Abstract

A bias-free two-section Y-branch directional coupler modulator with high linearity based on domain-inverted modulation is fabricated and tested. 25wt.% AJLS102/APC is used as an active core layer with an experimentally confirmed device r33 value of 56pmV at 1.59μm. The fabricated device shows an extinction voltage of 4V. A two-tone test is performed to demonstrate 64dB distortion suppression at 25% modulation depth, which is 22dB higher than a conventional Mach–Zehnder modulator.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. An, Z. Shi, L. Sun, J. M. Taboada, Q. Zhou, X. Lu, R. T. Chen, S. Tang, H. Zhang, and W. H. Steier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1972 (2000).
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    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Raskin, K. Chiang, and J. Stamatoff, “Cable system incorporating highly linear optical modulator,” U.S. patent 5,031,235 (July 9, 1991).
  6. A. Prescod, B. B. Dingel, and N. Madamopoulos, Broadband Access Communication Technologies III, A.Prescod, B.B.Dingel, and N.Madamopoulos, eds. (SPIE, 2009), Vol. 7234, p. 72340E.
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    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Tavlykaev and R. V. Ramaswamy, J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 282 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Kishino, R. F. Tavlykaev, and R. V. Ramaswamy, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1474 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Tang, Z. Shi, D. An, L. Sun, and R. T. Chen, Opt. Eng. 39, 680 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. C. Hung, S. K. Kim, H. Fetterman, J. Luo, and A. K. Y. Jen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1762 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

Y. C. Hung, S. K. Kim, H. Fetterman, J. Luo, and A. K. Y. Jen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1762 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

D. An, Z. Shi, L. Sun, J. M. Taboada, Q. Zhou, X. Lu, R. T. Chen, S. Tang, H. Zhang, and W. H. Steier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1972 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Kishino, R. F. Tavlykaev, and R. V. Ramaswamy, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1474 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Tang, Z. Shi, D. An, L. Sun, and R. T. Chen, Opt. Eng. 39, 680 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1991 (1)

H. Skeie and R. V. Johnson, Proc. SPIE , 1583, 153 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

S. Korotky and R. de Ridder, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 1377 (1990).

1988 (1)

1976 (1)

H. Kogelnik and R. Schmidt, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12, 396 (1976).
[CrossRef]

An, D.

D. An, Z. Shi, L. Sun, J. M. Taboada, Q. Zhou, X. Lu, R. T. Chen, S. Tang, H. Zhang, and W. H. Steier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1972 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Tang, Z. Shi, D. An, L. Sun, and R. T. Chen, Opt. Eng. 39, 680 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, R. T.

S. Tang, Z. Shi, D. An, L. Sun, and R. T. Chen, Opt. Eng. 39, 680 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. An, Z. Shi, L. Sun, J. M. Taboada, Q. Zhou, X. Lu, R. T. Chen, S. Tang, H. Zhang, and W. H. Steier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1972 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, K.

D. Raskin, K. Chiang, and J. Stamatoff, “Cable system incorporating highly linear optical modulator,” U.S. patent 5,031,235 (July 9, 1991).

de Ridder, R.

S. Korotky and R. de Ridder, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 1377 (1990).

Dingel, B. B.

A. Prescod, B. B. Dingel, and N. Madamopoulos, Broadband Access Communication Technologies III, A.Prescod, B.B.Dingel, and N.Madamopoulos, eds. (SPIE, 2009), Vol. 7234, p. 72340E.

Fetterman, H.

Y. C. Hung, S. K. Kim, H. Fetterman, J. Luo, and A. K. Y. Jen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1762 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hung, Y. C.

Y. C. Hung, S. K. Kim, H. Fetterman, J. Luo, and A. K. Y. Jen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1762 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jen, A. K. Y.

Y. C. Hung, S. K. Kim, H. Fetterman, J. Luo, and A. K. Y. Jen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1762 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, L. M.

Johnson, R. V.

H. Skeie and R. V. Johnson, Proc. SPIE , 1583, 153 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. K.

Y. C. Hung, S. K. Kim, H. Fetterman, J. Luo, and A. K. Y. Jen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1762 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kishino, T.

T. Kishino, R. F. Tavlykaev, and R. V. Ramaswamy, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1474 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik and R. Schmidt, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12, 396 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Korotky, S.

S. Korotky and R. de Ridder, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 1377 (1990).

Lu, X.

D. An, Z. Shi, L. Sun, J. M. Taboada, Q. Zhou, X. Lu, R. T. Chen, S. Tang, H. Zhang, and W. H. Steier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1972 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Luo, J.

Y. C. Hung, S. K. Kim, H. Fetterman, J. Luo, and A. K. Y. Jen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1762 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Madamopoulos, N.

