Abstract

LEDs are a promising new type of light source for differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS). Varying differential structures in the emission spectrum of LEDs, however, display a potentially severe problem. We show that the structures, which originate from a Fabry–Pérot etalon, may be removed by tilting the emitter, which at the same time increases the radiant flux coupled into the subsequent optical system. The results of long-path DOAS measurements, where we apply our method on a blue LED for the suppression of periodic structures, are also presented.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. U. Platt and J. Stutz, Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS)--Principles and Applications (Springer, 2008).
  2. D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 310 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. C. Kim, M. C. Schmidt, H. Sato, F. Wu, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, Phys. Status Solidi (RRL) 1, 125 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Kern, S. Trick, B. Rippel, and U. Platt, Appl. Opt. 45, 2077 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. W. Li, P. H. Xie, W. Q. Liu, F. Q. Si, A. Li, and F. M. Peng, Acta Phys. Sin. 57, 1963 (2008).
  6. C. A. Tran, A. Osinski, R. F. Karlicek, and I. Berishev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1494 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. Hums, T. Finger, T. Hempel, J. Christen, A. Dadgar, A. Hoffmann, and A. Krost, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 033113 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Kraus, DOASIS--a Framework Design for DOAS (Shaker, 2006).
  9. J. Thieser, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Joh.-Joachim-Becher-Weg 27, 55128 Mainz, Germany (personal communication, 2009).
  10. Y. Ohtsuka, Appl. Opt. 21, 4316 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. Merten, J. Tschritter, and U. Platt, “Novel design of DOAS-long-path telescopes based on fiber optics” (submitted to Appl. Opt.).
  12. J. Stutz and U. Platt, Appl. Opt. 35, 6041 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S. Ball, J. M. Langridge, and R. L. Jones, Chem. Phys. Lett. 398, 68 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. Gherman, D. S. Venables, S. Vaughan, J. Orphal, and A. A. Ruth, Environ. Sci. Technol. 42, 820 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  15. F. Xu, Z. Lv, X. Lou, Y. Zhang, and Z. Zhang, Appl. Opt. 47, 5337 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J. Meinen, J. Thieser, U. Platt, and T. Leisner, “Using a high finesse optical resonator to provide a long light path for differential optical absorption spectroscopy: CE-DOAS,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. (to be published).
  17. T. Wu, W. Zhao, W. Chen, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, Appl. Phys. B 94, 58 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

T. Wu, W. Zhao, W. Chen, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, Appl. Phys. B 94, 58 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

T. Gherman, D. S. Venables, S. Vaughan, J. Orphal, and A. A. Ruth, Environ. Sci. Technol. 42, 820 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Xu, Z. Lv, X. Lou, Y. Zhang, and Z. Zhang, Appl. Opt. 47, 5337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. Li, P. H. Xie, W. Q. Liu, F. Q. Si, A. Li, and F. M. Peng, Acta Phys. Sin. 57, 1963 (2008).

2007 (2)

K. C. Kim, M. C. Schmidt, H. Sato, F. Wu, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, Phys. Status Solidi (RRL) 1, 125 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Hums, T. Finger, T. Hempel, J. Christen, A. Dadgar, A. Hoffmann, and A. Krost, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 033113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2004 (1)

S. Ball, J. M. Langridge, and R. L. Jones, Chem. Phys. Lett. 398, 68 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 310 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

C. A. Tran, A. Osinski, R. F. Karlicek, and I. Berishev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1494 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1982 (1)

Ball, S.

S. Ball, J. M. Langridge, and R. L. Jones, Chem. Phys. Lett. 398, 68 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Berishev, I.

C. A. Tran, A. Osinski, R. F. Karlicek, and I. Berishev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1494 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bhat, J. C.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 310 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

T. Wu, W. Zhao, W. Chen, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, Appl. Phys. B 94, 58 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Christen, J.

C. Hums, T. Finger, T. Hempel, J. Christen, A. Dadgar, A. Hoffmann, and A. Krost, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 033113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Collins, D.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 310 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dadgar, A.

C. Hums, T. Finger, T. Hempel, J. Christen, A. Dadgar, A. Hoffmann, and A. Krost, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 033113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

K. C. Kim, M. C. Schmidt, H. Sato, F. Wu, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, Phys. Status Solidi (RRL) 1, 125 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fellows, N.

K. C. Kim, M. C. Schmidt, H. Sato, F. Wu, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, Phys. Status Solidi (RRL) 1, 125 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Finger, T.

C. Hums, T. Finger, T. Hempel, J. Christen, A. Dadgar, A. Hoffmann, and A. Krost, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 033113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fletcher, R. M.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 310 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fujito, K.

K. C. Kim, M. C. Schmidt, H. Sato, F. Wu, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, Phys. Status Solidi (RRL) 1, 125 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gao, X.

T. Wu, W. Zhao, W. Chen, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, Appl. Phys. B 94, 58 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gherman, T.

