Abstract

For the first time, to our knowledge, we demonstrate the experimental confirmation of a new vectorially based expression of the effective nonlinear coefficient γ in bismuth suspended core fibers with core diameters of around 500 nm. The new expression predicts a significantly higher value of γ than what is expected based on the standard expression. We confirm that there is a distinguishable difference between the standard and our new vectorially based γ’s, owing to the high index glass and subwavelength dimension of this fiber, and we show that the experimental result of γ matches the new expression within the experimental error.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. Pelusi, F. Luan, T. D. Vo, M. R. E. Lamont, S. J. Madden, D. A. Bulla, D.-Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davis, and B. J. Eggleton, Nature Photon. 3, 139 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, Nature Photon. 3, 216 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Afshar V. and T. M. Monro, Opt. Express 17, 2298 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2007).
  5. M. D. Turner, T. M. Monro, and S. Afshar V., Opt. Express 17, 11565 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. Afshar V., W. Zhang, and T. M. Monro, in CLEO/IQEC 2009 Proceedings (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CThBB6.
  7. H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, P. Petropoulos, S. Asimakis, V. Finazzi, R. Moore, K. Frampton, F. Koizumi, D. Richardson, and T. Monro, Opt. Express 12, 5082 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, P. Petropoulos, V. Finazzi, S. Asimakis, J. Leong, F. Koizumi, K. Frampton, R. C. Moore, D. J. Richardson, and T. M. Monro, in OFC 2005 Proceedings (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper OThA3.
  9. J. Y. Y. Leong, P. Petropoulos, J. H. V. Price, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, S. Asimakis, R. C. Moore, K. E. Frampton, V. Finazzi, X. Feng, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 183 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. C. Magi, L. B. Fu, H. C. Nguyen, M. R. E. Lamont, D. I. Yeom, and B. J. Eggleton, Opt. Express 15, 10324 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. D.-I. Yeom, E. C. Mägi, M. R. Lamont, M. A. Roelens, L. Fu, and B. J. Eggleton, Opt. Lett. 33, 660 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, S. C. Warren-Smith, and T. M. Monro, Opt. Express 17, 2646 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. W. Q. Zhang, S. Afshar V., H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and T. M. Monro, Electron. Lett. 44, 1453 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Boskovic, S. V. Chernikov, J. R. Taylor, L. G. Nielsen, and O. A. Levring, Opt. Lett. 21, 1966 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

M. Pelusi, F. Luan, T. D. Vo, M. R. E. Lamont, S. J. Madden, D. A. Bulla, D.-Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davis, and B. J. Eggleton, Nature Photon. 3, 139 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, Nature Photon. 3, 216 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Afshar V. and T. M. Monro, Opt. Express 17, 2298 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, S. C. Warren-Smith, and T. M. Monro, Opt. Express 17, 2646 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Turner, T. M. Monro, and S. Afshar V., Opt. Express 17, 11565 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

W. Q. Zhang, S. Afshar V., H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and T. M. Monro, Electron. Lett. 44, 1453 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D.-I. Yeom, E. C. Mägi, M. R. Lamont, M. A. Roelens, L. Fu, and B. J. Eggleton, Opt. Lett. 33, 660 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

2006

2004

1996

Afshar V., S.

M. D. Turner, T. M. Monro, and S. Afshar V., Opt. Express 17, 11565 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Afshar V. and T. M. Monro, Opt. Express 17, 2298 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Q. Zhang, S. Afshar V., H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and T. M. Monro, Electron. Lett. 44, 1453 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Afshar V., W. Zhang, and T. M. Monro, in CLEO/IQEC 2009 Proceedings (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CThBB6.

Agrawal, P.

P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2007).

Asimakis, S.

Baets, R.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, Nature Photon. 3, 216 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Biaggio, I.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, Nature Photon. 3, 216 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, Nature Photon. 3, 216 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boskovic, A.

Bulla, D. A.

M. Pelusi, F. Luan, T. D. Vo, M. R. E. Lamont, S. J. Madden, D. A. Bulla, D.-Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davis, and B. J. Eggleton, Nature Photon. 3, 139 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chernikov, S. V.

