Abstract

We observe experimentally that the reflectances of metal–dielectric nanocomposite films in the Kretschmann configuration show different characteristics, depending on the metal fill fraction f, that fall into one of three distinct regimes. In the “metallic” regime, in which f is large, the film supports conventional surface-plasmon polaritons (SPPs), and one can tailor the properties of the SPPs by controlling the value of f. In the “dielectric” regime, in which f is small, the film does not support any surface modes. In the intermediate “lossy” regime, the nanocomposite film supports a SPP mode that is different from that of a “metallic” film. These results are explained by using an anisotropic effective medium model and mode analysis.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

S. Palomba and L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 056802 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

K. MacDonald, A. Krasavin, and N. Zheludev, Opt. Commun. 278, 207 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Danckwerts and L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 026104 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

A. V. Krasavin, K. F. MacDonald, A. S. Schwanecke, and N. I. Zheludev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

J. B. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, Science 305, 847 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 424, 824 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Seal, M. A. Nelson, Z. C. Ying, D. A. Genov, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, Phys. Rev. B 67, 035318 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

R. Lazzari and I. Simonsen, Thin Solid Films 419, 124 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

A. K. Sarychev, R. C. McPhedran, and V. M. Shalaev, Phys. Rev. B 62, 8531 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

D. Stroud, Superlattices Microstruct. 23, 567 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

T. Kume, T. Amano, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, Thin Solid Films 264, 115 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

D. J. Bergman and D. Stroud, Solid State Phys. 46, 147 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

X. C. Zeng, D. J. Bergman, P. M. Hui, and D. Stroud, Phys. Rev. B 38, 10970 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

J. J. Burke, G. I. Stegeman, and T. Tamir, Phys. Rev. B 33, 5186 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

M. Moskovits, Rev. Mod. Phys. 57, 783 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1957 (1)

R. H. Ritchie, Phys. Rev. 106, 874 (1957).
[CrossRef]

1952 (1)

R. Landauer, J. Appl. Phys. 23, 779 (1952).
[CrossRef]

1935 (1)

D. A. G. Bruggeman, Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 24, 636 (1935).

Amano, T.

T. Kume, T. Amano, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, Thin Solid Films 264, 115 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 424, 824 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergman, D. J.

D. J. Bergman and D. Stroud, Solid State Phys. 46, 147 (1992).
[CrossRef]

X. C. Zeng, D. J. Bergman, P. M. Hui, and D. Stroud, Phys. Rev. B 38, 10970 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bruggeman, D. A. G.

D. A. G. Bruggeman, Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 24, 636 (1935).

Burke, J. J.

J. J. Burke, G. I. Stegeman, and T. Tamir, Phys. Rev. B 33, 5186 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Danckwerts, M.

M. Danckwerts and L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 026104 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 424, 824 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebbesen, T. W.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 424, 824 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

J. B. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, Science 305, 847 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gauglitz, G.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Genov, D. A.

K. Seal, M. A. Nelson, Z. C. Ying, D. A. Genov, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, Phys. Rev. B 67, 035318 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, S.

T. Kume, T. Amano, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, Thin Solid Films 264, 115 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Homola, J.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hui, P. M.

X. C. Zeng, D. J. Bergman, P. M. Hui, and D. Stroud, Phys. Rev. B 38, 10970 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Krasavin, A.

K. MacDonald, A. Krasavin, and N. Zheludev, Opt. Commun. 278, 207 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Krasavin, A. V.

A. V. Krasavin, K. F. MacDonald, A. S. Schwanecke, and N. I. Zheludev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kume, T.

T. Kume, T. Amano, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, Thin Solid Films 264, 115 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Landauer, R.

R. Landauer, J. Appl. Phys. 23, 779 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Lazzari, R.

R. Lazzari and I. Simonsen, Thin Solid Films 419, 124 (2002).
[CrossRef]

MacDonald, K.

K. MacDonald, A. Krasavin, and N. Zheludev, Opt. Commun. 278, 207 (2007).
[CrossRef]

MacDonald, K. F.

A. V. Krasavin, K. F. MacDonald, A. S. Schwanecke, and N. I. Zheludev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Martin-Moreno, L.

J. B. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, Science 305, 847 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McPhedran, R. C.

A. K. Sarychev, R. C. McPhedran, and V. M. Shalaev, Phys. Rev. B 62, 8531 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Moskovits, M.

M. Moskovits, Rev. Mod. Phys. 57, 783 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, M. A.

K. Seal, M. A. Nelson, Z. C. Ying, D. A. Genov, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, Phys. Rev. B 67, 035318 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, L.

S. Palomba and L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 056802 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Danckwerts and L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 026104 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palomba, S.

S. Palomba and L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 056802 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

J. B. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, Science 305, 847 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ritchie, R. H.

