Abstract

We propose what we believe to be a novel method to generate optical millimeter-wave signals with frequency quadrupling using two cascaded Mach–Zehnder modulators (MZMs). Both theoretical analysis and experimental demonstration are presented. By symmetrically biasing the MZMs, without any optical filters or electrical devices, a high-quality millimeter wave at 40 GHz with an optical harmonic distortion suppression ratio of more than 25 dB is obtained. Furthermore, it is also proved to be valid that the proposed scheme is insensitive to the MZM bias drift, which demonstrates a relatively higher stability.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Wake, M. Webster, G. Wimpenny, K. Beacham, and L. Crawford, in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2004), pp. 157.
  2. Z. Jia, J. Yu, G. Ellinas, and G. K. Chang, J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 3452 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Larrode, A. Koonen, and J. Olmos, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 875 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Mohamed, X. Zhang, B. Hraimel, and K. Wu, Opt. Express 16, 10786 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. Yu, Z. Jia, T. Wang, and G. K. Chang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1499 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. Xu, C. Li, C. W. Chow, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 209 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. Lin, P. Shih, J. Chen, W. Xue, P. Peng, and S. Chi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1027 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Chi and J. Yao, J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 2706 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Zhang, H. Chen, M. Chen, T. Wang, and S. Xie, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1057 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. Qi, J. Yao, J. Seregelyi, S. Paquet, and C. Belisle, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 53, 3090 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

L. Xu, C. Li, C. W. Chow, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 209 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

2007 (3)

J. Yu, Z. Jia, T. Wang, and G. K. Chang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1499 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jia, J. Yu, G. Ellinas, and G. K. Chang, J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 3452 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, H. Chen, M. Chen, T. Wang, and S. Xie, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1057 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

M. Larrode, A. Koonen, and J. Olmos, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 875 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

G. Qi, J. Yao, J. Seregelyi, S. Paquet, and C. Belisle, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 53, 3090 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Beacham, K.

D. Wake, M. Webster, G. Wimpenny, K. Beacham, and L. Crawford, in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2004), pp. 157.

Belisle, C.

G. Qi, J. Yao, J. Seregelyi, S. Paquet, and C. Belisle, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 53, 3090 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chang, G. K.

Z. Jia, J. Yu, G. Ellinas, and G. K. Chang, J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 3452 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Yu, Z. Jia, T. Wang, and G. K. Chang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1499 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

J. Zhang, H. Chen, M. Chen, T. Wang, and S. Xie, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1057 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

C. Lin, P. Shih, J. Chen, W. Xue, P. Peng, and S. Chi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1027 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, M.

J. Zhang, H. Chen, M. Chen, T. Wang, and S. Xie, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1057 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chi, H.

Chi, S.

C. Lin, P. Shih, J. Chen, W. Xue, P. Peng, and S. Chi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1027 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chow, C. W.

L. Xu, C. Li, C. W. Chow, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 209 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, L.

D. Wake, M. Webster, G. Wimpenny, K. Beacham, and L. Crawford, in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2004), pp. 157.

Ellinas, G.

Hraimel, B.

Jia, Z.

J. Yu, Z. Jia, T. Wang, and G. K. Chang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1499 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jia, J. Yu, G. Ellinas, and G. K. Chang, J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 3452 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Koonen, A.

M. Larrode, A. Koonen, and J. Olmos, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 875 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Larrode, M.

M. Larrode, A. Koonen, and J. Olmos, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 875 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

L. Xu, C. Li, C. W. Chow, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 209 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.

C. Lin, P. Shih, J. Chen, W. Xue, P. Peng, and S. Chi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1027 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mohamed, M.

Olmos, J.

M. Larrode, A. Koonen, and J. Olmos, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 875 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Paquet, S.

G. Qi, J. Yao, J. Seregelyi, S. Paquet, and C. Belisle, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 53, 3090 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Peng, P.

C. Lin, P. Shih, J. Chen, W. Xue, P. Peng, and S. Chi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1027 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Qi, G.

G. Qi, J. Yao, J. Seregelyi, S. Paquet, and C. Belisle, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 53, 3090 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Seregelyi, J.

G. Qi, J. Yao, J. Seregelyi, S. Paquet, and C. Belisle, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 53, 3090 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shih, P.

C. Lin, P. Shih, J. Chen, W. Xue, P. Peng, and S. Chi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1027 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, H. K.

L. Xu, C. Li, C. W. Chow, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 209 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wake, D.

D. Wake, M. Webster, G. Wimpenny, K. Beacham, and L. Crawford, in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2004), pp. 157.

Wang, T.

J. Yu, Z. Jia, T. Wang, and G. K. Chang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1499 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, H. Chen, M. Chen, T. Wang, and S. Xie, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1057 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Webster, M.

D. Wake, M. Webster, G. Wimpenny, K. Beacham, and L. Crawford, in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2004), pp. 157.

Wimpenny, G.

D. Wake, M. Webster, G. Wimpenny, K. Beacham, and L. Crawford, in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2004), pp. 157.

Wu, K.

Xie, S.

J. Zhang, H. Chen, M. Chen, T. Wang, and S. Xie, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1057 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xu, L.

L. Xu, C. Li, C. W. Chow, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 209 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xue, W.

C. Lin, P. Shih, J. Chen, W. Xue, P. Peng, and S. Chi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1027 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yao, J.

H. Chi and J. Yao, J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 2706 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Qi, J. Yao, J. Seregelyi, S. Paquet, and C. Belisle, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 53, 3090 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.

J. Yu, Z. Jia, T. Wang, and G. K. Chang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1499 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jia, J. Yu, G. Ellinas, and G. K. Chang, J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 3452 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, H. Chen, M. Chen, T. Wang, and S. Xie, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1057 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Larrode, A. Koonen, and J. Olmos, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 875 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

J. Yu, Z. Jia, T. Wang, and G. K. Chang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1499 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Xu, C. Li, C. W. Chow, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 209 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Lin, P. Shih, J. Chen, W. Xue, P. Peng, and S. Chi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1027 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, H. Chen, M. Chen, T. Wang, and S. Xie, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1057 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

G. Qi, J. Yao, J. Seregelyi, S. Paquet, and C. Belisle, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 53, 3090 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Opt. Express (1)

Other (1)

D. Wake, M. Webster, G. Wimpenny, K. Beacham, and L. Crawford, in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2004), pp. 157.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of optical millimeter-wave generation using two cascaded MZMs and the bias arrangement of two MZMs. ESA, electrical spectrum analyzer; LD, laser diode; PS, power splitter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical spectrum of the quadruple signal. Inset, optical spectrum of the output of MZM1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Electrical spectrum of the quadruple signal. Inset, linewidth of the generated 40 GHz signal.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simulated OHDSR degradation in decibels and the harmonic distortion power level in microwatts owing to the dc bias drifts of MZMs in two cases.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Simulated OHDSR degradation owing to the V π unbalance and (b) to the drive phase difference, (c) simulated and experimental results of OHDSR dependency on drive unbalance, and (d) OHDSR versus drive frequency.

Equations (2)

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E o u t = c E i n { n = 1 2 S ( π δ V π ) J 2 n 1 ( π 2 V π ( V 1 V 2 ) ) S 2 n 1 + n = [ C ( π δ V π ) J 2 n ( π 2 V π ( V 1 V 2 ) ) J 2 n ( π 2 V π ( V 1 + V 2 ) ) ] C 2 n } ,
V 1 = V 2 = V ,     δ = V π π arccos ( J 0 ( π V V π ) ) .

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