Abstract

A loss-tunable sandwiched long-period fiber grating (SLPFG) filter is proposed in this Letter. This SLPFG utilized thick SU8 photoresist layers to induce refractive index modulations, and ultrahigh period precision was hence achieved. The external force required to tune this SLPFG filter is about 0.3942N with the deepest loss attenuation 31.29dB at 1534nm wavelength. This process not only improves the overall performance of traditional long period fiber grating but also cuts down the facility cost by 50%. The proposed SLPFG has great potential for low-cost and compact force transducer applications.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. W. Fallon, L. Zhang, L. A. Everall, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 1969 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. J. Patrick, G. M. Williams, A. D. Kersey, J. R. Pedrazzani, and A. M. Vengsarkar, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 1223 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. E. Chou, N. H. Sun, and W. F. Liu, Opt. Eng. 43, 342 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. M. Vengsarkar, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. B. Judkins, P. J. Lemaire, N. S. Bergano, and C. R. Davidson, Opt. Lett. 21, 336 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Y. P. Wang, D. N. Wang, W. Jin, Y. J. Rao, and G. D. Peng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 151105 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. K. Abi Kaed Bey, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, Sens. Actuators A 141, 314 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. A. Ruan, Q. K. Zeng, Z. X. Qin, W. Y. Liang, and P. Huang, Optoelectron. Lett. 4, 114 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. S. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. N. Ng, and X. Dong, Electron. Lett. 36, 966 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. H. Yan, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. F. Ding, and S. He, IEEE Sens. J. 7, 1360 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. P. Wang, W. Jin, and D. N. Wang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 101 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. Y. Lin, L. A. Wang, and G. W. Chern, J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1159 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. I. Mata-Chávez, A. Martinez-Rios, I. Torres-Gómez, J. A. Alvarez-Chavez, R. Selvas-Aguilar, and J. Estudillo-Ayala, Opt. Laser Technol. 40, 671 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. B. Hocker, Appl. Opt. 18, 1445 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. T. Erdogan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1760 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (3)

S. K. Abi Kaed Bey, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, Sens. Actuators A 141, 314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Ruan, Q. K. Zeng, Z. X. Qin, W. Y. Liang, and P. Huang, Optoelectron. Lett. 4, 114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. I. Mata-Chávez, A. Martinez-Rios, I. Torres-Gómez, J. A. Alvarez-Chavez, R. Selvas-Aguilar, and J. Estudillo-Ayala, Opt. Laser Technol. 40, 671 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

J. H. Yan, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. F. Ding, and S. He, IEEE Sens. J. 7, 1360 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. P. Wang, W. Jin, and D. N. Wang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

Y. P. Wang, D. N. Wang, W. Jin, Y. J. Rao, and G. D. Peng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 151105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

C. E. Chou, N. H. Sun, and W. F. Liu, Opt. Eng. 43, 342 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

K. S. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. N. Ng, and X. Dong, Electron. Lett. 36, 966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

R. W. Fallon, L. Zhang, L. A. Everall, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 1969 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (2)

H. J. Patrick, G. M. Williams, A. D. Kersey, J. R. Pedrazzani, and A. M. Vengsarkar, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 1223 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Vengsarkar, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. B. Judkins, P. J. Lemaire, N. S. Bergano, and C. R. Davidson, Opt. Lett. 21, 336 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979 (1)

Abi Kaed Bey, S. K.

S. K. Abi Kaed Bey, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, Sens. Actuators A 141, 314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Alvarez-Chavez, J. A.

R. I. Mata-Chávez, A. Martinez-Rios, I. Torres-Gómez, J. A. Alvarez-Chavez, R. Selvas-Aguilar, and J. Estudillo-Ayala, Opt. Laser Technol. 40, 671 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

R. W. Fallon, L. Zhang, L. A. Everall, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 1969 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bergano, N. S.

Chern, G. W.

Chiang, K. S.

K. S. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. N. Ng, and X. Dong, Electron. Lett. 36, 966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chou, C. E.

