Abstract

We demonstrate a holographic photopolymer based on multifunctional photoreactive inorganic cages, polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS). It is shown that a second photopolymerizable monomer, POSS, for the photopolymer, contributes to significantly enhance photosensitivity as well as refractive index modulation (Δn). We also found that during the formation of holographic gratings, polymerization of POSS could effectively suppress volume shrinkage of photopolymer resin, owing to its filler-strengthening effect of inorganic cages accompanied with interpenetrating effect.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. Dhar, MRS Bull. 31, 324 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. Dhar, Nat. Photonics 2, 403 (2008).
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  3. F. del Monte, O. Martinez, J. A. Rodrigo, M. L. Calvo, and P. Cheben, Adv. Mater. 18, 2014 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Khan, G. D. Stucky, and C. J. Hawker, Adv. Mater. 20, 3937 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Lee, Y.-C. Jeong, Y. Heo, S. I. Kim, Y.-S. Choi, and J.-K. Park, J. Mater. Chem. 19, 1105 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. N. Suzuki, Y. Tomita, K. Ohmori, H. Hidaka, and K. Chikama, Opt. Express 14, 12712 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. W. S. Kim, J.-C. Jeong, and J.-K. Park, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 012106-1 (2005).
  8. W. S. Kim, Y.-C. Jeong, and J.-K. Park, Opt. Express 14, 8967 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. G. Garnweitner, L. M. Goldenberg, O. V. Sakhno, M. Antonietti, M. Niederberger, and J. Stumpe, Small 3, 1626 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Hildebrand and R. Scott, The Solubility of Nonelectrolytes, 3rd ed. (Reinhold, 1949).
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    [CrossRef]
  13. H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).
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    [CrossRef]
  15. L. Hesselink, S. S. Orlov, and M. C. Bashow, Proc. IEEE 92, 1231 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

S. Lee, Y.-C. Jeong, Y. Heo, S. I. Kim, Y.-S. Choi, and J.-K. Park, J. Mater. Chem. 19, 1105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

L. Dhar, Nat. Photonics 2, 403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Khan, G. D. Stucky, and C. J. Hawker, Adv. Mater. 20, 3937 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

G. Garnweitner, L. M. Goldenberg, O. V. Sakhno, M. Antonietti, M. Niederberger, and J. Stumpe, Small 3, 1626 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

2005 (2)

W. S. Kim, J.-C. Jeong, and J.-K. Park, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 012106-1 (2005).

C. Sanchez, M. J. Escuti, C. Van Heesch, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, D. J. Broer, J. Loos, and R. Nussbaumer, Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 1623 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

L. Hesselink, S. S. Orlov, and M. C. Bashow, Proc. IEEE 92, 1231 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

P. Cheben and M. L. Calvo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1490 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

L. Dhar, M. G. Schnoes, T. L. Wysocki, H. Bair, M. Schilling, and C. Boyd, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1337 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).

Antonietti, M.

G. Garnweitner, L. M. Goldenberg, O. V. Sakhno, M. Antonietti, M. Niederberger, and J. Stumpe, Small 3, 1626 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bair, H.

L. Dhar, M. G. Schnoes, T. L. Wysocki, H. Bair, M. Schilling, and C. Boyd, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1337 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bashow, M. C.

L. Hesselink, S. S. Orlov, and M. C. Bashow, Proc. IEEE 92, 1231 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bastiaansen, C. W. M.

C. Sanchez, M. J. Escuti, C. Van Heesch, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, D. J. Broer, J. Loos, and R. Nussbaumer, Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 1623 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, C.

L. Dhar, M. G. Schnoes, T. L. Wysocki, H. Bair, M. Schilling, and C. Boyd, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1337 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Broer, D. J.

C. Sanchez, M. J. Escuti, C. Van Heesch, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, D. J. Broer, J. Loos, and R. Nussbaumer, Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 1623 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Calvo, M. L.

F. del Monte, O. Martinez, J. A. Rodrigo, M. L. Calvo, and P. Cheben, Adv. Mater. 18, 2014 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben and M. L. Calvo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1490 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cheben, P.