T. Gherman, D. S. Venables, S. Vaughan, J. Orphal, and A. A. Ruth, Environ. Sci. Technol. 42, 820 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hempel, T.

C. Hums, T. Finger, T. Hempel, J. Christen, A. Dadgar, A. Hoffmann, and A. Krost, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 033113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, A.

C. Hums, T. Finger, T. Hempel, J. Christen, A. Dadgar, A. Hoffmann, and A. Krost, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 033113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Holcomb, M. O.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 310 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hums, C.

C. Hums, T. Finger, T. Hempel, J. Christen, A. Dadgar, A. Hoffmann, and A. Krost, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 033113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R. L.

S. Ball, J. M. Langridge, and R. L. Jones, Chem. Phys. Lett. 398, 68 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Karlicek, R. F.

C. A. Tran, A. Osinski, R. F. Karlicek, and I. Berishev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1494 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kern, C.

Kim, K. C.

K. C. Kim, M. C. Schmidt, H. Sato, F. Wu, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, Phys. Status Solidi (RRL) 1, 125 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kraus, S.

S. Kraus, DOASIS--a Framework Design for DOAS (Shaker, 2006).

Krost, A.

C. Hums, T. Finger, T. Hempel, J. Christen, A. Dadgar, A. Hoffmann, and A. Krost, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 033113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Langridge, J. M.

S. Ball, J. M. Langridge, and R. L. Jones, Chem. Phys. Lett. 398, 68 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Leisner, T.

J. Meinen, J. Thieser, U. Platt, and T. Leisner, “Using a high finesse optical resonator to provide a long light path for differential optical absorption spectroscopy: CE-DOAS,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. (to be published).

Li, A.

S. W. Li, P. H. Xie, W. Q. Liu, F. Q. Si, A. Li, and F. M. Peng, Acta Phys. Sin. 57, 1963 (2008).

Li, S. W.

S. W. Li, P. H. Xie, W. Q. Liu, F. Q. Si, A. Li, and F. M. Peng, Acta Phys. Sin. 57, 1963 (2008).

Liu, W. Q.

S. W. Li, P. H. Xie, W. Q. Liu, F. Q. Si, A. Li, and F. M. Peng, Acta Phys. Sin. 57, 1963 (2008).

Lou, X.

Ludowise, M. J.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 310 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lv, Z.

Martin, P. S.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 310 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Meinen, J.

J. Meinen, J. Thieser, U. Platt, and T. Leisner, “Using a high finesse optical resonator to provide a long light path for differential optical absorption spectroscopy: CE-DOAS,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. (to be published).

Merten, A.

A. Merten, J. Tschritter, and U. Platt, “Novel design of DOAS-long-path telescopes based on fiber optics” (submitted to Appl. Opt.).

Nakamura, S.

K. C. Kim, M. C. Schmidt, H. Sato, F. Wu, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, Phys. Status Solidi (RRL) 1, 125 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsuka, Y.

Orphal, J.

T. Gherman, D. S. Venables, S. Vaughan, J. Orphal, and A. A. Ruth, Environ. Sci. Technol. 42, 820 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Osinski, A.

C. A. Tran, A. Osinski, R. F. Karlicek, and I. Berishev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1494 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Peng, F. M.

S. W. Li, P. H. Xie, W. Q. Liu, F. Q. Si, A. Li, and F. M. Peng, Acta Phys. Sin. 57, 1963 (2008).

Platt, U.

C. Kern, S. Trick, B. Rippel, and U. Platt, Appl. Opt. 45, 2077 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Stutz and U. Platt, Appl. Opt. 35, 6041 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Merten, J. Tschritter, and U. Platt, “Novel design of DOAS-long-path telescopes based on fiber optics” (submitted to Appl. Opt.).

J. Meinen, J. Thieser, U. Platt, and T. Leisner, “Using a high finesse optical resonator to provide a long light path for differential optical absorption spectroscopy: CE-DOAS,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. (to be published).

U. Platt and J. Stutz, Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS)--Principles and Applications (Springer, 2008).

Rippel, B.

Rudaz, S. L.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 310 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ruth, A. A.

T. Gherman, D. S. Venables, S. Vaughan, J. Orphal, and A. A. Ruth, Environ. Sci. Technol. 42, 820 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Saito, M.

K. C. Kim, M. C. Schmidt, H. Sato, F. Wu, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, Phys. Status Solidi (RRL) 1, 125 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sato, H.

K. C. Kim, M. C. Schmidt, H. Sato, F. Wu, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, Phys. Status Solidi (RRL) 1, 125 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, M. C.

K. C. Kim, M. C. Schmidt, H. Sato, F. Wu, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, Phys. Status Solidi (RRL) 1, 125 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Si, F. Q.

