Abstract

A well-established, silver fishnet design has been further miniaturized to function as a negative-index material at the shortest wavelength to date (to our knowledge). By studying the transmittance, reflectance, and corresponding numerical simulations of the sample, we report in this Letter a negative refractive index of 0.25 at the yellow-light wavelength of 580nm.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, Opt. Lett. 30, 3356 (2005).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature Mater. 8, 568 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. I. I. Smolyaninov, V. N. Smolyaninov, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 213901 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2009 (4)

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature Mater. 8, 568 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. I. Smolyaninov, V. N. Smolyaninov, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 213901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. H. Gabrielli, J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, Nat. Photonics 3, 461 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Helgert, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, E. P. Severin, E. B. Kley, A. Chipouline, A. Tunnermann, F. Lederer, and T. Pertsch, Opt. Lett. 34, 704 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

V. P. Drachev, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, H. K. Yuan, W. S. Cai, and V. M. Shalaev, Opt. Express 16, 1186 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. K. Chettiar, S. Xiao, A. V. Kildishev, W. S. Cai, H. K. Yuan, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, MRS Bull. 33, 921 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. U. Avila, D. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 455, 376 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

2005 (3)

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 308, 534 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, Opt. Lett. 30, 3356 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, W. J. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. Brueck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

H. J. Lezec, J. A. Dionne, and H. A. Atwater, Science 316, 430 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avila, E. U.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. U. Avila, D. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 455, 376 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartal, G.

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature Mater. 8, 568 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. U. Avila, D. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 455, 376 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brueck, S. R.

S. Zhang, W. J. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. Brueck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, W.

Cai, W. S.

Cardenas, J.

L. H. Gabrielli, J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, Nat. Photonics 3, 461 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chettiar, U. K.

Chipouline, A.

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Dionne, J. A.

H. J. Lezec, J. A. Dionne, and H. A. Atwater, Science 316, 430 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dolling, G.

Drachev, V. P.

Fan, W. J.

S. Zhang, W. J. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. Brueck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, N.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 308, 534 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gabrielli, L. H.

L. H. Gabrielli, J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, Nat. Photonics 3, 461 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Genov, D.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. U. Avila, D. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 455, 376 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Helgert, C.

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kildishev, A. V.

Kley, E. B.

Lederer, F.

Lee, H.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 308, 534 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lezec, H. J.

H. J. Lezec, J. A. Dionne, and H. A. Atwater, Science 316, 430 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, J.

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature Mater. 8, 568 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Linden, S.

Lipson, M.

L. H. Gabrielli, J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, Nat. Photonics 3, 461 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Malloy, K. J.

S. Zhang, W. J. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. Brueck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Markos, P.

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Menzel, C.

Osgood, R. M.

S. Zhang, W. J. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. Brueck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Panoiu, N. C.

S. Zhang, W. J. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. Brueck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pertsch, T.

Poitras, C. B.

L. H. Gabrielli, J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, Nat. Photonics 3, 461 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rockstuhl, C.

Sarychev, A. K.

Schultz, S.

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Severin, E. P.

Shalaev, V. M.

Silva, V. C.

Smith, D. R.

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Smolyaninov, I. I.

I. I. Smolyaninov, V. N. Smolyaninov, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 213901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smolyaninov, V. N.

I. I. Smolyaninov, V. N. Smolyaninov, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 213901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

G. Dolling, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, Opt. Lett. 32, 53 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 308, 534 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tunnermann, A.

Valentine, J.

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature Mater. 8, 568 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. U. Avila, D. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 455, 376 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wegener, M.

Xiao, S.

U. K. Chettiar, S. Xiao, A. V. Kildishev, W. S. Cai, H. K. Yuan, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, MRS Bull. 33, 921 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, H. K.

Yuan, H.-K.

Zentgraf, T.

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature Mater. 8, 568 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. U. Avila, D. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 455, 376 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. U. Avila, D. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 455, 376 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. J. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. Brueck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature Mater. 8, 568 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. U. Avila, D. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 455, 376 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 308, 534 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MRS Bull. (1)

U. K. Chettiar, S. Xiao, A. V. Kildishev, W. S. Cai, H. K. Yuan, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, MRS Bull. 33, 921 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

L. H. Gabrielli, J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, Nat. Photonics 3, 461 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. U. Avila, D. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 455, 376 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature Mater. (1)

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature Mater. 8, 568 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

S. Zhang, W. J. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. Brueck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. I. Smolyaninov, V. N. Smolyaninov, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 213901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (2)

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 308, 534 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Lezec, J. A. Dionne, and H. A. Atwater, Science 316, 430 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of a metamaterial consisting of a fishnet structure. The geometric parameters are 220 nm periodicity along two directions, and nanostrip bottom widths are 140 nm in both directions. The layers and their thicknesses within the sample are (top to bottom) Al 2 O 3 , ( 10 nm ) , Ag ( 43 nm ) , Al 2 O 3 ( 45 nm ) , Ag ( 43 nm ) , Al 2 O 3 ( 10 nm ) , substrate. (b) Top view from a representative FESEM image of the structure. The primary polarization is shown in the panel and is defined as the electric field lying in the plane of the sample and perpendicular to the magnetic strips.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of the experimental far-field transmission ( T e ) , reflection ( R e ) and absorption ( A e ) spectra of the sample along with simulated results ( T s , R s , and A s ) at the primary linear polarization as shown in Fig. 1b.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Real part of the effective refractive index and FOM; the FOM is set to zero if n > 0 . (b) Real part of the effective permeability μ and permittivity ϵ .

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