C. E. Chou, N. H. Sun, and W. F. Liu, Opt. Eng. 43, 342 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Davidson, C. R.

Ding, J. F.

J. H. Yan, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. F. Ding, and S. He, IEEE Sens. J. 7, 1360 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dong, X.

K. S. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. N. Ng, and X. Dong, Electron. Lett. 36, 966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Erdogan, T.

Estudillo-Ayala, J.

R. I. Mata-Chávez, A. Martinez-Rios, I. Torres-Gómez, J. A. Alvarez-Chavez, R. Selvas-Aguilar, and J. Estudillo-Ayala, Opt. Laser Technol. 40, 671 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Everall, L. A.

R. W. Fallon, L. Zhang, L. A. Everall, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 1969 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fallon, R. W.

R. W. Fallon, L. Zhang, L. A. Everall, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 1969 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Grattan, K. T. V.

S. K. Abi Kaed Bey, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, Sens. Actuators A 141, 314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

He, S.

J. H. Yan, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. F. Ding, and S. He, IEEE Sens. J. 7, 1360 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hocker, G. B.

Huang, P.

J. A. Ruan, Q. K. Zeng, Z. X. Qin, W. Y. Liang, and P. Huang, Optoelectron. Lett. 4, 114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jin, W.

Y. P. Wang, W. Jin, and D. N. Wang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. P. Wang, D. N. Wang, W. Jin, Y. J. Rao, and G. D. Peng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 151105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Judkins, J. B.

Kersey, A. D.

H. J. Patrick, G. M. Williams, A. D. Kersey, J. R. Pedrazzani, and A. M. Vengsarkar, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 1223 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lemaire, P. J.

Liang, W. Y.

J. A. Ruan, Q. K. Zeng, Z. X. Qin, W. Y. Liang, and P. Huang, Optoelectron. Lett. 4, 114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. Y.

Liu, W. F.

C. E. Chou, N. H. Sun, and W. F. Liu, Opt. Eng. 43, 342 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

K. S. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. N. Ng, and X. Dong, Electron. Lett. 36, 966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Martinez-Rios, A.

R. I. Mata-Chávez, A. Martinez-Rios, I. Torres-Gómez, J. A. Alvarez-Chavez, R. Selvas-Aguilar, and J. Estudillo-Ayala, Opt. Laser Technol. 40, 671 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mata-Chávez, R. I.

R. I. Mata-Chávez, A. Martinez-Rios, I. Torres-Gómez, J. A. Alvarez-Chavez, R. Selvas-Aguilar, and J. Estudillo-Ayala, Opt. Laser Technol. 40, 671 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ng, M. N.

K. S. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. N. Ng, and X. Dong, Electron. Lett. 36, 966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Patrick, H. J.

H. J. Patrick, G. M. Williams, A. D. Kersey, J. R. Pedrazzani, and A. M. Vengsarkar, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 1223 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pedrazzani, J. R.

H. J. Patrick, G. M. Williams, A. D. Kersey, J. R. Pedrazzani, and A. M. Vengsarkar, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 1223 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Vengsarkar, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. B. Judkins, P. J. Lemaire, N. S. Bergano, and C. R. Davidson, Opt. Lett. 21, 336 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peng, G. D.

Y. P. Wang, D. N. Wang, W. Jin, Y. J. Rao, and G. D. Peng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 151105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Qin, Z. X.

J. A. Ruan, Q. K. Zeng, Z. X. Qin, W. Y. Liang, and P. Huang, Optoelectron. Lett. 4, 114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rao, Y. J.

Y. P. Wang, D. N. Wang, W. Jin, Y. J. Rao, and G. D. Peng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 151105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ruan, J. A.

J. A. Ruan, Q. K. Zeng, Z. X. Qin, W. Y. Liang, and P. Huang, Optoelectron. Lett. 4, 114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Selvas-Aguilar, R.

R. I. Mata-Chávez, A. Martinez-Rios, I. Torres-Gómez, J. A. Alvarez-Chavez, R. Selvas-Aguilar, and J. Estudillo-Ayala, Opt. Laser Technol. 40, 671 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shao, L. Y.

