Abstract

A dielectric subwavelength diffraction grating structure is designed and fabricated in order to enhance fluorescence-based detection of biomolecules. Two separate phenomena, enhancement of the local energy densities of the excitation illumination and direction of the emitted signal toward the detector, are examined theoretically and experimentally. 530-fold enhancement of detected signal is achieved compared with the signal from flat surface. Also, changes in polarization and coherence properties of the fluorescent light are found to be remarkable.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2007 (3)

J. Zhang and J. R. Lakowicz, Opt. Express 15, 2598 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. C. Mathias, N. Ganesh, L. L. Chan, and B. T. Cunningham, Appl. Opt. 46, 2351 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuck, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

F.-C. Chien, C.-Y. Lin, J.-N. Yih, K.-L. Lee, C.-W. Chang, P.-K. Wei, and S.-J. Chen, Proc. SPIE 6323, 63230M (2006).
[CrossRef]

J.-N. Yih, Y.-M. Chu, Y.-C. Mao, W.-H. Wang, F.-C. Chien, C.-Y. Lin, K.-L. Lee, P.-K. Wei, and S.-J. Chen, Appl. Opt. 45, 1938 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

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[CrossRef]

J. J. Gray, Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 14, 110 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, B. Lin, and J. Pepper, Sens. Actuators B 81, 316 (2002).
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J. Saarinen, E. Noponen, and J. Turunen, Opt. Eng. 34, 2560 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

Arnold, C.

Bardou, N.

Carminati, R.

Chan, L. L.

Chang, C.-W.

F.-C. Chien, C.-Y. Lin, J.-N. Yih, K.-L. Lee, C.-W. Chang, P.-K. Wei, and S.-J. Chen, Proc. SPIE 6323, 63230M (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.-J.

F.-C. Chien, C.-Y. Lin, J.-N. Yih, K.-L. Lee, C.-W. Chang, P.-K. Wei, and S.-J. Chen, Proc. SPIE 6323, 63230M (2006).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

J.-J. Greffet, R. Carminati, K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, S. Mainguy, and Y. Chen, Nature 416, 61 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chien, F.-C.

J.-N. Yih, Y.-M. Chu, Y.-C. Mao, W.-H. Wang, F.-C. Chien, C.-Y. Lin, K.-L. Lee, P.-K. Wei, and S.-J. Chen, Appl. Opt. 45, 1938 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F.-C. Chien, C.-Y. Lin, J.-N. Yih, K.-L. Lee, C.-W. Chang, P.-K. Wei, and S.-J. Chen, Proc. SPIE 6323, 63230M (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chow, E.

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuck, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chu, Y.-M.

Collin, S.

Cunningham, B. T.

P. C. Mathias, N. Ganesh, L. L. Chan, and B. T. Cunningham, Appl. Opt. 46, 2351 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuck, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Li, B. Lin, J. Gerstenmaier, and B. T. Cunningham, Sens. Actuators B 99, 6 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, B. Lin, and J. Pepper, Sens. Actuators B 81, 316 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ganesh, N.

P. C. Mathias, N. Ganesh, L. L. Chan, and B. T. Cunningham, Appl. Opt. 46, 2351 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuck, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gerstenmaier, J.

P. Y. Li, B. Lin, J. Gerstenmaier, and B. T. Cunningham, Sens. Actuators B 99, 6 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gray, J. J.

J. J. Gray, Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 14, 110 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greffet, J.-J.

Hori, H.

Hyvärinen, O.

Joulain, K.

J.-J. Greffet, R. Carminati, K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, S. Mainguy, and Y. Chen, Nature 416, 61 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karvinen, P.

Kintaka, K.

Kiyosue, K.

Lakowicz, J. R.

Laroche, M.

Lee, K.-L.

F.-C. Chien, C.-Y. Lin, J.-N. Yih, K.-L. Lee, C.-W. Chang, P.-K. Wei, and S.-J. Chen, Proc. SPIE 6323, 63230M (2006).
[CrossRef]

J.-N. Yih, Y.-M. Chu, Y.-C. Mao, W.-H. Wang, F.-C. Chien, C.-Y. Lin, K.-L. Lee, P.-K. Wei, and S.-J. Chen, Appl. Opt. 45, 1938 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, P.

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, B. Lin, and J. Pepper, Sens. Actuators B 81, 316 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, P. Y.

P. Y. Li, B. Lin, J. Gerstenmaier, and B. T. Cunningham, Sens. Actuators B 99, 6 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lin, B.

P. Y. Li, B. Lin, J. Gerstenmaier, and B. T. Cunningham, Sens. Actuators B 99, 6 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, B. Lin, and J. Pepper, Sens. Actuators B 81, 316 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.-Y.