A. Prescod, B. B. Dingel, and N. Madamopoulos, Broadband Access Communication Technologies III, A.Prescod, B.B.Dingel, and N.Madamopoulos, eds. (SPIE, 2009), Vol. 7234, p. 72340E.

Prescod, A.

A. Prescod, B. B. Dingel, and N. Madamopoulos, Broadband Access Communication Technologies III, A.Prescod, B.B.Dingel, and N.Madamopoulos, eds. (SPIE, 2009), Vol. 7234, p. 72340E.

Ramaswamy, R. V.

T. Kishino, R. F. Tavlykaev, and R. V. Ramaswamy, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1474 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Tavlykaev and R. V. Ramaswamy, J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 282 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Raskin, D.

D. Raskin, K. Chiang, and J. Stamatoff, “Cable system incorporating highly linear optical modulator,” U.S. patent 5,031,235 (July 9, 1991).

Roussell, H. V.

Schmidt, R.

H. Kogelnik and R. Schmidt, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12, 396 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Z.

S. Tang, Z. Shi, D. An, L. Sun, and R. T. Chen, Opt. Eng. 39, 680 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. An, Z. Shi, L. Sun, J. M. Taboada, Q. Zhou, X. Lu, R. T. Chen, S. Tang, H. Zhang, and W. H. Steier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1972 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Skeie, H.

H. Skeie and R. V. Johnson, Proc. SPIE , 1583, 153 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Stamatoff, J.

D. Raskin, K. Chiang, and J. Stamatoff, “Cable system incorporating highly linear optical modulator,” U.S. patent 5,031,235 (July 9, 1991).

Steier, W. H.

D. An, Z. Shi, L. Sun, J. M. Taboada, Q. Zhou, X. Lu, R. T. Chen, S. Tang, H. Zhang, and W. H. Steier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1972 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sun, L.

D. An, Z. Shi, L. Sun, J. M. Taboada, Q. Zhou, X. Lu, R. T. Chen, S. Tang, H. Zhang, and W. H. Steier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1972 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Tang, Z. Shi, D. An, L. Sun, and R. T. Chen, Opt. Eng. 39, 680 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Taboada, J. M.

D. An, Z. Shi, L. Sun, J. M. Taboada, Q. Zhou, X. Lu, R. T. Chen, S. Tang, H. Zhang, and W. H. Steier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1972 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tang, S.

D. An, Z. Shi, L. Sun, J. M. Taboada, Q. Zhou, X. Lu, R. T. Chen, S. Tang, H. Zhang, and W. H. Steier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1972 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Tang, Z. Shi, D. An, L. Sun, and R. T. Chen, Opt. Eng. 39, 680 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tavlykaev, R.

Tavlykaev, R. F.

T. Kishino, R. F. Tavlykaev, and R. V. Ramaswamy, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1474 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

D. An, Z. Shi, L. Sun, J. M. Taboada, Q. Zhou, X. Lu, R. T. Chen, S. Tang, H. Zhang, and W. H. Steier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1972 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Q.

D. An, Z. Shi, L. Sun, J. M. Taboada, Q. Zhou, X. Lu, R. T. Chen, S. Tang, H. Zhang, and W. H. Steier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1972 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. An, Z. Shi, L. Sun, J. M. Taboada, Q. Zhou, X. Lu, R. T. Chen, S. Tang, H. Zhang, and W. H. Steier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1972 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. Kogelnik and R. Schmidt, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12, 396 (1976).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Korotky and R. de Ridder, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 1377 (1990).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

T. Kishino, R. F. Tavlykaev, and R. V. Ramaswamy, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1474 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Hung, S. K. Kim, H. Fetterman, J. Luo, and A. K. Y. Jen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1762 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Opt. Eng. (1)

S. Tang, Z. Shi, D. An, L. Sun, and R. T. Chen, Opt. Eng. 39, 680 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

H. Skeie and R. V. Johnson, Proc. SPIE , 1583, 153 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

D. Raskin, K. Chiang, and J. Stamatoff, “Cable system incorporating highly linear optical modulator,” U.S. patent 5,031,235 (July 9, 1991).

A. Prescod, B. B. Dingel, and N. Madamopoulos, Broadband Access Communication Technologies III, A.Prescod, B.B.Dingel, and N.Madamopoulos, eds. (SPIE, 2009), Vol. 7234, p. 72340E.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic illustration of a lumped driving electrode design for two-section YDCM.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Relative level of distortion suppression in two-section YDCM.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cross-sectional scanning electron micrograph of the fabricated device ( A - A corresponds to the reference line in Fig. 1).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Over-modulation of two-section YDCM at λ = 1.59 μ m by an rf signal of 10 kHz with 4 V + 4 V , (b) transfer curve of two-section YDCM at λ = 1.59 μ m modulated by rf signal of 50 kHz .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Block diagram of the testing setup, (b) rf response of two-section YDCM tested at λ = 1.59 μ m .

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