Abstract

We report broadening in spectrum as light is backreflected from a propagating fiber fuse. The formation of micrometer-size voids results in periodic changes in Fresnel reflection occurring in the leading part of the fuse. High-resolution measurement of the optical spectrum via heterodyne detection revealed an upshift (Doppler shift) in the optical frequency and discrete frequency components that are characteristic of amplitude modulation due to periodic void formation.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Kashyap and K. J. Blow, Electron. Lett. 24, 47 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. P. Hand and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 13, 767 (1988).
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    [CrossRef]
  4. R. M. Percival, E. S. R. Sikora, and R. Wyatt, Electron. Lett. 36, 414 (2000).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S.-I. Todoroki, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 4022 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Shuto, S. Yanagi, S. Asakawa, M. Kobayashi, and R. Nagase, J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 846 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, Y. K. Chamorovsky, G. A. Ivanov, and I. L. Vorobjev, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 180 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, V. G. Plotnichenko, V. M. Marshinskii, M. F. Churbanov, and G. E. Snopatin, Quantum Electron. 32, 476 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. M. Lee, J. M. Roth, T. G. Ulmer, and C. V. Cryan, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper JWB66.
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. K. S. Abedin and T. Morioka, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OThD5.

2009 (1)

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

S.-I. Todoroki, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 4022 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

Y. Shuto, S. Yanagi, S. Asakawa, M. Kobayashi, and R. Nagase, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 174 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, Y. K. Chamorovsky, G. A. Ivanov, and I. L. Vorobjev, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 180 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, V. G. Plotnichenko, V. M. Marshinskii, M. F. Churbanov, and G. E. Snopatin, Quantum Electron. 32, 476 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

R. M. Percival, E. S. R. Sikora, and R. Wyatt, Electron. Lett. 36, 414 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

D. P. Hand and T. A. Birks, Electron. Lett. 25, 33 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

Abedin, K. S.

K. S. Abedin, M. Nakazawa, and T. Miyazaki, Opt. Express 17, 6525 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Abedin and T. Morioka, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OThD5.

Asakawa, S.

Y. Shuto, S. Yanagi, S. Asakawa, M. Kobayashi, and R. Nagase, J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 846 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shuto, S. Yanagi, S. Asakawa, M. Kobayashi, and R. Nagase, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 174 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Atkins, R. M.

Birks, T. A.

D. P. Hand and T. A. Birks, Electron. Lett. 25, 33 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Blow, K. J.

R. Kashyap and K. J. Blow, Electron. Lett. 24, 47 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bufetov, I. A.

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, Y. K. Chamorovsky, G. A. Ivanov, and I. L. Vorobjev, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 180 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, V. G. Plotnichenko, V. M. Marshinskii, M. F. Churbanov, and G. E. Snopatin, Quantum Electron. 32, 476 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chamorovsky, Y. K.

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, Y. K. Chamorovsky, G. A. Ivanov, and I. L. Vorobjev, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 180 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Churbanov, M. F.

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, V. G. Plotnichenko, V. M. Marshinskii, M. F. Churbanov, and G. E. Snopatin, Quantum Electron. 32, 476 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cryan, C. V.

M. M. Lee, J. M. Roth, T. G. Ulmer, and C. V. Cryan, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper JWB66.

Dianov, E. M.

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, Y. K. Chamorovsky, G. A. Ivanov, and I. L. Vorobjev, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 180 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, V. G. Plotnichenko, V. M. Marshinskii, M. F. Churbanov, and G. E. Snopatin, Quantum Electron. 32, 476 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Frolov, A. A.

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, Y. K. Chamorovsky, G. A. Ivanov, and I. L. Vorobjev, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 180 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, V. G. Plotnichenko, V. M. Marshinskii, M. F. Churbanov, and G. E. Snopatin, Quantum Electron. 32, 476 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Goto, R.

K. Takenaga, S. Omori, R. Goto, S. Tanigawa, S. Matsuo, and K. Himeno, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper JWA11.

Hand, D. P.

Himeno, K.

K. Takenaga, S. Omori, R. Goto, S. Tanigawa, S. Matsuo, and K. Himeno, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper JWA11.

Ivanov, G. A.

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, Y. K. Chamorovsky, G. A. Ivanov, and I. L. Vorobjev, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 180 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kashyap, R.

R. Kashyap and K. J. Blow, Electron. Lett. 24, 47 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, M.

Y. Shuto, S. Yanagi, S. Asakawa, M. Kobayashi, and R. Nagase, J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 846 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shuto, S. Yanagi, S. Asakawa, M. Kobayashi, and R. Nagase, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 174 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. M.

M. M. Lee, J. M. Roth, T. G. Ulmer, and C. V. Cryan, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper JWB66.

Marshinskii, V. M.

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, V. G. Plotnichenko, V. M. Marshinskii, M. F. Churbanov, and G. E. Snopatin, Quantum Electron. 32, 476 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Matsuo, S.

K. Takenaga, S. Omori, R. Goto, S. Tanigawa, S. Matsuo, and K. Himeno, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper JWA11.

