Abstract

We point out the use of a wrong definition for conversion efficiency in the literature and analyze the effects of the waveguide length and pump power on conversion efficiency according to the correct definition. The existence of the locally optimal waveguide length and pump power is demonstrated theoretically and experimentally. Further analysis shows that the extremum of conversion efficiency can be achieved by global optimization of the waveguide length and pump power simultaneously, which is limited by just the linear propagation loss and the effective carrier lifetime.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2009 (2)

L. X. Jia, M. M. Geng, L. Zhang, L. Yang, P. Chen, T. Wang, and Y. L. Liu, Opt. Commun. 282, 1659 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Geng, L. X. Jia, L. Zhang, L. Yang, P. Chen, T. Wang, and Y. Y. Liu, Opt. Express 17, 5502 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

2007 (3)

2006 (3)

X. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, Jr., IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 160 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Nature 441, 960 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1046 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

2004 (2)

1996 (2)

A. M. Darwish, E. P. Ippen, H. Q. Le, J. P. Donnelly, and S. H. Groves, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 737 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Durhuus, B. Mikkelsen, C. Joergensen, S. L. Danielsen, and K. E. Stubkjaer, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 942 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

Chen, P.

L. X. Jia, M. M. Geng, L. Zhang, L. Yang, P. Chen, T. Wang, and Y. L. Liu, Opt. Commun. 282, 1659 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Geng, L. X. Jia, L. Zhang, L. Yang, P. Chen, T. Wang, and Y. Y. Liu, Opt. Express 17, 5502 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

X. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, Jr., IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 160 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X. G.

Claps, R.

Cohen, O.

H. S. Rong, A. S. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dadap, J. I.

Danielsen, S. L.

T. Durhuus, B. Mikkelsen, C. Joergensen, S. L. Danielsen, and K. E. Stubkjaer, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 942 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Darwish, A. M.

A. M. Darwish, E. P. Ippen, H. Q. Le, J. P. Donnelly, and S. H. Groves, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 737 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dimitropoulos, D.

Donnelly, J. P.

A. M. Darwish, E. P. Ippen, H. Q. Le, J. P. Donnelly, and S. H. Groves, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 737 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Durhuus, T.

T. Durhuus, B. Mikkelsen, C. Joergensen, S. L. Danielsen, and K. E. Stubkjaer, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 942 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Espinola, R. L.

Fang, A.

H. S. Rong, A. S. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foster, M. A.

Freude, W.

Fukuda, H.

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1046 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Shoji, M. Takahashi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, and S. Itabashi, Opt. Express 13, 4629 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaeta, A. L.

Geng, M. M.

L. X. Jia, M. M. Geng, L. Zhang, L. Yang, P. Chen, T. Wang, and Y. L. Liu, Opt. Commun. 282, 1659 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Geng, L. X. Jia, L. Zhang, L. Yang, P. Chen, T. Wang, and Y. Y. Liu, Opt. Express 17, 5502 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Green, W. M. J.

Groves, S. H.

A. M. Darwish, E. P. Ippen, H. Q. Le, J. P. Donnelly, and S. H. Groves, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 737 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hak, D.

H. S. Rong, A. S. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsieh, I. W.

Ippen, E. P.

A. M. Darwish, E. P. Ippen, H. Q. Le, J. P. Donnelly, and S. H. Groves, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 737 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Itabashi, S.

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1046 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Shoji, M. Takahashi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, and S. Itabashi, Opt. Express 13, 4629 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacome, L.

Jalali, B.

Jia, L. X.

L. X. Jia, M. M. Geng, L. Zhang, L. Yang, P. Chen, T. Wang, and Y. L. Liu, Opt. Commun. 282, 1659 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Geng, L. X. Jia, L. Zhang, L. Yang, P. Chen, T. Wang, and Y. Y. Liu, Opt. Express 17, 5502 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joergensen, C.

T. Durhuus, B. Mikkelsen, C. Joergensen, S. L. Danielsen, and K. E. Stubkjaer, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 942 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R.

H. S. Rong, A. S. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koos, C.

Le, H. Q.

A. M. Darwish, E. P. Ippen, H. Q. Le, J. P. Donnelly, and S. H. Groves, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 737 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Leuthold, J.

Lin, Q.

Lipson, M.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, R. Salem, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Opt. Express 15, 12949 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Nature 441, 960 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, A. S.