Choi, D. -Y.

M. Pelusi, F. Luan, T. D. Vo, M. R. E. Lamont, S. J. Madden, D. A. Bulla, D.-Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davis, and B. J. Eggleton, Nature Photon. 3, 139 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Diederich, F.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, Nature Photon. 3, 216 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dumon, P.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, Nature Photon. 3, 216 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H.

Eggleton, B. J.

Esembeson, B.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, Nature Photon. 3, 216 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Feng, X.

Finazzi, V.

Frampton, K.

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, P. Petropoulos, S. Asimakis, V. Finazzi, R. Moore, K. Frampton, F. Koizumi, D. Richardson, and T. Monro, Opt. Express 12, 5082 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, P. Petropoulos, V. Finazzi, S. Asimakis, J. Leong, F. Koizumi, K. Frampton, R. C. Moore, D. J. Richardson, and T. M. Monro, in OFC 2005 Proceedings (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper OThA3.

Frampton, K. E.

Freude, W.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, Nature Photon. 3, 216 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fu, L.

Fu, L. B.

Koizumi, F.

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, P. Petropoulos, S. Asimakis, V. Finazzi, R. Moore, K. Frampton, F. Koizumi, D. Richardson, and T. Monro, Opt. Express 12, 5082 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, P. Petropoulos, V. Finazzi, S. Asimakis, J. Leong, F. Koizumi, K. Frampton, R. C. Moore, D. J. Richardson, and T. M. Monro, in OFC 2005 Proceedings (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper OThA3.

Koos, C.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, Nature Photon. 3, 216 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lamont, M. R.

Lamont, M. R. E.

M. Pelusi, F. Luan, T. D. Vo, M. R. E. Lamont, S. J. Madden, D. A. Bulla, D.-Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davis, and B. J. Eggleton, Nature Photon. 3, 139 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. C. Magi, L. B. Fu, H. C. Nguyen, M. R. E. Lamont, D. I. Yeom, and B. J. Eggleton, Opt. Express 15, 10324 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leong, J.

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, P. Petropoulos, V. Finazzi, S. Asimakis, J. Leong, F. Koizumi, K. Frampton, R. C. Moore, D. J. Richardson, and T. M. Monro, in OFC 2005 Proceedings (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper OThA3.

Leong, J. Y. Y.

Leuthold, J.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, Nature Photon. 3, 216 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Levring, O. A.

Luan, F.

M. Pelusi, F. Luan, T. D. Vo, M. R. E. Lamont, S. J. Madden, D. A. Bulla, D.-Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davis, and B. J. Eggleton, Nature Photon. 3, 139 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Luther-Davis, B.

M. Pelusi, F. Luan, T. D. Vo, M. R. E. Lamont, S. J. Madden, D. A. Bulla, D.-Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davis, and B. J. Eggleton, Nature Photon. 3, 139 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Madden, S. J.

M. Pelusi, F. Luan, T. D. Vo, M. R. E. Lamont, S. J. Madden, D. A. Bulla, D.-Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davis, and B. J. Eggleton, Nature Photon. 3, 139 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Magi, E. C.

Mägi, E. C.

Michinobu, T.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, Nature Photon. 3, 216 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Monro, T.

Monro, T. M.

S. Afshar V. and T. M. Monro, Opt. Express 17, 2298 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Turner, T. M. Monro, and S. Afshar V., Opt. Express 17, 11565 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, S. C. Warren-Smith, and T. M. Monro, Opt. Express 17, 2646 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Q. Zhang, S. Afshar V., H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and T. M. Monro, Electron. Lett. 44, 1453 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Y. Leong, P. Petropoulos, J. H. V. Price, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, S. Asimakis, R. C. Moore, K. E. Frampton, V. Finazzi, X. Feng, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, P. Petropoulos, V. Finazzi, S. Asimakis, J. Leong, F. Koizumi, K. Frampton, R. C. Moore, D. J. Richardson, and T. M. Monro, in OFC 2005 Proceedings (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper OThA3.

