Abstract

We report an integrated acousto-optic polarization converter exploiting a novel surface acoustic superlattice (S-ASL) transducer. The S-ASL transducer is made of a ZX-cut periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) crystal with uniform coplanar electrodes for surface acoustic wave (SAW) generation. For a PPLN period of 20μm the SAW is excited at an rf of about 190 MHz, while the phase matching occurs at an optical wavelength of around 1456 nm. The measured mode conversion efficiency of 90% at an input rf power of 1 W and the 3 dB optical bandwidth of 2.5 nm confirm the confinement of the SAW between the electrode gap and the constructive interaction along the whole 10 mm electrode length.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. K. Smith, A. M. J. Koonen, H. Herrmann, and W. Sohler, in Fiber Optic Communication (Springer-Verlag, 2001), pp. 262-312.
  2. S. K. Dubey, T. Anna, C. Shakher, and D. S. Mehta, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 181106 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Xie, Z. Wang, and Y. Pan, Appl. Opt. 44, 4272 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. N. Gupta and R. Dahmani, in Proceedings of the 19th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (IEEE, 1997), Vol. 702, p. 702.
  5. L. N. Binh and J. Livingstone, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 964 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Herrmann, P. Muller-Reich, V. Reimann, R. Ricken, H. Seibert, and W. Sohler, Electron. Lett. 28, 642 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y.-Q. Lu, Y.-Y. Zhu, Y.-F. Chen, S.-N. Zhu, N.-B. Ming, and Y.-J. Feng, Science 284, 1822 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Y. Zhu and N. Ming, J. Appl. Phys. 72, 904 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Gnewuch, N. K. Zayer, C. N. Pannell, G. W. Ross, and P. G. R. Smith, Opt. Lett. 25, 305 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Yudistira, S. Benchabane, D. Janner, and V. Pruneri, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 052901 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Ohmachi, J. Appl. Phys. 44, 3928 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Amin, V. Pruneri, J. Webjörn, P. Russell, D. Hanna, and J. Wilkinson, Opt. Commun. 135, 41 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

D. Yudistira, S. Benchabane, D. Janner, and V. Pruneri, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 052901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

S. K. Dubey, T. Anna, C. Shakher, and D. S. Mehta, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 181106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

Y.-Q. Lu, Y.-Y. Zhu, Y.-F. Chen, S.-N. Zhu, N.-B. Ming, and Y.-J. Feng, Science 284, 1822 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

J. Amin, V. Pruneri, J. Webjörn, P. Russell, D. Hanna, and J. Wilkinson, Opt. Commun. 135, 41 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

Y. Zhu and N. Ming, J. Appl. Phys. 72, 904 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. Herrmann, P. Muller-Reich, V. Reimann, R. Ricken, H. Seibert, and W. Sohler, Electron. Lett. 28, 642 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

L. N. Binh and J. Livingstone, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 964 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

Y. Ohmachi, J. Appl. Phys. 44, 3928 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Amin, J.

J. Amin, V. Pruneri, J. Webjörn, P. Russell, D. Hanna, and J. Wilkinson, Opt. Commun. 135, 41 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Anna, T.

S. K. Dubey, T. Anna, C. Shakher, and D. S. Mehta, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 181106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Benchabane, S.

D. Yudistira, S. Benchabane, D. Janner, and V. Pruneri, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 052901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Binh, L. N.

L. N. Binh and J. Livingstone, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 964 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.-F.

Y.-Q. Lu, Y.-Y. Zhu, Y.-F. Chen, S.-N. Zhu, N.-B. Ming, and Y.-J. Feng, Science 284, 1822 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dahmani, R.

N. Gupta and R. Dahmani, in Proceedings of the 19th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (IEEE, 1997), Vol. 702, p. 702.

Dubey, S. K.

S. K. Dubey, T. Anna, C. Shakher, and D. S. Mehta, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 181106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Feng, Y.-J.

Y.-Q. Lu, Y.-Y. Zhu, Y.-F. Chen, S.-N. Zhu, N.-B. Ming, and Y.-J. Feng, Science 284, 1822 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gnewuch, H.

Gupta, N.

N. Gupta and R. Dahmani, in Proceedings of the 19th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (IEEE, 1997), Vol. 702, p. 702.

Hanna, D.

J. Amin, V. Pruneri, J. Webjörn, P. Russell, D. Hanna, and J. Wilkinson, Opt. Commun. 135, 41 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Herrmann, H.

H. Herrmann, P. Muller-Reich, V. Reimann, R. Ricken, H. Seibert, and W. Sohler, Electron. Lett. 28, 642 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Smith, A. M. J. Koonen, H. Herrmann, and W. Sohler, in Fiber Optic Communication (Springer-Verlag, 2001), pp. 262-312.

Janner, D.

D. Yudistira, S. Benchabane, D. Janner, and V. Pruneri, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 052901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Koonen, A. M. J.

M. K. Smith, A. M. J. Koonen, H. Herrmann, and W. Sohler, in Fiber Optic Communication (Springer-Verlag, 2001), pp. 262-312.

Livingstone, J.

L. N. Binh and J. Livingstone, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 964 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.-Q.

Y.-Q. Lu, Y.-Y. Zhu, Y.-F. Chen, S.-N. Zhu, N.-B. Ming, and Y.-J. Feng, Science 284, 1822 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mehta, D. S.

S. K. Dubey, T. Anna, C. Shakher, and D. S. Mehta, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 181106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ming, N.