F. del Monte, O. Martinez, J. A. Rodrigo, M. L. Calvo, and P. Cheben, Adv. Mater. 18, 2014 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben and M. L. Calvo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1490 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chikama, K.

Choi, Y.-S.

S. Lee, Y.-C. Jeong, Y. Heo, S. I. Kim, Y.-S. Choi, and J.-K. Park, J. Mater. Chem. 19, 1105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

del Monte, F.

F. del Monte, O. Martinez, J. A. Rodrigo, M. L. Calvo, and P. Cheben, Adv. Mater. 18, 2014 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dhar, L.

L. Dhar, Nat. Photonics 2, 403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Dhar, MRS Bull. 31, 324 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Dhar, M. G. Schnoes, T. L. Wysocki, H. Bair, M. Schilling, and C. Boyd, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1337 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Escuti, M. J.

C. Sanchez, M. J. Escuti, C. Van Heesch, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, D. J. Broer, J. Loos, and R. Nussbaumer, Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 1623 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Garnweitner, G.

G. Garnweitner, L. M. Goldenberg, O. V. Sakhno, M. Antonietti, M. Niederberger, and J. Stumpe, Small 3, 1626 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldenberg, L. M.

G. Garnweitner, L. M. Goldenberg, O. V. Sakhno, M. Antonietti, M. Niederberger, and J. Stumpe, Small 3, 1626 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hawker, C. J.

A. Khan, G. D. Stucky, and C. J. Hawker, Adv. Mater. 20, 3937 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Heo, Y.

S. Lee, Y.-C. Jeong, Y. Heo, S. I. Kim, Y.-S. Choi, and J.-K. Park, J. Mater. Chem. 19, 1105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hesselink, L.

L. Hesselink, S. S. Orlov, and M. C. Bashow, Proc. IEEE 92, 1231 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hidaka, H.

Hildebrand, J.

J. Hildebrand and R. Scott, The Solubility of Nonelectrolytes, 3rd ed. (Reinhold, 1949).

Jeong, J.-C.

W. S. Kim, J.-C. Jeong, and J.-K. Park, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 012106-1 (2005).

Jeong, Y.-C.

S. Lee, Y.-C. Jeong, Y. Heo, S. I. Kim, Y.-S. Choi, and J.-K. Park, J. Mater. Chem. 19, 1105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Kim, Y.-C. Jeong, and J.-K. Park, Opt. Express 14, 8967 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khan, A.

A. Khan, G. D. Stucky, and C. J. Hawker, Adv. Mater. 20, 3937 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. I.

S. Lee, Y.-C. Jeong, Y. Heo, S. I. Kim, Y.-S. Choi, and J.-K. Park, J. Mater. Chem. 19, 1105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, W. S.

W. S. Kim, Y.-C. Jeong, and J.-K. Park, Opt. Express 14, 8967 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. S. Kim, J.-C. Jeong, and J.-K. Park, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 012106-1 (2005).

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).

Lee, S.

S. Lee, Y.-C. Jeong, Y. Heo, S. I. Kim, Y.-S. Choi, and J.-K. Park, J. Mater. Chem. 19, 1105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Loos, J.

C. Sanchez, M. J. Escuti, C. Van Heesch, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, D. J. Broer, J. Loos, and R. Nussbaumer, Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 1623 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, O.

F. del Monte, O. Martinez, J. A. Rodrigo, M. L. Calvo, and P. Cheben, Adv. Mater. 18, 2014 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Niederberger, M.

G. Garnweitner, L. M. Goldenberg, O. V. Sakhno, M. Antonietti, M. Niederberger, and J. Stumpe, Small 3, 1626 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nussbaumer, R.

C. Sanchez, M. J. Escuti, C. Van Heesch, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, D. J. Broer, J. Loos, and R. Nussbaumer, Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 1623 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ohmori, K.

Orlov, S. S.

