirlin, A. A. Tonkikh, N. D. Zakharov, P. Werner, U. Gösele, J. W. Tomm and T. Elsaesser, Nanoscale Res. Lett. 1, 137 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tomm, J. W.

V. G. Talalaev, G. E. Cirlin, A. A. Tonkikh, N. D. Zakharov, P. Werner, U. Gösele, J. W. Tomm and T. Elsaesser, Nanoscale Res. Lett. 1, 137 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tonkikh, A. A.

V. G. Talalaev, G. E. Cirlin, A. A. Tonkikh, N. D. Zakharov, P. Werner, U. Gösele, J. W. Tomm and T. Elsaesser, Nanoscale Res. Lett. 1, 137 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ujihara, T.

A. Alguno, N. Usami, T. Ujihara, K. Fujiwara, G. Sazaki, K. Nakajima, K. Sawano and Y. Shiraki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1802 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Alguno, N. Usami, T. Ujihara, K. Fujiwara, G. Sazaki, K. Nakajima and Y. Shiraki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1258 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Usami, N.

A. Alguno, N. Usami, T. Ujihara, K. Fujiwara, G. Sazaki, K. Nakajima, K. Sawano and Y. Shiraki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1802 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Alguno, N. Usami, T. Ujihara, K. Fujiwara, G. Sazaki, K. Nakajima and Y. Shiraki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1258 (2003).
[CrossRef]

von Känel, H.

T. Meyer, M. Klemec and H. von Känel, Phys. Rev. B 60, R8493 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Weber, J.

J. Weber and M. I. Alonso, Phys. Rev. B 40, 5683 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Werner, P.

V. G. Talalaev, G. E. Cirlin, A. A. Tonkikh, N. D. Zakharov, P. Werner, U. Gösele, J. W. Tomm and T. Elsaesser, Nanoscale Res. Lett. 1, 137 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yu. Shiryaev, S.

S. Yu. Shiryaev, E. V. Pedersen, F. Jensen, J. W. Petersen, J. L. Hansen, and A. N. Larsen, Thin Solid Films 294, 311 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zakharov, N. D.

V. G. Talalaev, G. E. Cirlin, A. A. Tonkikh, N. D. Zakharov, P. Werner, U. Gösele, J. W. Tomm and T. Elsaesser, Nanoscale Res. Lett. 1, 137 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, Z.

Z. Zhong, A. Halilovic, T. Fromherz, F. Schäffler, and G. Bauer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4779 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

Z. Zhong, A. Halilovic, T. Fromherz, F. Schäffler, and G. Bauer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4779 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O. G. Schmidt, O. Kienzle, Y. Hao, K. Eberl, and F. Ernst, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1272 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Elkurdi, P. Boucaud, S. Sauvage, O. Kermarec, Y. Campidelli, D. Bensahel, G. Saint-Girons and I. Sagnes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 509 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Alguno, N. Usami, T. Ujihara, K. Fujiwara, G. Sazaki, K. Nakajima and Y. Shiraki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1258 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Alguno, N. Usami, T. Ujihara, K. Fujiwara, G. Sazaki, K. Nakajima, K. Sawano and Y. Shiraki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1802 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nanoscale Res. Lett. (1)

V. G. Talalaev, G. E. Cirlin, A. A. Tonkikh, N. D. Zakharov, P. Werner, U. Gösele, J. W. Tomm and T. Elsaesser, Nanoscale Res. Lett. 1, 137 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

W. L. Ng, M. A. Lourenço, R. M. Gwilliam, S. Ledain, G. Shao and K. P. Homewood, Nature 410, 192 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (3)

J. Weber and M. I. Alonso, Phys. Rev. B 40, 5683 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Gang Chen, H. Lichtenberger, G. Bauer, W. Jantsch and F. Schäffler, Phys. Rev. B 74, 035302 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Meyer, M. Klemec and H. von Känel, Phys. Rev. B 60, R8493 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. E. Eaglesham and M. Cerullo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1943 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solid-State Electron. (1)

H. Sunamura, Y. Shiraki and S. Fukatsu, Solid-State Electron. 40, 693 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

S. Yu. Shiryaev, E. V. Pedersen, F. Jensen, J. W. Petersen, J. L. Hansen, and A. N. Larsen, Thin Solid Films 294, 311 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

RSoft Photonics CAD Suite, BeamPROP, FullWave, www.rsoftdesign.com.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(top) SEM image of Ge islands in an Si rib WG on SOI. The Si cap is not deposited for demonstration purposes. Atomic force microscopy image of a portion of the 5 μ m wide WG p-i-n photodetector. (bottom) Schematic illustration of the photodetector design. Pyramids represent Ge islands.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(top) Example simulation results for TE modes in an Si rib WG with Ge islands. (bottom) Propagation length of EM at λ = 1.55 μ m (dashed curve) and λ = 1.17 μ m (solid curve) along the WG.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

PL of Ge islands in Si p-i-n junction. λ excitation = 488 nm , P laser 3 mW , T = 8 K . Both the experimental (points) and smoothened spectrum (line) shown. Inset, radiative recombination of excitons in Si-Ge.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Photogenerated signals with and without application of bias V R = 2 V . The sample is tilted by 45° to the source to generate a guided EM wave in the WG.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n ̃ bulk Si = n ̃ spacer Si = n ̃ buffer Si = n cap Si = 3.48 + i × 0 ,
n ̃ wetting = 4.26 + i × 0.057 , n ̃ islands = 3.47 + i × 0.0025.

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