Y. Zhu and N. Ming, J. Appl. Phys. 72, 904 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ming, N.-B.

Y.-Q. Lu, Y.-Y. Zhu, Y.-F. Chen, S.-N. Zhu, N.-B. Ming, and Y.-J. Feng, Science 284, 1822 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muller-Reich, P.

H. Herrmann, P. Muller-Reich, V. Reimann, R. Ricken, H. Seibert, and W. Sohler, Electron. Lett. 28, 642 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ohmachi, Y.

Y. Ohmachi, J. Appl. Phys. 44, 3928 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Pan, Y.

Pannell, C. N.

Pruneri, V.

D. Yudistira, S. Benchabane, D. Janner, and V. Pruneri, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 052901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Amin, V. Pruneri, J. Webjörn, P. Russell, D. Hanna, and J. Wilkinson, Opt. Commun. 135, 41 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Reimann, V.

H. Herrmann, P. Muller-Reich, V. Reimann, R. Ricken, H. Seibert, and W. Sohler, Electron. Lett. 28, 642 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ricken, R.

H. Herrmann, P. Muller-Reich, V. Reimann, R. Ricken, H. Seibert, and W. Sohler, Electron. Lett. 28, 642 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ross, G. W.

Russell, P.

J. Amin, V. Pruneri, J. Webjörn, P. Russell, D. Hanna, and J. Wilkinson, Opt. Commun. 135, 41 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Seibert, H.

H. Herrmann, P. Muller-Reich, V. Reimann, R. Ricken, H. Seibert, and W. Sohler, Electron. Lett. 28, 642 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Shakher, C.

S. K. Dubey, T. Anna, C. Shakher, and D. S. Mehta, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 181106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. K.

M. K. Smith, A. M. J. Koonen, H. Herrmann, and W. Sohler, in Fiber Optic Communication (Springer-Verlag, 2001), pp. 262-312.

Smith, P. G. R.

Sohler, W.

H. Herrmann, P. Muller-Reich, V. Reimann, R. Ricken, H. Seibert, and W. Sohler, Electron. Lett. 28, 642 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Smith, A. M. J. Koonen, H. Herrmann, and W. Sohler, in Fiber Optic Communication (Springer-Verlag, 2001), pp. 262-312.

Wang, Z.

Webjörn, J.

J. Amin, V. Pruneri, J. Webjörn, P. Russell, D. Hanna, and J. Wilkinson, Opt. Commun. 135, 41 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, J.

J. Amin, V. Pruneri, J. Webjörn, P. Russell, D. Hanna, and J. Wilkinson, Opt. Commun. 135, 41 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Xie, T.

Yudistira, D.

D. Yudistira, S. Benchabane, D. Janner, and V. Pruneri, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 052901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zayer, N. K.

Zhu, S.-N.

Y.-Q. Lu, Y.-Y. Zhu, Y.-F. Chen, S.-N. Zhu, N.-B. Ming, and Y.-J. Feng, Science 284, 1822 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, Y.

Y. Zhu and N. Ming, J. Appl. Phys. 72, 904 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Y.-Y.

Y.-Q. Lu, Y.-Y. Zhu, Y.-F. Chen, S.-N. Zhu, N.-B. Ming, and Y.-J. Feng, Science 284, 1822 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

S. K. Dubey, T. Anna, C. Shakher, and D. S. Mehta, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 181106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Yudistira, S. Benchabane, D. Janner, and V. Pruneri, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 052901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

H. Herrmann, P. Muller-Reich, V. Reimann, R. Ricken, H. Seibert, and W. Sohler, Electron. Lett. 28, 642 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

L. N. Binh and J. Livingstone, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 964 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

Y. Ohmachi, J. Appl. Phys. 44, 3928 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhu and N. Ming, J. Appl. Phys. 72, 904 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. Amin, V. Pruneri, J. Webjörn, P. Russell, D. Hanna, and J. Wilkinson, Opt. Commun. 135, 41 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Science (1)

Y.-Q. Lu, Y.-Y. Zhu, Y.-F. Chen, S.-N. Zhu, N.-B. Ming, and Y.-J. Feng, Science 284, 1822 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

N. Gupta and R. Dahmani, in Proceedings of the 19th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (IEEE, 1997), Vol. 702, p. 702.

M. K. Smith, A. M. J. Koonen, H. Herrmann, and W. Sohler, in Fiber Optic Communication (Springer-Verlag, 2001), pp. 262-312.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scheme of the proposed integrated AO polarization converter based on S-ASL on Z X -cut PPLN with coplanar uniform electrodes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental characterization setup. P and A, polarizer and analyzer, respectively; OSA, optical spectrum analyzer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

AO modulation as a function of rf ( f rf ) at phase matching (around λ = 1456   nm ) for a P rf of 500 mW. In the inset the electroacoustic response of the S-ASL ( S 11 parameter) as a function of f rf is shown.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical modulation as a function of wavelength λ for an rf input power of 500 mW and a rf of 189.94 MHz.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Power conversion efficiency and resonance wavelength versus rf power.

Equations (4)

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f a = V SAW λ 0 | N E N M | ,
η = P M ( x = L i ) P E ( x = 0 ) = κ 2 κ 2 + Δ 2 sin 2 ( L i κ 2 + Δ 2 ) ,
η ( Δ = 0 ) = sin 2 ( κ L i ) ,
Δ λ 0.86 λ 0 2 L i | N E N M | .

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