Abstract

We demonstrate precise linearization of ultrabroadband laser frequency chirps via a fiber-based self-heterodyne technique to enable extremely high-resolution, frequency-modulated cw laser-radar (LADAR) and a wide range of other metrology applications. Our frequency chirps cover bandwidths up to nearly 5THz with frequency errors as low as 170kHz, relative to linearity. We show that this performance enables 31-μm transform-limited LADAR range resolution (FWHM) and 86 nm range precisions over a 1.5 m range baseline. Much longer range baselines are possible but are limited by atmospheric turbulence and fiber dispersion.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2009 (1)

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

W. C. Swann and N. R. Newbury, Opt. Lett. 31, 826 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Crozatier, G. Gorju, F. Bretenaker, J.-L. Le Gouët, and I. Lorgeré, Claude Gagnol, and Eric Ducloux, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

G. Gorju, V. Crozatier, V. Lavielle, I. Lorgeŕe, J.-L. Le Goüet, and F. Bretenaker, Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 30, 175 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Beck, J. R. Buck, W. F. Buell, R. P. Dickinson, D. A. Kozlowski, N. J. Marechal, and T. J. Wright, Appl. Opt. 44, 7621 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

1998 (1)

1997 (2)

B. Golubovic, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 22, 1704 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Tsuji, K. Shimizu, T. Horiguchi, and Y. Koyamada, Electron. Lett. 33, 408 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

K. Iiyama, L.-T. Wang, and K.-i. Hayashi, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 173 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

Y. T. Chen, Appl. Opt. 28, 2017 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Hamilton, Contemp. Phys. 30, 21 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

R. W. P. Drever, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, S.-W.

Ahn, T.-J.

Beck, S. M.

Boggs, B.

C. Greiner, B. Boggs, T. Wang, and T. W. Mossberg, Opt. Lett. 23, 1280 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Mossberg, C. Greiner, B. Boggs, “Method and apparatus for laser frequency stabilization,” U.S. patent 6,034,976 (March 7, 2000).

Bouma, B.

Bouma, B. E.

Bretenaker, F.

V. Crozatier, G. Gorju, F. Bretenaker, J.-L. Le Gouët, and I. Lorgeré, Claude Gagnol, and Eric Ducloux, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Gorju, V. Crozatier, V. Lavielle, I. Lorgeŕe, J.-L. Le Goüet, and F. Bretenaker, Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 30, 175 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Buck, J.

B. Krause, P. Gatt, C. Embry, and J. Buck, in Laser Radar Technology and Applications XI, G.W.Kamerman and M.D.Turner, eds. (SPIE, 2006).

Buck, J. R.

Buell, W. F.

Burger, J. P.

Chang, Y.

Chen, Y. T.

Crozatier, V.

V. Crozatier, G. Gorju, F. Bretenaker, J.-L. Le Gouët, and I. Lorgeré, Claude Gagnol, and Eric Ducloux, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Gorju, V. Crozatier, V. Lavielle, I. Lorgeŕe, J.-L. Le Goüet, and F. Bretenaker, Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 30, 175 (2005).
[CrossRef]

de Boer, J.

Dickinson, R. P.

Drever, R. W. P.

R. W. P. Drever, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Dubovitsky, S.

Ducloux, Eric

V. Crozatier, G. Gorju, F. Bretenaker, J.-L. Le Gouët, and I. Lorgeré, Claude Gagnol, and Eric Ducloux, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Embry, C.

B. Krause, P. Gatt, C. Embry, and J. Buck, in Laser Radar Technology and Applications XI, G.W.Kamerman and M.D.Turner, eds. (SPIE, 2006).

Fetterman, H. R.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gagnol, Claude

V. Crozatier, G. Gorju, F. Bretenaker, J.-L. Le Gouët, and I. Lorgeré, Claude Gagnol, and Eric Ducloux, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gatt, P.

B. Krause, P. Gatt, C. Embry, and J. Buck, in Laser Radar Technology and Applications XI, G.W.Kamerman and M.D.Turner, eds. (SPIE, 2006).

Golubovic, B.

Gorju, G.

V. Crozatier, G. Gorju, F. Bretenaker, J.-L. Le Gouët, and I. Lorgeré, Claude Gagnol, and Eric Ducloux, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Gorju, V. Crozatier, V. Lavielle, I. Lorgeŕe, J.-L. Le Goüet, and F. Bretenaker, Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 30, 175 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Greiner, C.

C. Greiner, B. Boggs, T. Wang, and T. W. Mossberg, Opt. Lett. 23, 1280 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Mossberg, C. Greiner, B. Boggs, “Method and apparatus for laser frequency stabilization,” U.S. patent 6,034,976 (March 7, 2000).

Hamilton, M. W.

M. W. Hamilton, Contemp. Phys. 30, 21 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, K.-i.

K. Iiyama, L.-T. Wang, and K.-i. Hayashi, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 173 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Horiguchi, T.

K. Tsuji, K. Shimizu, T. Horiguchi, and Y. Koyamada, Electron. Lett. 33, 408 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Tsuji, K. Shimizu, T. Horiguchi and Y. Koyamada, in Technical Digest Symposium Optical Fiber Measurements, NIST SP 905 (NIST, 1996), pp. 203-206.

Iftimia, N.

Iiyama, K.

K. Iiyama, L.-T. Wang, and K.-i. Hayashi, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 173 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Z.

Z. Jiang and X.-C. Zhang, in Sensing with Terahertz Radiation, D.Mittleman, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 2003).

Kakuma, S.

S. Kakuma, K. Ohmura, and R. Ohba, Opt. Rev. 10, 182 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. Y.

Koyamada, Y.