S. W. Li, P. H. Xie, W. Q. Liu, F. Q. Si, A. Li, and F. M. Peng, Acta Phys. Sin. 57, 1963 (2008).

Speck, J. S.

K. C. Kim, M. C. Schmidt, H. Sato, F. Wu, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, Phys. Status Solidi (RRL) 1, 125 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Steigerwald, D. A.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 310 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stutz, J.

J. Stutz and U. Platt, Appl. Opt. 35, 6041 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Platt and J. Stutz, Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS)--Principles and Applications (Springer, 2008).

Thieser, J.

J. Thieser, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Joh.-Joachim-Becher-Weg 27, 55128 Mainz, Germany (personal communication, 2009).

J. Meinen, J. Thieser, U. Platt, and T. Leisner, “Using a high finesse optical resonator to provide a long light path for differential optical absorption spectroscopy: CE-DOAS,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. (to be published).

Tran, C. A.

C. A. Tran, A. Osinski, R. F. Karlicek, and I. Berishev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1494 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Trick, S.

Tschritter, J.

A. Merten, J. Tschritter, and U. Platt, “Novel design of DOAS-long-path telescopes based on fiber optics” (submitted to Appl. Opt.).

Vaughan, S.

T. Gherman, D. S. Venables, S. Vaughan, J. Orphal, and A. A. Ruth, Environ. Sci. Technol. 42, 820 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Venables, D. S.

T. Gherman, D. S. Venables, S. Vaughan, J. Orphal, and A. A. Ruth, Environ. Sci. Technol. 42, 820 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, F.

K. C. Kim, M. C. Schmidt, H. Sato, F. Wu, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, Phys. Status Solidi (RRL) 1, 125 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, T.

T. Wu, W. Zhao, W. Chen, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, Appl. Phys. B 94, 58 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xie, P. H.

S. W. Li, P. H. Xie, W. Q. Liu, F. Q. Si, A. Li, and F. M. Peng, Acta Phys. Sin. 57, 1963 (2008).

Xu, F.

Zhang, W.

T. Wu, W. Zhao, W. Chen, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, Appl. Phys. B 94, 58 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Zhang, Z.

Zhao, W.

T. Wu, W. Zhao, W. Chen, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, Appl. Phys. B 94, 58 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Acta Phys. Sin. (1)

S. W. Li, P. H. Xie, W. Q. Liu, F. Q. Si, A. Li, and F. M. Peng, Acta Phys. Sin. 57, 1963 (2008).

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

T. Wu, W. Zhao, W. Chen, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, Appl. Phys. B 94, 58 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. A. Tran, A. Osinski, R. F. Karlicek, and I. Berishev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1494 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Ball, J. M. Langridge, and R. L. Jones, Chem. Phys. Lett. 398, 68 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Environ. Sci. Technol. (1)

T. Gherman, D. S. Venables, S. Vaughan, J. Orphal, and A. A. Ruth, Environ. Sci. Technol. 42, 820 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 310 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

C. Hums, T. Finger, T. Hempel, J. Christen, A. Dadgar, A. Hoffmann, and A. Krost, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 033113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi (RRL) (1)

K. C. Kim, M. C. Schmidt, H. Sato, F. Wu, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, Phys. Status Solidi (RRL) 1, 125 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

U. Platt and J. Stutz, Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS)--Principles and Applications (Springer, 2008).

S. Kraus, DOASIS--a Framework Design for DOAS (Shaker, 2006).

J. Thieser, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Joh.-Joachim-Becher-Weg 27, 55128 Mainz, Germany (personal communication, 2009).

A. Merten, J. Tschritter, and U. Platt, “Novel design of DOAS-long-path telescopes based on fiber optics” (submitted to Appl. Opt.).

J. Meinen, J. Thieser, U. Platt, and T. Leisner, “Using a high finesse optical resonator to provide a long light path for differential optical absorption spectroscopy: CE-DOAS,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. (to be published).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Intensity spectrum in arbitrary units (above) and high-pass-filtered intensity modulation in percent (below) of two LEDs: S-ET UVTOP340 (left) and Luxeon LXHL-LR3C (right). The highlighted area indicates the interval used to determine the relative intensity and the maximal intensity modulation M, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Angular dependence of intensity (solid squares, left scale) and maximal intensity modulation M of the superimposed etalon structures (empty circles, right scale): (a) UVTOP340 and (b) LXHL-LR3C. The inset in (a) illustrates the tilt ϑ between the LED emitting surface normal (solid line) and the optical axis (dashed line). Error bars are omitted for the sake of clarity.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

A tilt of the LED highly improves the signal-to-noise ratio of LP-DOAS measurements in which a LXHL-LR3C was applied, without (left column) and with (right column) a tilted emitter. The actual measured optical density τ (thick line) and the total fit result (thin line) are shown in (a) and (b), respectively. The fit residual in (c) shows periodic etalon structures that do not appear in (d). Note: the (d) ordinate is magnified by 10.

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