Miyazaki, T.

Morioka, T.

K. S. Abedin and T. Morioka, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OThD5.

Nagase, R.

Y. Shuto, S. Yanagi, S. Asakawa, M. Kobayashi, and R. Nagase, J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 846 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shuto, S. Yanagi, S. Asakawa, M. Kobayashi, and R. Nagase, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 174 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nakazawa, M.

Omori, S.

K. Takenaga, S. Omori, R. Goto, S. Tanigawa, S. Matsuo, and K. Himeno, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper JWA11.

Percival, R. M.

R. M. Percival, E. S. R. Sikora, and R. Wyatt, Electron. Lett. 36, 414 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Plotnichenko, V. G.

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, V. G. Plotnichenko, V. M. Marshinskii, M. F. Churbanov, and G. E. Snopatin, Quantum Electron. 32, 476 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Roth, J. M.

M. M. Lee, J. M. Roth, T. G. Ulmer, and C. V. Cryan, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper JWB66.

Russell, P. St. J.

Shuto, Y.

Y. Shuto, S. Yanagi, S. Asakawa, M. Kobayashi, and R. Nagase, J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 846 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shuto, S. Yanagi, S. Asakawa, M. Kobayashi, and R. Nagase, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 174 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sikora, E. S. R.

R. M. Percival, E. S. R. Sikora, and R. Wyatt, Electron. Lett. 36, 414 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Simpkins, P. G.

Snopatin, G. E.

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, V. G. Plotnichenko, V. M. Marshinskii, M. F. Churbanov, and G. E. Snopatin, Quantum Electron. 32, 476 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Takenaga, K.

K. Takenaga, S. Omori, R. Goto, S. Tanigawa, S. Matsuo, and K. Himeno, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper JWA11.

Tanigawa, S.

K. Takenaga, S. Omori, R. Goto, S. Tanigawa, S. Matsuo, and K. Himeno, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper JWA11.

Todoroki, S.-I.

S.-I. Todoroki, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 4022 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ulmer, T. G.

M. M. Lee, J. M. Roth, T. G. Ulmer, and C. V. Cryan, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper JWB66.

Vorobjev, I. L.

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, Y. K. Chamorovsky, G. A. Ivanov, and I. L. Vorobjev, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 180 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wyatt, R.

R. M. Percival, E. S. R. Sikora, and R. Wyatt, Electron. Lett. 36, 414 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yablon, A. D.

Yanagi, S.

Y. Shuto, S. Yanagi, S. Asakawa, M. Kobayashi, and R. Nagase, J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 846 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shuto, S. Yanagi, S. Asakawa, M. Kobayashi, and R. Nagase, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 174 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (3)

R. M. Percival, E. S. R. Sikora, and R. Wyatt, Electron. Lett. 36, 414 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Kashyap and K. J. Blow, Electron. Lett. 24, 47 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Hand and T. A. Birks, Electron. Lett. 25, 33 (1989).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

Y. Shuto, S. Yanagi, S. Asakawa, M. Kobayashi, and R. Nagase, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 174 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, Y. K. Chamorovsky, G. A. Ivanov, and I. L. Vorobjev, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 180 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S.-I. Todoroki, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 4022 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Quantum Electron. (1)

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, V. G. Plotnichenko, V. M. Marshinskii, M. F. Churbanov, and G. E. Snopatin, Quantum Electron. 32, 476 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

M. M. Lee, J. M. Roth, T. G. Ulmer, and C. V. Cryan, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper JWB66.

K. Takenaga, S. Omori, R. Goto, S. Tanigawa, S. Matsuo, and K. Himeno, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper JWA11.

K. S. Abedin and T. Morioka, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OThD5.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Transmitted power plotted against length of the SMF-28 fiber damaged by fiber fuse propagation. Inset, typical microphotograph of a fiber damaged by a fuse.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Backreflected radiation from a fuse propagating in SMF-28 fiber plotted as a function of pump power.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup of heterodyne detection for high-resolution measurement of the optical spectrum of light backreflected during fiber fuse propagation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Beat spectrum obtained by heterodyne detection: (a) the spectrum of backreflected radiation due to a propagating fuse, (b) the expanded view of (a) showing Doppler shift and modulation components, (c) the beat spectrum when the fuse was absent.

Equations (2)

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E m ( t ) = i = 1 N a i exp [ j ω f ( t τ i ) + j 4 π n v F t λ ] + a r exp [ j ω f ( t t r ) ] + a o exp [ j ω o t + ϕ ] .
E m ( t ) E m * ( t ) = 2 a o a r cos [ 2 π f t ω f t r ϕ ] + 2 a o i = 1 N a i ( t ) cos [ 2 π f t + 4 π n v F t λ ω f τ i ϕ ] + a o 2 + a r 2 + i = 1 N a i 2 ( t ) + 2 a r i = 1 N a i ( t ) cos [ 4 π n v F t λ + ω f ( t r τ i ) ] + 2 i = 1 N ( j > i ) N a i ( t ) a j ( t ) cos [ ω o ( τ i τ j ) ] .

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