J. H. Yan, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. F. Ding, and S. He, IEEE Sens. J. 7, 1360 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sun, N. H.

C. E. Chou, N. H. Sun, and W. F. Liu, Opt. Eng. 43, 342 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sun, T.

S. K. Abi Kaed Bey, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, Sens. Actuators A 141, 314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Torres-Gómez, I.

R. I. Mata-Chávez, A. Martinez-Rios, I. Torres-Gómez, J. A. Alvarez-Chavez, R. Selvas-Aguilar, and J. Estudillo-Ayala, Opt. Laser Technol. 40, 671 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vengsarkar, A. M.

A. M. Vengsarkar, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. B. Judkins, P. J. Lemaire, N. S. Bergano, and C. R. Davidson, Opt. Lett. 21, 336 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Patrick, G. M. Williams, A. D. Kersey, J. R. Pedrazzani, and A. M. Vengsarkar, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 1223 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D. N.

Y. P. Wang, W. Jin, and D. N. Wang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. P. Wang, D. N. Wang, W. Jin, Y. J. Rao, and G. D. Peng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 151105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. A.

Wang, Y. P.

Y. P. Wang, W. Jin, and D. N. Wang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. P. Wang, D. N. Wang, W. Jin, Y. J. Rao, and G. D. Peng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 151105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Williams, G. M.

H. J. Patrick, G. M. Williams, A. D. Kersey, J. R. Pedrazzani, and A. M. Vengsarkar, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 1223 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Williams, J. A. R.

R. W. Fallon, L. Zhang, L. A. Everall, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 1969 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yan, J. H.

J. H. Yan, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. F. Ding, and S. He, IEEE Sens. J. 7, 1360 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, Q. K.

J. A. Ruan, Q. K. Zeng, Z. X. Qin, W. Y. Liang, and P. Huang, Optoelectron. Lett. 4, 114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, A. P.

J. H. Yan, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. F. Ding, and S. He, IEEE Sens. J. 7, 1360 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

R. W. Fallon, L. Zhang, L. A. Everall, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 1969 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. P. Wang, D. N. Wang, W. Jin, Y. J. Rao, and G. D. Peng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 151105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

K. S. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. N. Ng, and X. Dong, Electron. Lett. 36, 966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. P. Wang, W. Jin, and D. N. Wang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

H. J. Patrick, G. M. Williams, A. D. Kersey, J. R. Pedrazzani, and A. M. Vengsarkar, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 1223 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

J. H. Yan, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. F. Ding, and S. He, IEEE Sens. J. 7, 1360 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

R. W. Fallon, L. Zhang, L. A. Everall, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 1969 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

C. E. Chou, N. H. Sun, and W. F. Liu, Opt. Eng. 43, 342 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

R. I. Mata-Chávez, A. Martinez-Rios, I. Torres-Gómez, J. A. Alvarez-Chavez, R. Selvas-Aguilar, and J. Estudillo-Ayala, Opt. Laser Technol. 40, 671 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optoelectron. Lett. (1)

J. A. Ruan, Q. K. Zeng, Z. X. Qin, W. Y. Liang, and P. Huang, Optoelectron. Lett. 4, 114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators A (1)

S. K. Abi Kaed Bey, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, Sens. Actuators A 141, 314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Top view of SLPFG. (b) 3D geometry of SLPFG. (c) Optical micrograph of the SLPFG.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the process for SLPFG fabrication.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup for characteristic tests for stress-induced attenuation loss filter.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Spectra monitoring of the SLPFG with a period of 630 μ m . (b) Relation between tension and the attenuation loss of the SLPFG.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Transmission spectra of SLPFGs with different periods. (b) Wavelength of the resonant dip of SLPFGs with different periods.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

λ = Λ ( n co eff n cl eff ) 1 + ( k co - co dc k cl - cl dc ) Λ 2 π ,
T = cos 2 ( k co - cl ac L ) ,

Metrics