S. Afshar V., W. Zhang, and T. M. Monro, in CLEO/IQEC 2009 Proceedings (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CThBB6.

Moore, R.

Moore, R. C.

J. Y. Y. Leong, P. Petropoulos, J. H. V. Price, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, S. Asimakis, R. C. Moore, K. E. Frampton, V. Finazzi, X. Feng, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, P. Petropoulos, V. Finazzi, S. Asimakis, J. Leong, F. Koizumi, K. Frampton, R. C. Moore, D. J. Richardson, and T. M. Monro, in OFC 2005 Proceedings (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper OThA3.

Nguyen, H. C.

Nielsen, L. G.

Pelusi, M.

M. Pelusi, F. Luan, T. D. Vo, M. R. E. Lamont, S. J. Madden, D. A. Bulla, D.-Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davis, and B. J. Eggleton, Nature Photon. 3, 139 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Petropoulos, P.

Price, J. H. V.

Richardson, D.

Richardson, D. J.

J. Y. Y. Leong, P. Petropoulos, J. H. V. Price, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, S. Asimakis, R. C. Moore, K. E. Frampton, V. Finazzi, X. Feng, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, P. Petropoulos, V. Finazzi, S. Asimakis, J. Leong, F. Koizumi, K. Frampton, R. C. Moore, D. J. Richardson, and T. M. Monro, in OFC 2005 Proceedings (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper OThA3.

Roelens, M. A.

Taylor, J. R.

Turner, M. D.

Vallaitis, T.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, Nature Photon. 3, 216 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vo, T. D.

M. Pelusi, F. Luan, T. D. Vo, M. R. E. Lamont, S. J. Madden, D. A. Bulla, D.-Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davis, and B. J. Eggleton, Nature Photon. 3, 139 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vorreau, P.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, Nature Photon. 3, 216 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Warren-Smith, S. C.

Yeom, D. I.

Yeom, D. -I.

Zhang, W.

S. Afshar V., W. Zhang, and T. M. Monro, in CLEO/IQEC 2009 Proceedings (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CThBB6.

Zhang, W. Q.

W. Q. Zhang, S. Afshar V., H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and T. M. Monro, Electron. Lett. 44, 1453 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

W. Q. Zhang, S. Afshar V., H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and T. M. Monro, Electron. Lett. 44, 1453 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Nature Photon.

M. Pelusi, F. Luan, T. D. Vo, M. R. E. Lamont, S. J. Madden, D. A. Bulla, D.-Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davis, and B. J. Eggleton, Nature Photon. 3, 139 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, Nature Photon. 3, 216 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Other

P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2007).

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, P. Petropoulos, V. Finazzi, S. Asimakis, J. Leong, F. Koizumi, K. Frampton, R. C. Moore, D. J. Richardson, and T. M. Monro, in OFC 2005 Proceedings (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper OThA3.

S. Afshar V., W. Zhang, and T. M. Monro, in CLEO/IQEC 2009 Proceedings (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CThBB6.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Previously reported experimental values (data points) [7, 8, 9] and numerical results of γ V and γ S versus core diameter for (a) bismuth, (b) SF57 suspended core, and (c) chalcogenide [10, 11] tapered (nanowire) fibers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Loss measurements values for four fibers A, B, C, and D. Average attenuation of successive 1 m pieces of fiber A is shown in the inset. Every point in the inset is the average of nine or ten cutback loss measurements.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental values (data points) and calculated curves of γ [according to standard (bottom curve) and vectorial (top curve) expressions] for fibers as in Fig. 2.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

γ S = ( 2 π / λ ) n 2 / A eff S ,
γ V = 2 π λ n 2 ¯ A eff V ,
n 2 ¯ = ( ε 0 μ 0 ) k 0 n 2 ( x , y ) n 2 ( x , y ) [ 2 | e | 4 + | e 2 | 2 ] d A 3 | ( e × h ) z ̂ | 2 d A ,
A eff V = | ( e × h ) z ̂ d A | 2 | ( e × h ) z ̂ | 2 d A .

Metrics