Abstract

We characterize the instability of an rf clock signal caused by free-space transmission of a frequency comb (FC) under typical laboratory conditions. The phase-noise spectra show the involvement of multiple random processes. For a 10m transmission, the rms timing jitter integrated over 1105Hz is 95fs, and the root Allan variance over 1s is 4×1013. The measured Allan variance has a τ1 behavior and an excellent agreement with the phase noise measurement. These results indicate the feasibility of FC-based free-space rf clock distribution over short distances.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, J. Ye, and D. J. JonesOpt. Lett. 30, 1225 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. N. R. Newbury, P. A. Williams, and W. C. Swann, Opt. Lett. 32, 3056 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. G. Grosche, O. Terra, K. Predehl, R. Holzwarth, B. Lipphardt, F. Vogt, U. Sterr, and H. Schnatz, Opt. Lett. 34, 2270 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hansch, Nature 416, 233 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. Kim, J. A. Cox, J. Chen, and F. X. Kaertner, Nat. Photonics 2, 733 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. Sprenger, J. Zhang, Z. H. Lu, and L. J. Wang, Opt. Lett. 34, 965 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Ishimaru, Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media (Academic, 1978).
  9. D. Halford, A. E. Wainwright, and J. A. Barnes, in 22nd Annual Symposium on Frequency Control (1968), p. 340.
  10. J. Rutman and F. Walls, Proc. IEEE 79, 952 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. C. Andrews and R. L. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation through Random Media, 2nd ed. (SPIE, 2005).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

J. Kim, J. A. Cox, J. Chen, and F. X. Kaertner, Nat. Photonics 2, 733 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. R. Newbury, P. A. Williams, and W. C. Swann, Opt. Lett. 32, 3056 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2002 (1)

Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hansch, Nature 416, 233 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

J. Rutman and F. Walls, Proc. IEEE 79, 952 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, L. C.

L. C. Andrews and R. L. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation through Random Media, 2nd ed. (SPIE, 2005).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, J. A.

D. Halford, A. E. Wainwright, and J. A. Barnes, in 22nd Annual Symposium on Frequency Control (1968), p. 340.

Chen, J.

J. Kim, J. A. Cox, J. Chen, and F. X. Kaertner, Nat. Photonics 2, 733 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cox, J. A.

J. Kim, J. A. Cox, J. Chen, and F. X. Kaertner, Nat. Photonics 2, 733 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Foreman, S. M.

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grosche, G.

Halford, D.

D. Halford, A. E. Wainwright, and J. A. Barnes, in 22nd Annual Symposium on Frequency Control (1968), p. 340.

Hansch, T. W.

Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hansch, Nature 416, 233 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holman, K. W.

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, J. Ye, and D. J. JonesOpt. Lett. 30, 1225 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holzwarth, R.

Hudson, D. D.

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, J. Ye, and D. J. JonesOpt. Lett. 30, 1225 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishimaru, A.

A. Ishimaru, Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media (Academic, 1978).

Jones, D. J.

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, J. Ye, and D. J. JonesOpt. Lett. 30, 1225 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaertner, F. X.

J. Kim, J. A. Cox, J. Chen, and F. X. Kaertner, Nat. Photonics 2, 733 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

J. Kim, J. A. Cox, J. Chen, and F. X. Kaertner, Nat. Photonics 2, 733 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lipphardt, B.

Lu, Z. H.

Newbury, N. R.

Phillips, R. L.

L. C. Andrews and R. L. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation through Random Media, 2nd ed. (SPIE, 2005).
[CrossRef]

Predehl, K.

Rutman, J.

J. Rutman and F. Walls, Proc. IEEE 79, 952 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Schnatz, H.

Sprenger, B.

Sterr, U.

Swann, W. C.

Terra, O.

Udem, Th.

Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hansch, Nature 416, 233 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vogt, F.

Wainwright, A. E.

D. Halford, A. E. Wainwright, and J. A. Barnes, in 22nd Annual Symposium on Frequency Control (1968), p. 340.

Walls, F.

J. Rutman and F. Walls, Proc. IEEE 79, 952 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. J.

Williams, P. A.

Ye, J.

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, J. Ye, and D. J. JonesOpt. Lett. 30, 1225 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. Kim, J. A. Cox, J. Chen, and F. X. Kaertner, Nat. Photonics 2, 733 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hansch, Nature 416, 233 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Proc. IEEE (1)

J. Rutman and F. Walls, Proc. IEEE 79, 952 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

A. Ishimaru, Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media (Academic, 1978).

D. Halford, A. E. Wainwright, and J. A. Barnes, in 22nd Annual Symposium on Frequency Control (1968), p. 340.

L. C. Andrews and R. L. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation through Random Media, 2nd ed. (SPIE, 2005).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup. AMP, microwave amplifiers; BP, bandpass filters; CLK, clock; LP, low-pass filters; M, silver mirrors; MXR, mixers; PD, photodetectors; PS, phase shifter; SSBM, single-sideband modulator; FFT, fast Fourier transform analyzer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral density of the excess timing jitter for four effective transmission distances and the system noise; inset, single-sideband phase noise spectra for 10 m transmission and the system noise. (b) Integrated rms jitter for four transmission distances and the system noise; inset, the total rms jitter integrated from 1 Hz to 100 kHz versus effective transmission distance.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured Allan variance with a 10 m effective transmission distance and the numerical estimation based on the phase-noise measurement.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

σ y 2 ( τ ) = 2 0 f h S y ( f ) sin 4 ( π τ f ) ( π τ f ) 2 d f ,

Metrics