Abstract

We use a phase-sensitive optical low-coherence interferometry technique and camera imaging to identify microbend-induced mode couplings in Bragg fibers. Results show the importance of the quality of fabrication of Bragg fibers on their modal content when they are subject to microbends. Design strategies to improve the microbending robustness are identified.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. N. G. R. Broderick, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, R. A. Sammut, J. Caplen, and L. Dong, Opt. Fiber Technol. 5, 185 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Yeh, A. Yariv, and E. Marom, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 68, 1196 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Février, R. Jamier, J.-M. Blondy, S. L. Semjonov, M. E. Likhachev, M. M. Bubnov, E. M. Dianov, V. F. Khopin, M. Y. Salganskii, and A. N. Guryanov, Opt. Express 14, 562 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. Baskiotis, D. Molin, G. Bouwmans, F. Gooijer, P. Sillard, Y. Quiquempois, and M. Douay, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC, 2008), paper Mo.4. B.2.
  7. D. Gaponov, P. Roy, S. Février, M. E. Likhachev, S. L. Semjonov, M. M. Bubnov, E. M. Dianov, V. F. Khopin, M. Yu. Salganskii, and A. N. Guryanov, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC 2007), post-deadline paper P. D 3.9.
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

2003 (1)

S. Février, P. Viale, F. Gerome, P. Leproux, P. Roy, J.-M. Blondy, B. Dussardier, and G. Monnom, Electron. Lett. 39, 1240 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

N. G. R. Broderick, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, R. A. Sammut, J. Caplen, and L. Dong, Opt. Fiber Technol. 5, 185 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

P. Yeh, A. Yariv, and E. Marom, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 68, 1196 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

K. Petermann, Opt. Quantum Electron. 9, 167 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Baskiotis, C.

C. Baskiotis, D. Molin, G. Bouwmans, F. Gooijer, P. Sillard, Y. Quiquempois, and M. Douay, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC, 2008), paper Mo.4. B.2.

Blondy, J.-M.

Bouwmans, G.

C. Baskiotis, D. Molin, G. Bouwmans, F. Gooijer, P. Sillard, Y. Quiquempois, and M. Douay, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC, 2008), paper Mo.4. B.2.

Boyer, P.

Broderick, N. G. R.

N. G. R. Broderick, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, R. A. Sammut, J. Caplen, and L. Dong, Opt. Fiber Technol. 5, 185 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bubnov, M. M.

S. Février, R. Jamier, J.-M. Blondy, S. L. Semjonov, M. E. Likhachev, M. M. Bubnov, E. M. Dianov, V. F. Khopin, M. Y. Salganskii, and A. N. Guryanov, Opt. Express 14, 562 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Gaponov, P. Roy, S. Février, M. E. Likhachev, S. L. Semjonov, M. M. Bubnov, E. M. Dianov, V. F. Khopin, M. Yu. Salganskii, and A. N. Guryanov, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC 2007), post-deadline paper P. D 3.9.

Caplen, J.

N. G. R. Broderick, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, R. A. Sammut, J. Caplen, and L. Dong, Opt. Fiber Technol. 5, 185 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Debarge, G.

Dianov, E. M.

S. Février, R. Jamier, J.-M. Blondy, S. L. Semjonov, M. E. Likhachev, M. M. Bubnov, E. M. Dianov, V. F. Khopin, M. Y. Salganskii, and A. N. Guryanov, Opt. Express 14, 562 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Gaponov, P. Roy, S. Février, M. E. Likhachev, S. L. Semjonov, M. M. Bubnov, E. M. Dianov, V. F. Khopin, M. Yu. Salganskii, and A. N. Guryanov, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC 2007), post-deadline paper P. D 3.9.

Dong, L.

N. G. R. Broderick, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, R. A. Sammut, J. Caplen, and L. Dong, Opt. Fiber Technol. 5, 185 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Douay, M.

C. Baskiotis, D. Molin, G. Bouwmans, F. Gooijer, P. Sillard, Y. Quiquempois, and M. Douay, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC, 2008), paper Mo.4. B.2.

Dussardier, B.

S. Février, P. Viale, F. Gerome, P. Leproux, P. Roy, J.-M. Blondy, B. Dussardier, and G. Monnom, Electron. Lett. 39, 1240 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Février, S.

