A dielectric subwavelength diffraction grating structure is designed and fabricated in order to enhance fluorescence-based detection of biomolecules. Two separate phenomena, enhancement of the local energy densities of the excitation illumination and direction of the emitted signal toward the detector, are examined theoretically and experimentally. 530-fold enhancement of detected signal is achieved compared with the signal from flat surface. Also, changes in polarization and coherence properties of the fluorescent light are found to be remarkable.
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