Abstract

We propose an optical 90° hybrid where no waveguide intersection in coupling to balanced photodiodes is required for coherent detection. The proposed device consisting of a paired-interference 2×4 multimode interference (MMI) coupler, a phase shifter, and a 2×2 MMI coupler exhibited quadrature phase response over a 94-nm-wide spectral range.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Seimetz and C. M. Weinert, J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 1317 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  2. L. Zimmermann, K. Voigt, G. Winzer, K. Petermann, and C. M. Weinert, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 143 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  3. H. G. Bach, A. Matiss, C. C. Leonhardt, R. Kunkel, D. Schmidt, M. Schell, and A. Umbach, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OMK5.
  4. M. Baudreau, M. Poirier, G. Yoffe, and B. Pezeshki, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OMK6.
  5. C. R. Doerr, L. Zhangl, S. Chandrasekhar, and L. L. Buhl, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1765 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  6. S. Yamashita and Y. Okoshi, Electron. Lett. 28, 1970 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  7. L. B. Soldano and C. M. Pennings, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  8. M. T. Hill, X. J. M. Leijtens, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2305 (2003).
    [Crossref]

2008 (1)

L. Zimmermann, K. Voigt, G. Winzer, K. Petermann, and C. M. Weinert, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 143 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

C. R. Doerr, L. Zhangl, S. Chandrasekhar, and L. L. Buhl, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1765 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

2003 (1)

1995 (1)

L. B. Soldano and C. M. Pennings, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615 (1995).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

S. Yamashita and Y. Okoshi, Electron. Lett. 28, 1970 (1992).
[Crossref]

Bach, H. G.

H. G. Bach, A. Matiss, C. C. Leonhardt, R. Kunkel, D. Schmidt, M. Schell, and A. Umbach, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OMK5.

Baudreau, M.

M. Baudreau, M. Poirier, G. Yoffe, and B. Pezeshki, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OMK6.

Buhl, L. L.

C. R. Doerr, L. Zhangl, S. Chandrasekhar, and L. L. Buhl, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1765 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chandrasekhar, S.

C. R. Doerr, L. Zhangl, S. Chandrasekhar, and L. L. Buhl, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1765 (2007).
[Crossref]

Doerr, C. R.

C. R. Doerr, L. Zhangl, S. Chandrasekhar, and L. L. Buhl, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1765 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hill, M. T.

Khoe, G. D.

Kunkel, R.

H. G. Bach, A. Matiss, C. C. Leonhardt, R. Kunkel, D. Schmidt, M. Schell, and A. Umbach, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OMK5.

Leijtens, X. J. M.

Leonhardt, C. C.

H. G. Bach, A. Matiss, C. C. Leonhardt, R. Kunkel, D. Schmidt, M. Schell, and A. Umbach, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OMK5.

Matiss, A.

H. G. Bach, A. Matiss, C. C. Leonhardt, R. Kunkel, D. Schmidt, M. Schell, and A. Umbach, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OMK5.

Okoshi, Y.

S. Yamashita and Y. Okoshi, Electron. Lett. 28, 1970 (1992).
[Crossref]

Pennings, C. M.

L. B. Soldano and C. M. Pennings, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615 (1995).
[Crossref]

Petermann, K.

L. Zimmermann, K. Voigt, G. Winzer, K. Petermann, and C. M. Weinert, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 143 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pezeshki, B.

M. Baudreau, M. Poirier, G. Yoffe, and B. Pezeshki, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OMK6.

Poirier, M.

M. Baudreau, M. Poirier, G. Yoffe, and B. Pezeshki, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OMK6.

Schell, M.

H. G. Bach, A. Matiss, C. C. Leonhardt, R. Kunkel, D. Schmidt, M. Schell, and A. Umbach, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OMK5.

Schmidt, D.

H. G. Bach, A. Matiss, C. C. Leonhardt, R. Kunkel, D. Schmidt, M. Schell, and A. Umbach, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OMK5.

Seimetz, M.

Smit, M. K.

Soldano, L. B.

L. B. Soldano and C. M. Pennings, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615 (1995).
[Crossref]

Umbach, A.

H. G. Bach, A. Matiss, C. C. Leonhardt, R. Kunkel, D. Schmidt, M. Schell, and A. Umbach, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OMK5.

Voigt, K.

L. Zimmermann, K. Voigt, G. Winzer, K. Petermann, and C. M. Weinert, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 143 (2008).
[Crossref]

Weinert, C. M.

L. Zimmermann, K. Voigt, G. Winzer, K. Petermann, and C. M. Weinert, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 143 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Seimetz and C. M. Weinert, J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 1317 (2006).
[Crossref]

Winzer, G.

L. Zimmermann, K. Voigt, G. Winzer, K. Petermann, and C. M. Weinert, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 143 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yamashita, S.

S. Yamashita and Y. Okoshi, Electron. Lett. 28, 1970 (1992).
[Crossref]

Yoffe, G.

M. Baudreau, M. Poirier, G. Yoffe, and B. Pezeshki, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OMK6.

Zhangl, L.

C. R. Doerr, L. Zhangl, S. Chandrasekhar, and L. L. Buhl, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1765 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zimmermann, L.

L. Zimmermann, K. Voigt, G. Winzer, K. Petermann, and C. M. Weinert, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 143 (2008).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

S. Yamashita and Y. Okoshi, Electron. Lett. 28, 1970 (1992).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

L. Zimmermann, K. Voigt, G. Winzer, K. Petermann, and C. M. Weinert, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 143 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. R. Doerr, L. Zhangl, S. Chandrasekhar, and L. L. Buhl, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1765 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Other (2)

H. G. Bach, A. Matiss, C. C. Leonhardt, R. Kunkel, D. Schmidt, M. Schell, and A. Umbach, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OMK5.

M. Baudreau, M. Poirier, G. Yoffe, and B. Pezeshki, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OMK6.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagrams of optical 90° hybrids employing (a) a proposed scheme and (b) a conventional 4 × 4 MMI coupler.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated phase deviation ( Δ ϕ ) of (a) the proposed scheme and (b) the 4 × 4 MMI coupler.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Top views of the fabricated 90° hybrid devices using (a) the proposed scheme and (b) the 4 × 4 MMI coupler.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured transmission spectra of (a) the proposed scheme and (b) the 4 × 4 MMI coupler.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimentally estimated phase deviation ( Δ ϕ ) of (a) the proposed scheme and (b) the 4 × 4 MMI coupler.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Constellation diagrams for (a) the proposed scheme and (b) the 4 × 4 MMI coupler within S-, C-, and L-band spectral range.

Equations (2)

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W PI = 3 2 W GI ,
L PI = 3 4 L GI ,

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