Abstract

In atmospheric optical communications, propagating pulses may be influenced by pulse spreading owing to turbulence, above all in scenarios characterized by sand and/or dust atmosphere. The long-term temporal broadening of a space–time Gaussian pulse propagating along a horizontal path through weak optical turbulence is modeled by the behavior of a Gaussian filter, where its cutoff frequency is related to the physical parameters of the link. Thus, it could be incorporated in a direct way to a numerical simulation model.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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  9. D. S. Humpherys, The Analysis, Design and Synthesis of Electrical Filters (Prentice-Hall, 1970).
  10. M. C. Jeruchim, P. Balaban, and K. S. Shanmugan, Simulation of Communication Systems (Plenum, 2000).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2009

2007

Y. Ruike, H. Xiange, H. Yue, and S. Zhongyu, Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 28, 181 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Jurado-Navas, A. García-Zambrana, and A. Puerta-Notario, Electron. Lett. 43, 178 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

J. C. Juarez, A. Dwivedi, A. R. Hammons, S. D. Jones, V. Weerackody, and R. A. Nichols, IEEE Commun. Mag. 44, 46 (2006).
[CrossRef]

1998

1996

1992

1979

C. H. Liu and K. C. Yeh, Radio Sci. 14, 925 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1977

Andrews, L. C.

Balaban, P.

M. C. Jeruchim, P. Balaban, and K. S. Shanmugan, Simulation of Communication Systems (Plenum, 2000).

Dwivedi, A.

J. C. Juarez, A. Dwivedi, A. R. Hammons, S. D. Jones, V. Weerackody, and R. A. Nichols, IEEE Commun. Mag. 44, 46 (2006).
[CrossRef]

García-Zambrana, A.

A. Jurado-Navas, A. García-Zambrana, and A. Puerta-Notario, Electron. Lett. 43, 178 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hammons, A. R.

J. C. Juarez, A. Dwivedi, A. R. Hammons, S. D. Jones, V. Weerackody, and R. A. Nichols, IEEE Commun. Mag. 44, 46 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Humpherys, D. S.

D. S. Humpherys, The Analysis, Design and Synthesis of Electrical Filters (Prentice-Hall, 1970).

Ishimaru, A.

Jeruchim, M. C.

M. C. Jeruchim, P. Balaban, and K. S. Shanmugan, Simulation of Communication Systems (Plenum, 2000).

Jones, S. D.

J. C. Juarez, A. Dwivedi, A. R. Hammons, S. D. Jones, V. Weerackody, and R. A. Nichols, IEEE Commun. Mag. 44, 46 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Juarez, J. C.

J. C. Juarez, A. Dwivedi, A. R. Hammons, S. D. Jones, V. Weerackody, and R. A. Nichols, IEEE Commun. Mag. 44, 46 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Judkins, J.

Jurado-Navas, A.

A. Jurado-Navas and A. Puerta-Notario, J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 1, 452 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Jurado-Navas, A. García-Zambrana, and A. Puerta-Notario, Electron. Lett. 43, 178 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C. H.

C. H. Liu and K. C. Yeh, Radio Sci. 14, 925 (1979).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Liu and K. C. Yeh, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1261 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Nichols, R. A.

J. C. Juarez, A. Dwivedi, A. R. Hammons, S. D. Jones, V. Weerackody, and R. A. Nichols, IEEE Commun. Mag. 44, 46 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, R. L.

L. C. Andrews and R. L. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation Through Random Media (SPIE Optical Engineering, 1998).

Puerta-Notario, A.

A. Jurado-Navas and A. Puerta-Notario, J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 1, 452 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Jurado-Navas, A. García-Zambrana, and A. Puerta-Notario, Electron. Lett. 43, 178 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ruike, Y.

Y. Ruike, H. Xiange, H. Yue, and S. Zhongyu, Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 28, 181 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shanmugan, K. S.