H. S. Rong, A. S. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, X. P.

Liu, Y. L.

L. X. Jia, M. M. Geng, L. Zhang, L. Yang, P. Chen, T. Wang, and Y. L. Liu, Opt. Commun. 282, 1659 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y. Y.

Mathlouthi, W.

Mikkelsen, B.

T. Durhuus, B. Mikkelsen, C. Joergensen, S. L. Danielsen, and K. E. Stubkjaer, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 942 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Moll, K. D.

Nicolaescu, R.

H. S. Rong, A. S. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osgood, R. M.

Painter, O. J.

Paniccia, M.

W. Mathlouthi, H. S. Rong, and M. Paniccia, Opt. Express 16, 16735 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Rong, A. S. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Panoiu, N. C.

X. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, Jr., IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 160 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Poulton, C.

Raghunathan, V.

Rong, H. S.

W. Mathlouthi, H. S. Rong, and M. Paniccia, Opt. Express 16, 16735 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Rong, A. S. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salem, R.

Schmidt, B. S.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Nature 441, 960 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharping, J. E.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Nature 441, 960 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shoji, T.

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1046 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Shoji, M. Takahashi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, and S. Itabashi, Opt. Express 13, 4629 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stubkjaer, K. E.

T. Durhuus, B. Mikkelsen, C. Joergensen, S. L. Danielsen, and K. E. Stubkjaer, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 942 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, J.

Takahashi, M.

Tsuchizawa, T.

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1046 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Shoji, M. Takahashi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, and S. Itabashi, Opt. Express 13, 4629 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turner, A. C.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, R. Salem, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Opt. Express 15, 12949 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Nature 441, 960 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vlasov, Y. A.

Wang, T.

M. M. Geng, L. X. Jia, L. Zhang, L. Yang, P. Chen, T. Wang, and Y. Y. Liu, Opt. Express 17, 5502 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. X. Jia, M. M. Geng, L. Zhang, L. Yang, P. Chen, T. Wang, and Y. L. Liu, Opt. Commun. 282, 1659 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, T.

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1046 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Shoji, M. Takahashi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, and S. Itabashi, Opt. Express 13, 4629 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamada, K.

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1046 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Shoji, M. Takahashi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, and S. Itabashi, Opt. Express 13, 4629 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, L.

L. X. Jia, M. M. Geng, L. Zhang, L. Yang, P. Chen, T. Wang, and Y. L. Liu, Opt. Commun. 282, 1659 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Geng, L. X. Jia, L. Zhang, L. Yang, P. Chen, T. Wang, and Y. Y. Liu, Opt. Express 17, 5502 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, L.

M. M. Geng, L. X. Jia, L. Zhang, L. Yang, P. Chen, T. Wang, and Y. Y. Liu, Opt. Express 17, 5502 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. X. Jia, M. M. Geng, L. Zhang, L. Yang, P. Chen, T. Wang, and Y. L. Liu, Opt. Commun. 282, 1659 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. M. Darwish, E. P. Ippen, H. Q. Le, J. P. Donnelly, and S. H. Groves, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 737 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

X. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, Jr., IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 160 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1046 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

T. Durhuus, B. Mikkelsen, C. Joergensen, S. L. Danielsen, and K. E. Stubkjaer, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 942 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Nature 441, 960 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Rong, A. S. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

L. X. Jia, M. M. Geng, L. Zhang, L. Yang, P. Chen, T. Wang, and Y. L. Liu, Opt. Commun. 282, 1659 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (9)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (1)

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 1989).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Frequency response curves of the CE for different waveguide lengths. (a) Simulation results for the standard definition. (b) Simulation results for the approximate definition. Insets, dependence of the CE on the waveguide length for a definite wavelength. (c) Experimental results for the standard definition. (d) Experimental results for the approximate definition.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Calculated CE 1 (solid curves) and CE 2 (dashed curves) versus the coupled pump power for τ = 0 , 1 , 2 , 3 ns , respectively. (b) Experimentally measured CE 1 (circles) and CE 2 (squares) and their theoretical fittings (red solid curves for CE 1 and black solid curves for CE 2 ) for τ = 3.1 ns .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Locally optimal waveguide length (solid curves) and the corresponding CE (dashed curves) versus the coupled pump power for different propagation losses.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Globally optimal waveguide length and pump power versus different propagation loss for τ = 0 , 1 , 2 , 3 ns . (b) Corresponding extremum of the CE.

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