K. Tsuji, K. Shimizu, T. Horiguchi, and Y. Koyamada, Electron. Lett. 33, 408 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Tsuji, K. Shimizu, T. Horiguchi and Y. Koyamada, in Technical Digest Symposium Optical Fiber Measurements, NIST SP 905 (NIST, 1996), pp. 203-206.

Kozlowski, D. A.

Krause, B.

B. Krause, P. Gatt, C. Embry, and J. Buck, in Laser Radar Technology and Applications XI, G.W.Kamerman and M.D.Turner, eds. (SPIE, 2006).

Lavielle, V.

G. Gorju, V. Crozatier, V. Lavielle, I. Lorgeŕe, J.-L. Le Goüet, and F. Bretenaker, Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 30, 175 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lay, O. P.

Le Gouët, J.-L.

V. Crozatier, G. Gorju, F. Bretenaker, J.-L. Le Gouët, and I. Lorgeré, Claude Gagnol, and Eric Ducloux, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Le Goüet, J.-L.

G. Gorju, V. Crozatier, V. Lavielle, I. Lorgeŕe, J.-L. Le Goüet, and F. Bretenaker, Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 30, 175 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Leyva, V.

Lorgere, I.

G. Gorju, V. Crozatier, V. Lavielle, I. Lorgeŕe, J.-L. Le Goüet, and F. Bretenaker, Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 30, 175 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lorgeré, I.

V. Crozatier, G. Gorju, F. Bretenaker, J.-L. Le Gouët, and I. Lorgeré, Claude Gagnol, and Eric Ducloux, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Marechal, N. J.

Mossberg, T. W.

C. Greiner, B. Boggs, T. Wang, and T. W. Mossberg, Opt. Lett. 23, 1280 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Mossberg, C. Greiner, B. Boggs, “Method and apparatus for laser frequency stabilization,” U.S. patent 6,034,976 (March 7, 2000).

Newbury, N. R.

Nogiwa, S.

S. Nogiwa, “Optical sweep signal generator,” U.S. patent 5,548,402 (August 20, 1996).

Ohba, R.

S. Kakuma, K. Ohmura, and R. Ohba, Opt. Rev. 10, 182 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ohmura, K.

S. Kakuma, K. Ohmura, and R. Ohba, Opt. Rev. 10, 182 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Peters, R. D.

Rakuljic, G.

Satyan, N.

Shimizu, K.

K. Tsuji, K. Shimizu, T. Horiguchi, and Y. Koyamada, Electron. Lett. 33, 408 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Tsuji, K. Shimizu, T. Horiguchi and Y. Koyamada, in Technical Digest Symposium Optical Fiber Measurements, NIST SP 905 (NIST, 1996), pp. 203-206.

Steier, W. H.

Swann, W. C.

Tearney, G.

Tearney, G. J.

Tsuji, K.

K. Tsuji, K. Shimizu, T. Horiguchi, and Y. Koyamada, Electron. Lett. 33, 408 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Tsuji, K. Shimizu, T. Horiguchi and Y. Koyamada, in Technical Digest Symposium Optical Fiber Measurements, NIST SP 905 (NIST, 1996), pp. 203-206.

Vasilyev, A.

Wang, L.-T.

K. Iiyama, L.-T. Wang, and K.-i. Hayashi, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 173 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T.

Wright, T. J.

Yariv, A.

Yun, S.

Zhang, X.-C.

Z. Jiang and X.-C. Zhang, in Sensing with Terahertz Radiation, D.Mittleman, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 2003).

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

R. W. P. Drever, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

V. Crozatier, G. Gorju, F. Bretenaker, J.-L. Le Gouët, and I. Lorgeré, Claude Gagnol, and Eric Ducloux, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Contemp. Phys. (1)

M. W. Hamilton, Contemp. Phys. 30, 21 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

K. Tsuji, K. Shimizu, T. Horiguchi, and Y. Koyamada, Electron. Lett. 33, 408 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. (1)

G. Gorju, V. Crozatier, V. Lavielle, I. Lorgeŕe, J.-L. Le Goüet, and F. Bretenaker, Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 30, 175 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

K. Iiyama, L.-T. Wang, and K.-i. Hayashi, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 173 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Opt. Rev. (1)

S. Kakuma, K. Ohmura, and R. Ohba, Opt. Rev. 10, 182 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

T. W. Mossberg, C. Greiner, B. Boggs, “Method and apparatus for laser frequency stabilization,” U.S. patent 6,034,976 (March 7, 2000).

S. Nogiwa, “Optical sweep signal generator,” U.S. patent 5,548,402 (August 20, 1996).

K. Tsuji, K. Shimizu, T. Horiguchi and Y. Koyamada, in Technical Digest Symposium Optical Fiber Measurements, NIST SP 905 (NIST, 1996), pp. 203-206.

Z. Jiang and X.-C. Zhang, in Sensing with Terahertz Radiation, D.Mittleman, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 2003).

B. Krause, P. Gatt, C. Embry, and J. Buck, in Laser Radar Technology and Applications XI, G.W.Kamerman and M.D.Turner, eds. (SPIE, 2006).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for broadband optical frequency chirp linearization using the self-heterodyne technique.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Top, residual out-of-loop frequency errors relative to linearity for a 4.8 THz optical frequency chirp. The standard deviation of the errors is 170 kHz . Bottom, range peak measured using a 50 m out-of-loop fiber with (dark trace) and without (light trace) active linearization.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Top, range peak centers for 40 consecutive measurements. The standard deviation of the errors is 86 nm . Bottom, relative range measured as the target was manually moved over 100 μ m in 10     μ m increments.

Equations (1)

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f chirp = ν ( t ) ν ( t τ D 1 ) τ D 1 d ν ( t ) d t

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