M. C. Jeruchim, P. Balaban, and K. S. Shanmugan, Simulation of Communication Systems (Plenum, 2000).

Weerackody, V.

J. C. Juarez, A. Dwivedi, A. R. Hammons, S. D. Jones, V. Weerackody, and R. A. Nichols, IEEE Commun. Mag. 44, 46 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xiange, H.

Y. Ruike, H. Xiange, H. Yue, and S. Zhongyu, Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 28, 181 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, K. C.

C. H. Liu and K. C. Yeh, Radio Sci. 14, 925 (1979).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Liu and K. C. Yeh, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1261 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Young, C. Y.

Yue, H.

Y. Ruike, H. Xiange, H. Yue, and S. Zhongyu, Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 28, 181 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhongyu, S.

Y. Ruike, H. Xiange, H. Yue, and S. Zhongyu, Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 28, 181 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ziolkowski, R.

Appl. Opt.

Electron. Lett.

A. Jurado-Navas, A. García-Zambrana, and A. Puerta-Notario, Electron. Lett. 43, 178 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag.

J. C. Juarez, A. Dwivedi, A. R. Hammons, S. D. Jones, V. Weerackody, and R. A. Nichols, IEEE Commun. Mag. 44, 46 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves

Y. Ruike, H. Xiange, H. Yue, and S. Zhongyu, Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 28, 181 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Commun. Netw.

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Radio Sci.

C. H. Liu and K. C. Yeh, Radio Sci. 14, 925 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Other

L. C. Andrews and R. L. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation Through Random Media (SPIE Optical Engineering, 1998).

D. S. Humpherys, The Analysis, Design and Synthesis of Electrical Filters (Prentice-Hall, 1970).

M. C. Jeruchim, P. Balaban, and K. S. Shanmugan, Simulation of Communication Systems (Plenum, 2000).

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Figures (1)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Obtained error when comparing the predicted temporal broadening from Eq. (7) against the obtained broadening when simulating using a Bessel filter with cutoff frequencies of (a) 15.9 and (b) 100 GHz.

Equations (16)

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ν i ( t ) = exp ( t 2 T 0 2 ) ,
V i ( ω ) = T 0 π   exp ( 1 4 ω 2 T 0 2 ) ,
ν 0 ( t ) = 1 2 π V i ( ω ) H ( ω + ω 0 ) exp ( j ω t ) d ω ,
B v ( r 1 , r 2 , L ; t 1 , t 2 ) = E [ ν 0 ( r 1 , L ; t 1 ) ν 0 ( r 2 , L ; t 2 ) ] ,
Γ 2 ( r , r , L ; ω c + ω 0 , ω d ) = exp ( 2 r 2 W 0 2 ) exp ( α ω d 2 + j L c ω d ) ,
α = 0.3908 C n 2 L L 0 5 / 3 c 2 ,
T 2 = ( T 0 2 + 8 α ) .
h ( t ) = 2 π f 3   dB 2 π   ln   2 exp [ ( 2 π f 3   dB t n π / 2 ) 2 2   ln   2 ] ,
Y ( f ) = T 0 π   exp [ ( π 2 T 0 2 + ln   2 2 f 3   dB 2 ) f 2 ] exp [ j ( n π f 2 f 3   dB ) ] ,
y ( t ) = A   exp [ β t 2 ] ,
Y ( f ) = A π β exp [ π 2 f 2 β ] .
β = 2 π 2 f 3   dB 2 2 π 2 f 3   dB 2 T 0 2 + ln   2 .
τ 2 = T 0 2 + 2   ln   2 ω 3   dB 2 ,
ω 3   dB = 1 2 ln   2 α .
ω b ( 2 n 1 ) ln   2 ,     n > 3 ,
f c = 1 2 π ω 3   dB ω b = c 4 π 1 ( 2 n 1 ) 0.3908 C n 2 L L 0 5 / 3 ,

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