R. H. Ritchie, Phys. Rev. 106, 874 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Sarychev, A. K.

K. Seal, M. A. Nelson, Z. C. Ying, D. A. Genov, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, Phys. Rev. B 67, 035318 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Sarychev, R. C. McPhedran, and V. M. Shalaev, Phys. Rev. B 62, 8531 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schwanecke, A. S.

A. V. Krasavin, K. F. MacDonald, A. S. Schwanecke, and N. I. Zheludev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Seal, K.

K. Seal, M. A. Nelson, Z. C. Ying, D. A. Genov, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, Phys. Rev. B 67, 035318 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V. M.

K. Seal, M. A. Nelson, Z. C. Ying, D. A. Genov, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, Phys. Rev. B 67, 035318 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Sarychev, R. C. McPhedran, and V. M. Shalaev, Phys. Rev. B 62, 8531 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Simonsen, I.

R. Lazzari and I. Simonsen, Thin Solid Films 419, 124 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. I.

J. J. Burke, G. I. Stegeman, and T. Tamir, Phys. Rev. B 33, 5186 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Stroud, D.

D. Stroud, Superlattices Microstruct. 23, 567 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Bergman and D. Stroud, Solid State Phys. 46, 147 (1992).
[CrossRef]

X. C. Zeng, D. J. Bergman, P. M. Hui, and D. Stroud, Phys. Rev. B 38, 10970 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Tamir, T.

J. J. Burke, G. I. Stegeman, and T. Tamir, Phys. Rev. B 33, 5186 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, K.

T. Kume, T. Amano, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, Thin Solid Films 264, 115 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yee, S. S.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ying, Z. C.

K. Seal, M. A. Nelson, Z. C. Ying, D. A. Genov, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, Phys. Rev. B 67, 035318 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, X. C.

X. C. Zeng, D. J. Bergman, P. M. Hui, and D. Stroud, Phys. Rev. B 38, 10970 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Zheludev, N.

K. MacDonald, A. Krasavin, and N. Zheludev, Opt. Commun. 278, 207 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zheludev, N. I.

A. V. Krasavin, K. F. MacDonald, A. S. Schwanecke, and N. I. Zheludev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) (1)

D. A. G. Bruggeman, Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 24, 636 (1935).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. V. Krasavin, K. F. MacDonald, A. S. Schwanecke, and N. I. Zheludev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

R. Landauer, J. Appl. Phys. 23, 779 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 424, 824 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

K. MacDonald, A. Krasavin, and N. Zheludev, Opt. Commun. 278, 207 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

R. H. Ritchie, Phys. Rev. 106, 874 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (5)

X. C. Zeng, D. J. Bergman, P. M. Hui, and D. Stroud, Phys. Rev. B 38, 10970 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

K. Seal, M. A. Nelson, Z. C. Ying, D. A. Genov, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, Phys. Rev. B 67, 035318 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Sarychev, R. C. McPhedran, and V. M. Shalaev, Phys. Rev. B 62, 8531 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Burke, G. I. Stegeman, and T. Tamir, Phys. Rev. B 33, 5186 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

M. Danckwerts and L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 026104 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Palomba and L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 056802 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

M. Moskovits, Rev. Mod. Phys. 57, 783 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

J. B. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, Science 305, 847 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sens. Actuators B (1)

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Phys. (1)

D. J. Bergman and D. Stroud, Solid State Phys. 46, 147 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Superlattices Microstruct. (1)

D. Stroud, Superlattices Microstruct. 23, 567 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (2)

R. Lazzari and I. Simonsen, Thin Solid Films 419, 124 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Kume, T. Amano, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, Thin Solid Films 264, 115 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of exciting SPPs using the Kretschmann configuration. Insets, (a) SEM and (b) TEM micrographs of two nanocomposite films with gold fill fraction f 0.85 and f 0.65 , respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured (left) and calculated (right) reflectances of both polarizations in the Kretschmann configuration as functions of the incidence angle for five nanocomposite samples with decreasing gold fill fraction f.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated ε eff , x and ε eff , z of an anisotropic gold–air nanocomposite film at 1550 nm as functions of the gold fill fraction f.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated reflectances from a 30 - nm -thick gold–air nanocomposite film, using the Kretschmann configuration as functions of the incidence angle θ inc and the gold fill fraction f for (a) TE and (b) TM polarizations, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spatial field amplitude ( | E x | for TE and | H x | for TM polarization) distribution of a Gaussian beam of 5 μ m FWHM incident on three nanocomposite films with different values of f. The film is expanded by a factor of 100 in the z direction for visual purposes.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Real and (b) imaginary parts of the effective refractive index of the supported SPP modes as functions of the gold fill fraction f.

Equations (1)

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f ε m ε eff , x ε m + ε eff , x + ( 1 f ) ε d ε eff , x ε d + ε eff , x = 0 ,

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