S. Février, R. Jamier, J.-M. Blondy, S. L. Semjonov, M. E. Likhachev, M. M. Bubnov, E. M. Dianov, V. F. Khopin, M. Y. Salganskii, and A. N. Guryanov, Opt. Express 14, 562 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Février, P. Viale, F. Gerome, P. Leproux, P. Roy, J.-M. Blondy, B. Dussardier, and G. Monnom, Electron. Lett. 39, 1240 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Gaponov, P. Roy, S. Février, M. E. Likhachev, S. L. Semjonov, M. M. Bubnov, E. M. Dianov, V. F. Khopin, M. Yu. Salganskii, and A. N. Guryanov, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC 2007), post-deadline paper P. D 3.9.

Gabet, R.

Gaponov, D.

D. Gaponov, P. Roy, S. Février, M. E. Likhachev, S. L. Semjonov, M. M. Bubnov, E. M. Dianov, V. F. Khopin, M. Yu. Salganskii, and A. N. Guryanov, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC 2007), post-deadline paper P. D 3.9.

Gerome, F.

S. Février, P. Viale, F. Gerome, P. Leproux, P. Roy, J.-M. Blondy, B. Dussardier, and G. Monnom, Electron. Lett. 39, 1240 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gooijer, F.

C. Baskiotis, D. Molin, G. Bouwmans, F. Gooijer, P. Sillard, Y. Quiquempois, and M. Douay, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC, 2008), paper Mo.4. B.2.

Guryanov, A. N.

S. Février, R. Jamier, J.-M. Blondy, S. L. Semjonov, M. E. Likhachev, M. M. Bubnov, E. M. Dianov, V. F. Khopin, M. Y. Salganskii, and A. N. Guryanov, Opt. Express 14, 562 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Gaponov, P. Roy, S. Février, M. E. Likhachev, S. L. Semjonov, M. M. Bubnov, E. M. Dianov, V. F. Khopin, M. Yu. Salganskii, and A. N. Guryanov, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC 2007), post-deadline paper P. D 3.9.

Hamel, P.

Jamier, R.

Jaouën, Y.

Khopin, V. F.

S. Février, R. Jamier, J.-M. Blondy, S. L. Semjonov, M. E. Likhachev, M. M. Bubnov, E. M. Dianov, V. F. Khopin, M. Y. Salganskii, and A. N. Guryanov, Opt. Express 14, 562 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Gaponov, P. Roy, S. Février, M. E. Likhachev, S. L. Semjonov, M. M. Bubnov, E. M. Dianov, V. F. Khopin, M. Yu. Salganskii, and A. N. Guryanov, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC 2007), post-deadline paper P. D 3.9.

Lanticq, V.

Leproux, P.

S. Février, P. Viale, F. Gerome, P. Leproux, P. Roy, J.-M. Blondy, B. Dussardier, and G. Monnom, Electron. Lett. 39, 1240 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Likhachev, M. E.

S. Février, R. Jamier, J.-M. Blondy, S. L. Semjonov, M. E. Likhachev, M. M. Bubnov, E. M. Dianov, V. F. Khopin, M. Y. Salganskii, and A. N. Guryanov, Opt. Express 14, 562 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Gaponov, P. Roy, S. Février, M. E. Likhachev, S. L. Semjonov, M. M. Bubnov, E. M. Dianov, V. F. Khopin, M. Yu. Salganskii, and A. N. Guryanov, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC 2007), post-deadline paper P. D 3.9.

Marom, E.

P. Yeh, A. Yariv, and E. Marom, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 68, 1196 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Molin, D.

C. Baskiotis, D. Molin, G. Bouwmans, F. Gooijer, P. Sillard, Y. Quiquempois, and M. Douay, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC, 2008), paper Mo.4. B.2.

Monnom, G.

S. Février, P. Viale, F. Gerome, P. Leproux, P. Roy, J.-M. Blondy, B. Dussardier, and G. Monnom, Electron. Lett. 39, 1240 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Obaton, A.-F.

Offerhaus, H. L.

N. G. R. Broderick, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, R. A. Sammut, J. Caplen, and L. Dong, Opt. Fiber Technol. 5, 185 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Petermann, K.

K. Petermann, Opt. Quantum Electron. 9, 167 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Quiquempois, Y.

C. Baskiotis, D. Molin, G. Bouwmans, F. Gooijer, P. Sillard, Y. Quiquempois, and M. Douay, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC, 2008), paper Mo.4. B.2.