F.-C. Chien, C.-Y. Lin, J.-N. Yih, K.-L. Lee, C.-W. Chang, P.-K. Wei, and S.-J. Chen, Proc. SPIE 6323, 63230M (2006).
[CrossRef]

J.-N. Yih, Y.-M. Chu, Y.-C. Mao, W.-H. Wang, F.-C. Chien, C.-Y. Lin, K.-L. Lee, P.-K. Wei, and S.-J. Chen, Appl. Opt. 45, 1938 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Magnusson, R.

Mainguy, S.

J.-J. Greffet, R. Carminati, K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, S. Mainguy, and Y. Chen, Nature 416, 61 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malyarchuck, V.

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuck, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mandel, L.

L. Mandel and E. Wolf, Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics (Cambridge U. Press, 1995).

Mao, Y.-C.

Marquier, F.

Mathias, P. C.

P. C. Mathias, N. Ganesh, L. L. Chan, and B. T. Cunningham, Appl. Opt. 46, 2351 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuck, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mulet, J.-P.

J.-J. Greffet, R. Carminati, K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, S. Mainguy, and Y. Chen, Nature 416, 61 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishii, J.

Noponen, E.

J. Saarinen, E. Noponen, and J. Turunen, Opt. Eng. 34, 2560 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nuutinen, T.

Pelouard, J.-L.

Pepper, J.

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, B. Lin, and J. Pepper, Sens. Actuators B 81, 316 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Saarinen, J.

J. Saarinen, E. Noponen, and J. Turunen, Opt. Eng. 34, 2560 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Smith, A. D.

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuck, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Soares, J. A. N. T.

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuck, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tatsu, Y.

Tawa, K.

Turunen, J.

J. Saarinen, E. Noponen, and J. Turunen, Opt. Eng. 34, 2560 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Vahimaa, P.

Wang, S.

Wang, W.-H.

Wei, P.-K.

J.-N. Yih, Y.-M. Chu, Y.-C. Mao, W.-H. Wang, F.-C. Chien, C.-Y. Lin, K.-L. Lee, P.-K. Wei, and S.-J. Chen, Appl. Opt. 45, 1938 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F.-C. Chien, C.-Y. Lin, J.-N. Yih, K.-L. Lee, C.-W. Chang, P.-K. Wei, and S.-J. Chen, Proc. SPIE 6323, 63230M (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

L. Mandel and E. Wolf, Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics (Cambridge U. Press, 1995).

Yih, J.-N.

F.-C. Chien, C.-Y. Lin, J.-N. Yih, K.-L. Lee, C.-W. Chang, P.-K. Wei, and S.-J. Chen, Proc. SPIE 6323, 63230M (2006).
[CrossRef]

J.-N. Yih, Y.-M. Chu, Y.-C. Mao, W.-H. Wang, F.-C. Chien, C.-Y. Lin, K.-L. Lee, P.-K. Wei, and S.-J. Chen, Appl. Opt. 45, 1938 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

Zhang, W.

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuck, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. (1)

J. J. Gray, Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 14, 110 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuck, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

J.-J. Greffet, R. Carminati, K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, S. Mainguy, and Y. Chen, Nature 416, 61 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. Saarinen, E. Noponen, and J. Turunen, Opt. Eng. 34, 2560 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

F.-C. Chien, C.-Y. Lin, J.-N. Yih, K.-L. Lee, C.-W. Chang, P.-K. Wei, and S.-J. Chen, Proc. SPIE 6323, 63230M (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B (2)

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, B. Lin, and J. Pepper, Sens. Actuators B 81, 316 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Li, B. Lin, J. Gerstenmaier, and B. T. Cunningham, Sens. Actuators B 99, 6 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

H.P.Herzig, ed., Micro-optics: Elements, Systems and Applications (Taylor & Francis, 1997).

P.Rai-Choudhury, ed., Handbook of Microlithography, Micromachining, and Microfabrication: Volume 1: Microlithography (SPIE, 1997).

L. Mandel and E. Wolf, Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics (Cambridge U. Press, 1995).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the sample and measurement setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Calculated enhancement of the energy density when compared with the incoming field. (b) SEM image of the RWG structure.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Measured enhancement of fluorescence compared with the unstructured surface when an excitation laser beam is incident at resonance angle (dots) and when it is out of resonance (open circles) as a function of the detection angle ϕ. (b) Measured gain in fluorescence for TM- and TE-polarized emission (dots and open circles, respectively) as a function of the detection angle ϕ.

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