L. Hesselink, S. S. Orlov, and M. C. Bashow, Proc. IEEE 92, 1231 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.-K.

S. Lee, Y.-C. Jeong, Y. Heo, S. I. Kim, Y.-S. Choi, and J.-K. Park, J. Mater. Chem. 19, 1105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Kim, Y.-C. Jeong, and J.-K. Park, Opt. Express 14, 8967 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. S. Kim, J.-C. Jeong, and J.-K. Park, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 012106-1 (2005).

Rodrigo, J. A.

F. del Monte, O. Martinez, J. A. Rodrigo, M. L. Calvo, and P. Cheben, Adv. Mater. 18, 2014 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sakhno, O. V.

G. Garnweitner, L. M. Goldenberg, O. V. Sakhno, M. Antonietti, M. Niederberger, and J. Stumpe, Small 3, 1626 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanchez, C.

C. Sanchez, M. J. Escuti, C. Van Heesch, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, D. J. Broer, J. Loos, and R. Nussbaumer, Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 1623 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schilling, M.

L. Dhar, M. G. Schnoes, T. L. Wysocki, H. Bair, M. Schilling, and C. Boyd, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1337 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schnoes, M. G.

L. Dhar, M. G. Schnoes, T. L. Wysocki, H. Bair, M. Schilling, and C. Boyd, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1337 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Scott, R.

J. Hildebrand and R. Scott, The Solubility of Nonelectrolytes, 3rd ed. (Reinhold, 1949).

Stucky, G. D.

A. Khan, G. D. Stucky, and C. J. Hawker, Adv. Mater. 20, 3937 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stumpe, J.

G. Garnweitner, L. M. Goldenberg, O. V. Sakhno, M. Antonietti, M. Niederberger, and J. Stumpe, Small 3, 1626 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suzuki, N.

Tomita, Y.

Van Heesch, C.

C. Sanchez, M. J. Escuti, C. Van Heesch, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, D. J. Broer, J. Loos, and R. Nussbaumer, Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 1623 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wysocki, T. L.

L. Dhar, M. G. Schnoes, T. L. Wysocki, H. Bair, M. Schilling, and C. Boyd, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1337 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

C. Sanchez, M. J. Escuti, C. Van Heesch, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, D. J. Broer, J. Loos, and R. Nussbaumer, Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 1623 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (2)

F. del Monte, O. Martinez, J. A. Rodrigo, M. L. Calvo, and P. Cheben, Adv. Mater. 18, 2014 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Khan, G. D. Stucky, and C. J. Hawker, Adv. Mater. 20, 3937 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

P. Cheben and M. L. Calvo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1490 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Dhar, M. G. Schnoes, T. L. Wysocki, H. Bair, M. Schilling, and C. Boyd, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1337 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Kim, J.-C. Jeong, and J.-K. Park, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 012106-1 (2005).

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

S. Lee, Y.-C. Jeong, Y. Heo, S. I. Kim, Y.-S. Choi, and J.-K. Park, J. Mater. Chem. 19, 1105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

MRS Bull. (1)

L. Dhar, MRS Bull. 31, 324 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

L. Dhar, Nat. Photonics 2, 403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Proc. IEEE (1)

L. Hesselink, S. S. Orlov, and M. C. Bashow, Proc. IEEE 92, 1231 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Small (1)

G. Garnweitner, L. M. Goldenberg, O. V. Sakhno, M. Antonietti, M. Niederberger, and J. Stumpe, Small 3, 1626 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

J. Hildebrand and R. Scott, The Solubility of Nonelectrolytes, 3rd ed. (Reinhold, 1949).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Crosslinking of N-vinycarbazole (NVC) with POSS and scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) of photopolymer film.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Real-time diffraction efficiencies of photopolymers as a function of POSS concentration.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Angular selectivity curves for holographic gratings; 0° is Bragg angle.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Angular selectivity curves of 39 multiplexed holograms recorded in POSS 1 sample; M # was 26.59. (b) Recording and readout SLM page signal in photopolymer.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Results of the Holographic Properties of Photopolymers

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