Renversez, G.

Richardson, D. J.

N. G. R. Broderick, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, R. A. Sammut, J. Caplen, and L. Dong, Opt. Fiber Technol. 5, 185 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Roy, P.

S. Février, P. Viale, F. Gerome, P. Leproux, P. Roy, J.-M. Blondy, B. Dussardier, and G. Monnom, Electron. Lett. 39, 1240 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Gaponov, P. Roy, S. Février, M. E. Likhachev, S. L. Semjonov, M. M. Bubnov, E. M. Dianov, V. F. Khopin, M. Yu. Salganskii, and A. N. Guryanov, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC 2007), post-deadline paper P. D 3.9.

Sagrini, A.

Salganskii, M. Y.

Salganskii, M. Yu.

D. Gaponov, P. Roy, S. Février, M. E. Likhachev, S. L. Semjonov, M. M. Bubnov, E. M. Dianov, V. F. Khopin, M. Yu. Salganskii, and A. N. Guryanov, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC 2007), post-deadline paper P. D 3.9.

Sammut, R. A.

N. G. R. Broderick, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, R. A. Sammut, J. Caplen, and L. Dong, Opt. Fiber Technol. 5, 185 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Semjonov, S. L.

S. Février, R. Jamier, J.-M. Blondy, S. L. Semjonov, M. E. Likhachev, M. M. Bubnov, E. M. Dianov, V. F. Khopin, M. Y. Salganskii, and A. N. Guryanov, Opt. Express 14, 562 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Gaponov, P. Roy, S. Février, M. E. Likhachev, S. L. Semjonov, M. M. Bubnov, E. M. Dianov, V. F. Khopin, M. Yu. Salganskii, and A. N. Guryanov, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC 2007), post-deadline paper P. D 3.9.

Sillard, P.

C. Baskiotis, D. Molin, G. Bouwmans, F. Gooijer, P. Sillard, Y. Quiquempois, and M. Douay, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC, 2008), paper Mo.4. B.2.

Viale, P.

S. Février, P. Viale, F. Gerome, P. Leproux, P. Roy, J.-M. Blondy, B. Dussardier, and G. Monnom, Electron. Lett. 39, 1240 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wielandy, S.

Yariv, A.

P. Yeh, A. Yariv, and E. Marom, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 68, 1196 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, P.

P. Yeh, A. Yariv, and E. Marom, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 68, 1196 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

S. Février, P. Viale, F. Gerome, P. Leproux, P. Roy, J.-M. Blondy, B. Dussardier, and G. Monnom, Electron. Lett. 39, 1240 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

P. Yeh, A. Yariv, and E. Marom, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 68, 1196 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

N. G. R. Broderick, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, R. A. Sammut, J. Caplen, and L. Dong, Opt. Fiber Technol. 5, 185 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. Petermann, Opt. Quantum Electron. 9, 167 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

C. Baskiotis, D. Molin, G. Bouwmans, F. Gooijer, P. Sillard, Y. Quiquempois, and M. Douay, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC, 2008), paper Mo.4. B.2.

D. Gaponov, P. Roy, S. Février, M. E. Likhachev, S. L. Semjonov, M. M. Bubnov, E. M. Dianov, V. F. Khopin, M. Yu. Salganskii, and A. N. Guryanov, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC 2007), post-deadline paper P. D 3.9.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Index profile of the PCVD Bragg fibers (A and B); (b) transmission spectra of fiber A, showing imperfections, and of fiber B, showing better quality; (c) effective indices of the L P 01 core mode and of the L P 13 , 1 first high-index ring mode.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a), (b) Time–wavelength maps of core modes ( 5 μ m shift configuration) and (c), (d) of first high-index ring modes ( 20 μ m shift configuration) for (a), (c) fiber A and (b), (d) fiber B, not subject to any lateral pressure.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a), (b) Camera images at 1550 nm and (c), (d) core mode maps for (a), (c) fiber A and (b), (d) fiber B, subject to a weak single-point lateral pressure.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) First high-index ring modes map for fiber A, subject to a weak single-point lateral pressure applied far from the output of the fiber, and (b) effective indices of different modes.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

First high-index ring modes maps for (a) fiber A and (b) fiber B, subject to a strong multipoint lateral pressure applied far from the splice (i.e., near the output of the fibers).

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